Uradni list

Številka 62
Uradni list RS, št. 62/2004 z dne 7. 6. 2004
Uradni list

Uradni list RS, št. 62/2004 z dne 7. 6. 2004

Kazalo

68. Zakon o ratifikaciji Konvencije o kibernetski kriminaliteti in Dodatnega protokola h Konvenciji o kibernetski kriminaliteti, ki obravnava inkriminacijo rasističnih in ksenofobičnih dejanj, storjenih v informacijskih sistemih (MKKKDP), stran 4205.

Na podlagi druge alinee prvega odstavka 107. člena in prvega odstavka 91. člena Ustave Republike Slovenije izdajam
U K A Z
O RAZGLASITVI ZAKONA O RATIFIKACIJI KONVENCIJE O KIBERNETSKI KRIMINALITETI IN DODATNEGA PROTOKOLA H KONVENCIJI O KIBERNETSKI KRIMINALITETI, KI OBRAVNAVA INKRIMINACIJO RASISTIČNIH IN KSENOFOBIČNIH DEJANJ, STORJENIH V INFORMACIJSKIH SISTEMIH (MKKKDP)
Razglašam Zakon o ratifikaciji Konvencije o kibernetski kriminaliteti in Dodatnega protokola h Konvenciji o kibernetski kriminaliteti, ki obravnava inkriminacijo rasističnih in ksenofobičnih dejanj, storjenih v informacijskih sistemih (MKKKDP), ki ga je sprejel Državni zbor Republike Slovenije na seji 20. maja 2004.
Št. 001-22-120/04
Ljubljana, 28. maj 2004
dr. Janez Drnovšek l. r.
Predsednik
Republike Slovenije
Z A K O N
O RATIFIKACIJI KONVENCIJE O KIBERNETSKI KRIMINALITETI IN DODATNEGA PROTOKOLA H KONVENCIJI O KIBERNETSKI KRIMINALITETI, KI OBRAVNAVA INKRIMINACIJO RASISTIČNIH IN KSENOFOBIČNIH DEJANJ, STORJENIH V INFORMACIJSKIH SISTEMIH (MKKKDP)
1. člen
Ratificirata se Konvencija o kibernetski kriminaliteti, sprejeta 23. novembra 2001 v Budimpešti, in Dodatni protokol h Konvenciji o kibernetski kriminaliteti, ki obravnava inkriminacijo rasističnih in ksenofobičnih dejanj, storjenih v informacijskih sistemih, sprejet 28. januarja 2003 v Strasbourgu.
2. člen
Besedilo konvencije in dodatnega protokola se v izvirniku v angleškem ter v prevodu v slovenskem jeziku glasi:
C O N V E N T I O N
ON CYBERCRIME
Preamble
The member States of the Council of Europe and the other States signatory hereto,
Considering that the aim of the Council of Europe is to achieve a greater unity between its members;
Recognising the value of fostering co-operation with the other States parties to this Convention;
Convinced of the need to pursue, as a matter of priority, a common criminal policy aimed at the protection of society against cybercrime, inter alia, by adopting appropriate legislation and fostering international co-operation;
Conscious of the profound changes brought about by the digitalisation, convergence and continuing globalisation of computer networks;
Concerned by the risk that computer networks and electronic information may also be used for committing criminal offences and that evidence relating to such offences may be stored and transferred by these networks;
Recognising the need for co-operation between States and private industry in combating cybercrime and the need to protect legitimate interests in the use and development of information technologies;
Believing that an effective fight against cybercrime requires increased, rapid and well-functioning international co-operation in criminal matters;
Convinced that the present Convention is necessary to deter action directed against the confidentiality, integrity and availability of computer systems, networks and computer data as well as the misuse of such systems, networks and data by providing for the criminalisation of such conduct, as described in this Convention, and the adoption of powers sufficient for effectively combating such criminal offences, by facilitating their detection, investigation and prosecution at both the domestic and international levels and by providing arrangements for fast and reliable international co-operation;
Mindful of the need to ensure a proper balance between the interests of law enforcement and respect for fundamental human rights as enshrined in the 1950 Council of Europe Convention for the Protection of Human Rights and Fundamental Freedoms, the 1966 United Nations International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights and other applicable international human rights treaties, which reaffirm the right of everyone to hold opinions without interference, as well as the right to freedom of expression, including the freedom to seek, receive, and impart information and ideas of all kinds, regardless of frontiers, and the rights concerning the respect for privacy;
Mindful also of the right to the protection of personal data, as conferred, for example, by the 1981 Council of Europe Convention for the Protection of Individuals with regard to Automatic Processing of Personal Data;
Considering the 1989 United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child and the 1999 International Labour Organization Worst Forms of Child Labour Convention;
Taking into account the existing Council of Europe conventions on co-operation in the penal field, as well as similar treaties which exist between Council of Europe member States and other States, and stressing that the present Convention is intended to supplement those conventions in order to make criminal investigations and proceedings concerning criminal offences related to computer systems and data more effective and to enable the collection of evidence in electronic form of a criminal offence;
Welcoming recent developments which further advance international understanding and co-operation in combating cybercrime, including action taken by the United Nations, the OECD, the European Union and the G8;
Recalling Committee of Ministers Recommendations No. R (85) 10 concerning the practical application of the European Convention on Mutual Assistance in Criminal Matters in respect of letters rogatory for the interception of telecommunications, No. R (88) 2 on piracy in the field of copyright and neighbouring rights, No. R (87) 15 regulating the use of personal data in the police sector, No. R (95) 4 on the protection of personal data in the area of telecommunication services, with particular reference to telephone services, as well as No. R (89) 9 on computer-related crime providing guidelines for national legislatures concerning the definition of certain computer crimes and No. R (95) 13 concerning problems of criminal procedural law connected with information technology;
Having regard to Resolution No. 1 adopted by the European Ministers of Justice at their 21st Conference (Prague, 10 and 11 June 1997), which recommended that the Committee of Ministers support the work on cybercrime carried out by the European Committee on Crime Problems (CDPC) in order to bring domestic criminal law provisions closer to each other and enable the use of effective means of investigation into such offences, as well as to Resolution No. 3 adopted at the 23rd Conference of the European Ministers of Justice (London, 8 and 9 June 2000), which encouraged the negotiating parties to pursue their efforts with a view to finding appropriate solutions to enable the largest possible number of States to become parties to the Convention and acknowledged the need for a swift and efficient system of international co-operation, which duly takes into account the specific requirements of the fight against cybercrime;
Having also regard to the Action Plan adopted by the Heads of State and Government of the Council of Europe on the occasion of their Second Summit (Strasbourg, 10 and 11 October 1997), to seek common responses to the development of the new information technologies based on the standards and values of the Council of Europe;
Have agreed as follows:
Chapter I – Use of terms
Article 1 – Definitions
For the purposes of this Convention:
a “computer system” means any device or a group of interconnected or related devices, one or more of which, pursuant to a program, performs automatic processing of data;
b “computer data” means any representation of facts, information or concepts in a form suitable for processing in a computer system, including a program suitable to cause a computer system to perform a function;
c “service provider” means:
i any public or private entity that provides to users of its service the ability to communicate by means of a computer system, and
ii any other entity that processes or stores computer data on behalf of such communication service or users of such service;
d “traffic data” means any computer data relating to a communication by means of a computer system, generated by a computer system that formed a part in the chain of communication, indicating the communication’s origin, destination, route, time, date, size, duration, or type of underlying service.
Chapter II – Measures to be taken at the national level
Section 1 – Substantive criminal law
Title 1 – Offences against the confidentiality, integrity and availability of computer data and systems
Article 2 – Illegal access
Each Party shall adopt such legislative and other measures as may be necessary to establish as criminal offences under its domestic law, when committed intentionally, the access to the whole or any part of a computer system without right. A Party may require that the offence be committed by infringing security measures, with the intent of obtaining computer data or other dishonest intent, or in relation to a computer system that is connected to another computer system.
Article 3 – Illegal interception
Each Party shall adopt such legislative and other measures as may be necessary to establish as criminal offences under its domestic law, when committed intentionally, the interception without right, made by technical means, of non-public transmissions of computer data to, from or within a computer system, including electromagnetic emissions from a computer system carrying such computer data. A Party may require that the offence be committed with dishonest intent, or in relation to a computer system that is connected to another computer system.
Article 4 – Data interference
1 Each Party shall adopt such legislative and other measures as may be necessary to establish as criminal offences under its domestic law, when committed intentionally, the damaging, deletion, deterioration, alteration or suppression of computer data without right.
2 A Party may reserve the right to require that the conduct described in paragraph 1 result in serious harm.
Article 5 – System interference
Each Party shall adopt such legislative and other measures as may be necessary to establish as criminal offences under its domestic law, when committed intentionally, the serious hindering without right of the functioning of a computer system by inputting, transmitting, damaging, deleting, deteriorating, altering or suppressing computer data.
Article 6 – Misuse of devices
1 Each Party shall adopt such legislative and other measures as may be necessary to establish as criminal offences under its domestic law, when committed intentionally and without right:
a the production, sale, procurement for use, import, distribution or otherwise making available of:
i a device, including a computer program, designed or adapted primarily for the purpose of committing any of the offences established in accordance with the above Articles 2 through 5;
ii a computer password, access code, or similar data by which the whole or any part of a computer system is capable of being accessed,
with intent that it be used for the purpose of committing any of the offences established in Articles 2 through 5; and
b the possession of an item referred to in paragraphs a.i or ii above, with intent that it be used for the purpose of committing any of the offences established in Articles 2 through 5. A Party may require by law that a number of such items be possessed before criminal liability attaches.
2 This article shall not be interpreted as imposing criminal liability where the production, sale, procurement for use, import, distribution or otherwise making available or possession referred to in paragraph 1 of this article is not for the purpose of committing an offence established in accordance with Articles 2 through 5 of this Convention, such as for the authorised testing or protection of a computer system.
3 Each Party may reserve the right not to apply paragraph 1 of this article, provided that the reservation does not concern the sale, distribution or otherwise making available of the items referred to in paragraph 1 a.ii of this article.
Title 2 – Computer-related offences
Article 7 – Computer-related forgery
Each Party shall adopt such legislative and other measures as may be necessary to establish as criminal offences under its domestic law, when committed intentionally and without right, the input, alteration, deletion, or suppression of computer data, resulting in inauthentic data with the intent that it be considered or acted upon for legal purposes as if it were authentic, regardless whether or not the data is directly readable and intelligible. A Party may require an intent to defraud, or similar dishonest intent, before criminal liability attaches.
Article 8 – Computer-related fraud
Each Party shall adopt such legislative and other measures as may be necessary to establish as criminal offences under its domestic law, when committed intentionally and without right, the causing of a loss of property to another person by:
a any input, alteration, deletion or suppression of computer data;
b any interference with the functioning of a computer system,
with fraudulent or dishonest intent of procuring, without right, an economic benefit for oneself or for another person.
Title 3 – Content-related offences
Article 9 – Offences related to child pornography
1 Each Party shall adopt such legislative and other measures as may be necessary to establish as criminal offences under its domestic law, when committed intentionally and without right, the following conduct:
a producing child pornography for the purpose of its distribution through a computer system;
b offering or making available child pornography through a computer system;
c distributing or transmitting child pornography through a computer system;
d procuring child pornography through a computer system for oneself or for another person;
e possessing child pornography in a computer system or on a computer-data storage medium.
2 For the purpose of paragraph 1 above, the term “child pornography” shall include pornographic material that visually depicts:
a a minor engaged in sexually explicit conduct;
b a person appearing to be a minor engaged in sexually explicit conduct;
c realistic images representing a minor engaged in sexually explicit conduct.
3 For the purpose of paragraph 2 above, the term “minor” shall include all persons under 18 years of age. A Party may, however, require a lower age-limit, which shall be not less than 16 years.
4 Each Party may reserve the right not to apply, in whole or in part, paragraphs 1, sub-paragraphs d. and e, and 2, sub-paragraphs b. and c.
Title 4 – Offences related to infringements of copyright and related rights
Article 10 –Offences related to infringements of copyright and related rights
1 Each Party shall adopt such legislative and other measures as may be necessary to establish as criminal offences under its domestic law the infringement of copyright, as defined under the law of that Party, pursuant to the obligations it has undertaken under the Paris Act of 24 July 1971 revising the Bern Convention for the Protection of Literary and Artistic Works, the Agreement on Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights and the WIPO Copyright Treaty, with the exception of any moral rights conferred by such conventions, where such acts are committed wilfully, on a commercial scale and by means of a computer system.
2 Each Party shall adopt such legislative and other measures as may be necessary to establish as criminal offences under its domestic law the infringement of related rights, as defined under the law of that Party, pursuant to the obligations it has undertaken under the International Convention for the Protection of Performers, Producers of Phonograms and Broadcasting Organisations (Rome Convention), the Agreement on Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights and the WIPO Performances and Phonograms Treaty, with the exception of any moral rights conferred by such conventions, where such acts are committed wilfully, on a commercial scale and by means of a computer system.
3 A Party may reserve the right not to impose criminal liability under paragraphs 1 and 2 of this article in limited circumstances, provided that other effective remedies are available and that such reservation does not derogate from the Party’s international obligations set forth in the international instruments referred to in paragraphs 1 and 2 of this article.
Title 5 – Ancillary liability and sanctions
Article 11 – Attempt and aiding or abetting
1 Each Party shall adopt such legislative and other measures as may be necessary to establish as criminal offences under its domestic law, when committed intentionally, aiding or abetting the commission of any of the offences established in accordance with Articles 2 through 10 of the present Convention with intent that such offence be committed.
2 Each Party shall adopt such legislative and other measures as may be necessary to establish as criminal offences under its domestic law, when committed intentionally, an attempt to commit any of the offences established in accordance with Articles 3 through 5, 7, 8, and 9.1.a and c. of this Convention.
3 Each Party may reserve the right not to apply, in whole or in part, paragraph 2 of this article.
Article 12 – Corporate liability
1 Each Party shall adopt such legislative and other measures as may be necessary to ensure that legal persons can be held liable for a criminal offence established in accordance with this Convention, committed for their benefit by any natural person, acting either individually or as part of an organ of the legal person, who has a leading position within it, based on:
a a power of representation of the legal person;
b an authority to take decisions on behalf of the legal person;
c an authority to exercise control within the legal person.
2 In addition to the cases already provided for in paragraph 1 of this article, each Party shall take the measures necessary to ensure that a legal person can be held liable where the lack of supervision or control by a natural person referred to in paragraph 1 has made possible the commission of a criminal offence established in accordance with this Convention for the benefit of that legal person by a natural person acting under its authority.
3 Subject to the legal principles of the Party, the liability of a legal person may be criminal, civil or administrative.
4 Such liability shall be without prejudice to the criminal liability of the natural persons who have committed the offence.
Article 13 – Sanctions and measures
1 Each Party shall adopt such legislative and other measures as may be necessary to ensure that the criminal offences established in accordance with Articles 2 through 11 are punishable by effective, proportionate and dissuasive sanctions, which include deprivation of liberty.
2 Each Party shall ensure that legal persons held liable in accordance with Article 12 shall be subject to effective, proportionate and dissuasive criminal or non-criminal sanctions or measures, including monetary sanctions.
Section 2 – Procedural law
Title 1 – Common provisions
Article 14 – Scope of procedural provisions
1 Each Party shall adopt such legislative and other measures as may be necessary to establish the powers and procedures provided for in this section for the purpose of specific criminal investigations or proceedings.
2 Except as specifically provided otherwise in Article 21, each Party shall apply the powers and procedures referred to in paragraph 1 of this article to:
a the criminal offences established in accordance with Articles 2 through 11 of this Convention;
b other criminal offences committed by means of a computer system; and
c the collection of evidence in electronic form of a criminal offence.
3 a Each Party may reserve the right to apply the measures referred to in Article 20 only to offences or categories of offences specified in the reservation, provided that the range of such offences or categories of offences is not more restricted than the range of offences to which it applies the measures referred to in Article 21. Each Party shall consider restricting such a reservation to enable the broadest application of the measure referred to in Article 20.
b Where a Party, due to limitations in its legislation in force at the time of the adoption of the present Convention, is not able to apply the measures referred to in Articles 20 and 21 to communications being transmitted within a computer system of a service provider, which system:
i is being operated for the benefit of a closed group of users, and
ii does not employ public communications networks and is not connected with another computer system, whether public or private,
that Party may reserve the right not to apply these measures to such communications. Each Party shall consider restricting such a reservation to enable the broadest application of the measures referred to in Articles 20 and 21.
Article 15 – Conditions and safeguards
1 Each Party shall ensure that the establishment, implementation and application of the powers and procedures provided for in this Section are subject to conditions and safeguards provided for under its domestic law, which shall provide for the adequate protection of human rights and liberties, including rights arising pursuant to obligations it has undertaken under the 1950 Council of Europe Convention for the Protection of Human Rights and Fundamental Freedoms, the 1966 United Nations International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights, and other applicable international human rights instruments, and which shall incorporate the principle of proportionality.
2 Such conditions and safeguards shall, as appropriate in view of the nature of the procedure or power concerned, inter alia, include judicial or other independent supervision, grounds justifying application, and limitation of the scope and the duration of such power or procedure.
3 To the extent that it is consistent with the public interest, in particular the sound administration of justice, each Party shall consider the impact of the powers and procedures in this section upon the rights, responsibilities and legitimate interests of third parties.
Title 2 – Expedited preservation of stored computer data
Article 16 – Expedited preservation of stored computer data
1 Each Party shall adopt such legislative and other measures as may be necessary to enable its competent authorities to order or similarly obtain the expeditious preservation of specified computer data, including traffic data, that has been stored by means of a computer system, in particular where there are grounds to believe that the computer data is particularly vulnerable to loss or modification.
2 Where a Party gives effect to paragraph 1 above by means of an order to a person to preserve specified stored computer data in the person’s possession or control, the Party shall adopt such legislative and other measures as may be necessary to oblige that person to preserve and maintain the integrity of that computer data for a period of time as long as necessary, up to a maximum of ninety days, to enable the competent authorities to seek its disclosure. A Party may provide for such an order to be subsequently renewed.
3 Each Party shall adopt such legislative and other measures as may be necessary to oblige the custodian or other person who is to preserve the computer data to keep confidential the undertaking of such procedures for the period of time provided for by its domestic law.
4 The powers and procedures referred to in this article shall be subject to Articles 14 and 15.
Article 17 –Expedited preservation and partial disclosure of traffic data
1 Each Party shall adopt, in respect of traffic data that is to be preserved under Article 16, such legislative and other measures as may be necessary to:
a ensure that such expeditious preservation of traffic data is available regardless of whether one or more service providers were involved in the transmission of that communication; and
b ensure the expeditious disclosure to the Party’s competent authority, or a person designated by that authority, of a sufficient amount of traffic data to enable the Party to identify the service providers and the path through which the communication was transmitted.
2 The powers and procedures referred to in this article shall be subject to Articles 14 and 15.
Title 3 – Production order
Article 18 – Production order
1 Each Party shall adopt such legislative and other measures as may be necessary to empower its competent authorities to order:
a a person in its territory to submit specified computer data in that person’s possession or control, which is stored in a computer system or a computer-data storage medium; and
b a service provider offering its services in the territory of the Party to submit subscriber information relating to such services in that service provider’s possession or control.
2 The powers and procedures referred to in this article shall be subject to Articles 14 and 15.
3 For the purpose of this article, the term “subscriber information” means any information contained in the form of computer data or any other form that is held by a service provider, relating to subscribers of its services other than traffic or content data and by which can be established:
a the type of communication service used, the technical provisions taken thereto and the period of service;
b the subscriber’s identity, postal or geographic address, telephone and other access number, billing and payment information, available on the basis of the service agreement or arrangement;
c any other information on the site of the installation of communication equipment, available on the basis of the service agreement or arrangement.
Title 4 – Search and seizure of stored computer data
Article 19 – Search and seizure of stored computer data
1 Each Party shall adopt such legislative and other measures as may be necessary to empower its competent authorities to search or similarly access:
a a computer system or part of it and computer data stored therein; and
b a computer-data storage medium in which computer data may be stored
in its territory.
2 Each Party shall adopt such legislative and other measures as may be necessary to ensure that where its authorities search or similarly access a specific computer system or part of it, pursuant to paragraph 1.a, and have grounds to believe that the data sought is stored in another computer system or part of it in its territory, and such data is lawfully accessible from or available to the initial system, the authorities shall be able to expeditiously extend the search or similar accessing to the other system.
3 Each Party shall adopt such legislative and other measures as may be necessary to empower its competent authorities to seize or similarly secure computer data accessed according to paragraphs 1 or 2. These measures shall include the power to:
a seize or similarly secure a computer system or part of it or a computer-data storage medium;
b make and retain a copy of those computer data;
c maintain the integrity of the relevant stored computer data;
d render inaccessible or remove those computer data in the accessed computer system.
4 Each Party shall adopt such legislative and other measures as may be necessary to empower its competent authorities to order any person who has knowledge about the functioning of the computer system or measures applied to protect the computer data therein to provide, as is reasonable, the necessary information, to enable the undertaking of the measures referred to in paragraphs 1 and 2.
5 The powers and procedures referred to in this article shall be subject to Articles 14 and 15.
Title 5 – Real-time collection of computer data
Article 20 – Real-time collection of traffic data
1 Each Party shall adopt such legislative and other measures as may be necessary to empower its competent authorities to:
a collect or record through the application of technical means on the territory of that Party, and
b compel a service provider, within its existing technical capability:
i to collect or record through the application of technical means on the territory of that Party; or
ii to co-operate and assist the competent authorities in the collection or recording of,
traffic data, in real-time, associated with specified communications in its territory transmitted by means of a computer system.
2 Where a Party, due to the established principles of its domestic legal system, cannot adopt the measures referred to in paragraph 1.a, it may instead adopt legislative and other measures as may be necessary to ensure the real-time collection or recording of traffic data associated with specified communications transmitted in its territory, through the application of technical means on that territory.
3 Each Party shall adopt such legislative and other measures as may be necessary to oblige a service provider to keep confidential the fact of the execution of any power provided for in this article and any information relating to it.
4 The powers and procedures referred to in this article shall be subject to Articles 14 and 15.
Article 21 – Interception of content data
1 Each Party shall adopt such legislative and other measures as may be necessary, in relation to a range of serious offences to be determined by domestic law, to empower its competent authorities to:
a collect or record through the application of technical means on the territory of that Party, and
b compel a service provider, within its existing technical capability:
i to collect or record through the application of technical means on the territory of that Party, or
ii to co-operate and assist the competent authorities in the collection or recording of, content data, in real-time, of specified communications in its territory transmitted by means of a computer system.
2 Where a Party, due to the established principles of its domestic legal system, cannot adopt the measures referred to in paragraph 1.a, it may instead adopt legislative and other measures as may be necessary to ensure the real-time collection or recording of content data on specified communications in its territory through the application of technical means on that territory.
3 Each Party shall adopt such legislative and other measures as may be necessary to oblige a service provider to keep confidential the fact of the execution of any power provided for in this article and any information relating to it.
4 The powers and procedures referred to in this article shall be subject to Articles 14 and 15.
Section 3 – Jurisdiction
Article 22 – Jurisdiction
1 Each Party shall adopt such legislative and other measures as may be necessary to establish jurisdiction over any offence established in accordance with Articles 2 through 11 of this Convention, when the offence is committed:
a in its territory; or
b on board a ship flying the flag of that Party; or
c on board an aircraft registered under the laws of that Party; or
d by one of its nationals, if the offence is punishable under criminal law where it was committed or if the offence is committed outside the territorial jurisdiction of any State.
2 Each Party may reserve the right not to apply or to apply only in specific cases or conditions the jurisdiction rules laid down in paragraphs 1.b through 1.d of this article or any part thereof.
3 Each Party shall adopt such measures as may be necessary to establish jurisdiction over the offences referred to in Article 24, paragraph 1, of this Convention, in cases where an alleged offender is present in its territory and it does not extradite him or her to another Party, solely on the basis of his or her nationality, after a request for extradition.
4 This Convention does not exclude any criminal jurisdiction exercised by a Party in accordance with its domestic law.
5 When more than one Party claims jurisdiction over an alleged offence established in accordance with this Convention, the Parties involved shall, where appropriate, consult with a view to determining the most appropriate jurisdiction for prosecution.
Chapter III – International co-operation
Section 1 – General principles
Title 1 – General principles relating to international co-operation
Article 23 –General principles relating to international co-operation
The Parties shall co-operate with each other, in accordance with the provisions of this chapter, and through the application of relevant international instruments on international co-operation in criminal matters, arrangements agreed on the basis of uniform or reciprocal legislation, and domestic laws, to the widest extent possible for the purposes of investigations or proceedings concerning criminal offences related to computer systems and data, or for the collection of evidence in electronic form of a criminal offence.
Title 2 – Principles relating to extradition
Article 24 – Extradition
1 a This article applies to extradition between Parties for the criminal offences established in accordance with Articles 2 through 11 of this Convention, provided that they are punishable under the laws of both Parties concerned by deprivation of liberty for a maximum period of at least one year, or by a more severe penalty.
b Where a different minimum penalty is to be applied under an arrangement agreed on the basis of uniform or reciprocal legislation or an extradition treaty, including the European Convention on Extradition (ETS No. 24), applicable between two or more parties, the minimum penalty provided for under such arrangement or treaty shall apply.
2 The criminal offences described in paragraph 1 of this article shall be deemed to be included as extraditable offences in any extradition treaty existing between or among the Parties. The Parties undertake to include such offences as extraditable offences in any extradition treaty to be concluded between or among them.
3 If a Party that makes extradition conditional on the existence of a treaty receives a request for extradition from another Party with which it does not have an extradition treaty, it may consider this Convention as the legal basis for extradition with respect to any criminal offence referred to in paragraph 1 of this article.
4 Parties that do not make extradition conditional on the existence of a treaty shall recognise the criminal offences referred to in paragraph 1 of this article as extraditable offences between themselves.
5 Extradition shall be subject to the conditions provided for by the law of the requested Party or by applicable extradition treaties, including the grounds on which the requested Party may refuse extradition.
6 If extradition for a criminal offence referred to in paragraph 1 of this article is refused solely on the basis of the nationality of the person sought, or because the requested Party deems that it has jurisdiction over the offence, the requested Party shall submit the case at the request of the requesting Party to its competent authorities for the purpose of prosecution and shall report the final outcome to the requesting Party in due course. Those authorities shall take their decision and conduct their investigations and proceedings in the same manner as for any other offence of a comparable nature under the law of that Party.
7 a Each Party shall, at the time of signature or when depositing its instrument of ratification, acceptance, approval or accession, communicate to the Secretary General of the Council of Europe the name and address of each authority responsible for making or receiving requests for extradition or provisional arrest in the absence of a treaty.
b The Secretary General of the Council of Europe shall set up and keep updated a register of authorities so designated by the Parties. Each Party shall ensure that the details held on the register are correct at all times.
Title 3 – General principles relating to mutual assistance
Article 25 – General principles relating to mutual assistance
1 The Parties shall afford one another mutual assistance to the widest extent possible for the purpose of investigations or proceedings concerning criminal offences related to computer systems and data, or for the collection of evidence in electronic form of a criminal offence.
2 Each Party shall also adopt such legislative and other measures as may be necessary to carry out the obligations set forth in Articles 27 through 35.
3 Each Party may, in urgent circumstances, make requests for mutual assistance or communications related thereto by expedited means of communication, including fax or e-mail, to the extent that such means provide appropriate levels of security and authentication (including the use of encryption, where necessary), with formal confirmation to follow, where required by the requested Party. The requested Party shall accept and respond to the request by any such expedited means of communication.
4 Except as otherwise specifically provided in articles in this chapter, mutual assistance shall be subject to the conditions provided for by the law of the requested Party or by applicable mutual assistance treaties, including the grounds on which the requested Party may refuse co-operation. The requested Party shall not exercise the right to refuse mutual assistance in relation to the offences referred to in Articles 2 through 11 solely on the ground that the request concerns an offence which it considers a fiscal offence.
5 Where, in accordance with the provisions of this chapter, the requested Party is permitted to make mutual assistance conditional upon the existence of dual criminality, that condition shall be deemed fulfilled, irrespective of whether its laws place the offence within the same category of offence or denominate the offence by the same terminology as the requesting Party, if the conduct underlying the offence for which assistance is sought is a criminal offence under its laws.
Article 26 – Spontaneous information
1 A Party may, within the limits of its domestic law and without prior request, forward to another Party information obtained within the framework of its own investigations when it considers that the disclosure of such information might assist the receiving Party in initiating or carrying out investigations or proceedings concerning criminal offences established in accordance with this Convention or might lead to a request for co-operation by that Party under this chapter.
2 Prior to providing such information, the providing Party may request that it be kept confidential or only used subject to conditions. If the receiving Party cannot comply with such request, it shall notify the providing Party, which shall then determine whether the information should nevertheless be provided. If the receiving Party accepts the information subject to the conditions, it shall be bound by them.
Title 4 – Procedures pertaining to mutual assistance requests in the absence of applicable international agreements
Article 27 –Procedures pertaining to mutual assistance requests in the absence of applicable international agreements
1 Where there is no mutual assistance treaty or arrangement on the basis of uniform or reciprocal legislation in force between the requesting and requested Parties, the provisions of paragraphs 2 through 9 of this article shall apply. The provisions of this article shall not apply where such treaty, arrangement or legislation exists, unless the Parties concerned agree to apply any or all of the remainder of this article in lieu thereof.
2 a Each Party shall designate a central authority or authorities responsible for sending and answering requests for mutual assistance, the execution of such requests or their transmission to the authorities competent for their execution.
b The central authorities shall communicate directly with each other;
c Each Party shall, at the time of signature or when depositing its instrument of ratification, acceptance, approval or accession, communicate to the Secretary General of the Council of Europe the names and addresses of the authorities designated in pursuance of this paragraph;
d The Secretary General of the Council of Europe shall set up and keep updated a register of central authorities designated by the Parties. Each Party shall ensure that the details held on the register are correct at all times.
3 Mutual assistance requests under this article shall be executed in accordance with the procedures specified by the requesting Party, except where incompatible with the law of the requested Party.
4 The requested Party may, in addition to the grounds for refusal established in Article 25, paragraph 4, refuse assistance if:
a the request concerns an offence which the requested Party considers a political offence or an offence connected with a political offence, or
b it considers that execution of the request is likely to prejudice its sovereignty, security, ordre public or other essential interests.
5 The requested Party may postpone action on a request if such action would prejudice criminal investigations or proceedings conducted by its authorities.
6 Before refusing or postponing assistance, the requested Party shall, where appropriate after having consulted with the requesting Party, consider whether the request may be granted partially or subject to such conditions as it deems necessary.
7 The requested Party shall promptly inform the requesting Party of the outcome of the execution of a request for assistance. Reasons shall be given for any refusal or postponement of the request. The requested Party shall also inform the requesting Party of any reasons that render impossible the execution of the request or are likely to delay it significantly.
8 The requesting Party may request that the requested Party keep confidential the fact of any request made under this chapter as well as its subject, except to the extent necessary for its execution. If the requested Party cannot comply with the request for confidentiality, it shall promptly inform the requesting Party, which shall then determine whether the request should nevertheless be executed.
9 a In the event of urgency, requests for mutual assistance or communications related thereto may be sent directly by judicial authorities of the requesting Party to such authorities of the requested Party. In any such cases, a copy shall be sent at the same time to the central authority of the requested Party through the central authority of the requesting Party.
b Any request or communication under this paragraph may be made through the International Criminal Police Organisation (Interpol).
c Where a request is made pursuant to sub-paragraph a. of this article and the authority is not competent to deal with the request, it shall refer the request to the competent national authority and inform directly the requesting Party that it has done so.
d Requests or communications made under this paragraph that do not involve coercive action may be directly transmitted by the competent authorities of the requesting Party to the competent authorities of the requested Party.
e Each Party may, at the time of signature or when depositing its instrument of ratification, acceptance, approval or accession, inform the Secretary General of the Council of Europe that, for reasons of efficiency, requests made under this paragraph are to be addressed to its central authority.
Article 28 – Confidentiality and limitation on use
1 When there is no mutual assistance treaty or arrangement on the basis of uniform or reciprocal legislation in force between the requesting and the requested Parties, the provisions of this article shall apply. The provisions of this article shall not apply where such treaty, arrangement or legislation exists, unless the Parties concerned agree to apply any or all of the remainder of this article in lieu thereof.
2 The requested Party may make the supply of information or material in response to a request dependent on the condition that it is:
a kept confidential where the request for mutual legal assistance could not be complied with in the absence of such condition, or
b not used for investigations or proceedings other than those stated in the request.
3 If the requesting Party cannot comply with a condition referred to in paragraph 2, it shall promptly inform the other Party, which shall then determine whether the information should nevertheless be provided. When the requesting Party accepts the condition, it shall be bound by it.
4 Any Party that supplies information or material subject to a condition referred to in paragraph 2 may require the other Party to explain, in relation to that condition, the use made of such information or material.
Section 2 – Specific provisions
Title 1 – Mutual assistance regarding provisional measures
Article 29 – Expedited preservation of stored computer data
1 A Party may request another Party to order or otherwise obtain the expeditious preservation of data stored by means of a computer system, located within the territory of that other Party and in respect of which the requesting Party intends to submit a request for mutual assistance for the search or similar access, seizure or similar securing, or disclosure of the data.
2 A request for preservation made under paragraph 1 shall specify:
a the authority seeking the preservation;
b the offence that is the subject of a criminal investigation or proceedings and a brief summary of the related facts;
c the stored computer data to be preserved and its relationship to the offence;
d any available information identifying the custodian of the stored computer data or the location of the computer system;
e the necessity of the preservation; and
f that the Party intends to submit a request for mutual assistance for the search or similar access, seizure or similar securing, or disclosure of the stored computer data.
3 Upon receiving the request from another Party, the requested Party shall take all appropriate measures to preserve expeditiously the specified data in accordance with its domestic law. For the purposes of responding to a request, dual criminality shall not be required as a condition to providing such preservation.
4 A Party that requires dual criminality as a condition for responding to a request for mutual assistance for the search or similar access, seizure or similar securing, or disclosure of stored data may, in respect of offences other than those established in accordance with Articles 2 through 11 of this Convention, reserve the right to refuse the request for preservation under this article in cases where it has reasons to believe that at the time of disclosure the condition of dual criminality cannot be fulfilled.
5 In addition, a request for preservation may only be refused if:
a the request concerns an offence which the requested Party considers a political offence or an offence connected with a political offence, or
b the requested Party considers that execution of the request is likely to prejudice its sovereignty, security, ordre public or other essential interests.
6 Where the requested Party believes that preservation will not ensure the future availability of the data or will threaten the confidentiality of or otherwise prejudice the requesting Party’s investigation, it shall promptly so inform the requesting Party, which shall then determine whether the request should nevertheless be executed.
7 Any preservation effected in response to the request referred to in paragraph 1 shall be for a period not less than sixty days, in order to enable the requesting Party to submit a request for the search or similar access, seizure or similar securing, or disclosure of the data. Following the receipt of such a request, the data shall continue to be preserved pending a decision on that request.
Article 30 – Expedited disclosure of preserved traffic data
1 Where, in the course of the execution of a request made pursuant to Article 29 to preserve traffic data concerning a specific communication, the requested Party discovers that a service provider in another State was involved in the transmission of the communication, the requested Party shall expeditiously disclose to the requesting Party a sufficient amount of traffic data to identify that service provider and the path through which the communication was transmitted.
2 Disclosure of traffic data under paragraph 1 may only be withheld if:
a the request concerns an offence which the requested Party considers a political offence or an offence connected with a political offence; or
b the requested Party considers that execution of the request is likely to prejudice its sovereignty, security, ordre public or other essential interests.
Title 2 – Mutual assistance regarding investigative powers
Article 31 – Mutual assistance regarding accessing of stored computer data
1 A Party may request another Party to search or similarly access, seize or similarly secure, and disclose data stored by means of a computer system located within the territory of the requested Party, including data that has been preserved pursuant to Article 29.
2 The requested Party shall respond to the request through the application of international instruments, arrangements and laws referred to in Article 23, and in accordance with other relevant provisions of this chapter.
3 The request shall be responded to on an expedited basis where:
a there are grounds to believe that relevant data is particularly vulnerable to loss or modification; or
b the instruments, arrangements and laws referred to in paragraph 2 otherwise provide for expedited co-operation.
Article 32 – Trans-border access to stored computer data with consent or where publicly available
A Party may, without the authorisation of another Party:
a access publicly available (open source) stored computer data, regardless of where the data is located geographically; or
b access or receive, through a computer system in its territory, stored computer data located in another Party, if the Party obtains the lawful and voluntary consent of the person who has the lawful authority to disclose the data to the Party through that computer system.
Article 33 – Mutual assistance in the real-time collection of traffic data
1 The Parties shall provide mutual assistance to each other in the real-time collection of traffic data associated with specified communications in their territory transmitted by means of a computer system. Subject to the provisions of paragraph 2, this assistance shall be governed by the conditions and procedures provided for under domestic law.
2 Each Party shall provide such assistance at least with respect to criminal offences for which real-time collection of traffic data would be available in a similar domestic case.
Article 34 – Mutual assistance regarding the interception of content data
The Parties shall provide mutual assistance to each other in the real-time collection or recording of content data of specified communications transmitted by means of a computer system to the extent permitted under their applicable treaties and domestic laws.
Title 3 – 24/7 Network
Article 35 – 24/7 Network
1 Each Party shall designate a point of contact available on a twenty-four hour, seven-day-a-week basis, in order to ensure the provision of immediate assistance for the purpose of investigations or proceedings concerning criminal offences related to computer systems and data, or for the collection of evidence in electronic form of a criminal offence. Such assistance shall include facilitating, or, if permitted by its domestic law and practice, directly carrying out the following measures:
a the provision of technical advice;
b the preservation of data pursuant to Articles 29 and 30;
c the collection of evidence, the provision of legal information, and locating of suspects.
2 a A Party’s point of contact shall have the capacity to carry out communications with the point of contact of another Party on an expedited basis.
b If the point of contact designated by a Party is not part of that Party’s authority or authorities responsible for international mutual assistance or extradition, the point of contact shall ensure that it is able to co-ordinate with such authority or authorities on an expedited basis.
3 Each Party shall ensure that trained and equipped personnel are available, in order to facilitate the operation of the network.
Chapter IV – Final provisions
Article 36 – Signature and entry into force
1 This Convention shall be open for signature by the member States of the Council of Europe and by non-member States which have participated in its elaboration.
2 This Convention is subject to ratification, acceptance or approval. Instruments of ratification, acceptance or approval shall be deposited with the Secretary General of the Council of Europe.
3 This Convention shall enter into force on the first day of the month following the expiration of a period of three months after the date on which five States, including at least three member States of the Council of Europe, have expressed their consent to be bound by the Convention in accordance with the provisions of paragraphs 1 and 2.
4 In respect of any signatory State which subsequently expresses its consent to be bound by it, the Convention shall enter into force on the first day of the month following the expiration of a period of three months after the date of the expression of its consent to be bound by the Convention in accordance with the provisions of paragraphs 1 and 2.
Article 37 – Accession to the Convention
1 After the entry into force of this Convention, the Committee of Ministers of the Council of Europe, after consulting with and obtaining the unanimous consent of the Contracting States to the Convention, may invite any State which is not a member of the Council and which has not participated in its elaboration to accede to this Convention. The decision shall be taken by the majority provided for in Article 20.d. of the Statute of the Council of Europe and by the unanimous vote of the representatives of the Contracting States entitled to sit on the Committee of Ministers.
2 In respect of any State acceding to the Convention under paragraph 1 above, the Convention shall enter into force on the first day of the month following the expiration of a period of three months after the date of deposit of the instrument of accession with the Secretary General of the Council of Europe.
Article 38 – Territorial application
1 Any State may, at the time of signature or when depositing its instrument of ratification, acceptance, approval or accession, specify the territory or territories to which this Convention shall apply.
2 Any State may, at any later date, by a declaration addressed to the Secretary General of the Council of Europe, extend the application of this Convention to any other territory specified in the declaration. In respect of such territory the Convention shall enter into force on the first day of the month following the expiration of a period of three months after the date of receipt of the declaration by the Secretary General.
3 Any declaration made under the two preceding paragraphs may, in respect of any territory specified in such declaration, be withdrawn by a notification addressed to the Secretary General of the Council of Europe. The withdrawal shall become effective on the first day of the month following the expiration of a period of three months after the date of receipt of such notification by the Secretary General.
Article 39 – Effects of the Convention
1 The purpose of the present Convention is to supplement applicable multilateral or bilateral treaties or arrangements as between the Parties, including the provisions of:
– the European Convention on Extradition, opened for signature in Paris, on 13 December 1957 (ETS No. 24);
– the European Convention on Mutual Assistance in Criminal Matters, opened for signature in Strasbourg, on 20 April 1959 (ETS No. 30);
– the Additional Protocol to the European Convention on Mutual Assistance in Criminal Matters, opened for signature in Strasbourg, on 17 March 1978 (ETS No. 99).
2 If two or more Parties have already concluded an agreement or treaty on the matters dealt with in this Convention or have otherwise established their relations on such matters, or should they in future do so, they shall also be entitled to apply that agreement or treaty or to regulate those relations accordingly. However, where Parties establish their relations in respect of the matters dealt with in the present Convention other than as regulated therein, they shall do so in a manner that is not inconsistent with the Convention’s objectives and principles.
3 Nothing in this Convention shall affect other rights, restrictions, obligations and responsibilities of a Party.
Article 40 – Declarations
By a written notification addressed to the Secretary General of the Council of Europe, any State may, at the time of signature or when depositing its instrument of ratification, acceptance, approval or accession, declare that it avails itself of the possibility of requiring additional elements as provided for under Articles 2, 3, 6 paragraph 1.b, 7, 9 paragraph 3, and 27, paragraph 9.e.
Article 41 – Federal clause
1 A federal State may reserve the right to assume obligations under Chapter II of this Convention consistent with its fundamental principles governing the relationship between its central government and constituent States or other similar territorial entities provided that it is still able to co-operate under Chapter III.
2 When making a reservation under paragraph 1, a federal State may not apply the terms of such reservation to exclude or substantially diminish its obligations to provide for measures set forth in Chapter II. Overall, it shall provide for a broad and effective law enforcement capability with respect to those measures.
3 With regard to the provisions of this Convention, the application of which comes under the jurisdiction of constituent States or other similar territorial entities, that are not obliged by the constitutional system of the federation to take legislative measures, the federal government shall inform the competent authorities of such States of the said provisions with its favourable opinion, encouraging them to take appropriate action to give them effect.
Article 42 – Reservations
By a written notification addressed to the Secretary General of the Council of Europe, any State may, at the time of signature or when depositing its instrument of ratification, acceptance, approval or accession, declare that it avails itself of the reservation(s) provided for in Article 4, paragraph 2, Article 6, paragraph 3, Article 9, paragraph 4, Article 10, paragraph 3, Article 11, paragraph 3, Article 14, paragraph 3, Article 22, paragraph 2, Article 29, paragraph 4, and Article 41, paragraph 1. No other reservation may be made.
Article 43 – Status and withdrawal of reservations
1 A Party that has made a reservation in accordance with Article 42 may wholly or partially withdraw it by means of a notification addressed to the Secretary General of the Council of Europe. Such withdrawal shall take effect on the date of receipt of such notification by the Secretary General. If the notification states that the withdrawal of a reservation is to take effect on a date specified therein, and such date is later than the date on which the notification is received by the Secretary General, the withdrawal shall take effect on such a later date.
2 A Party that has made a reservation as referred to in Article 42 shall withdraw such reservation, in whole or in part, as soon as circumstances so permit.
3 The Secretary General of the Council of Europe may periodically enquire with Parties that have made one or more reservations as referred to in Article 42 as to the prospects for withdrawing such reservation(s).
Article 44 – Amendments
1 Amendments to this Convention may be proposed by any Party, and shall be communicated by the Secretary General of the Council of Europe to the member States of the Council of Europe, to the non-member States which have participated in the elaboration of this Convention as well as to any State which has acceded to, or has been invited to accede to, this Convention in accordance with the provisions of Article 37.
2 Any amendment proposed by a Party shall be communicated to the European Committee on Crime Problems (CDPC), which shall submit to the Committee of Ministers its opinion on that proposed amendment.
3 The Committee of Ministers shall consider the proposed amendment and the opinion submitted by the CDPC and, following consultation with the non-member States Parties to this Convention, may adopt the amendment.
4 The text of any amendment adopted by the Committee of Ministers in accordance with paragraph 3 of this article shall be forwarded to the Parties for acceptance.
5 Any amendment adopted in accordance with paragraph 3 of this article shall come into force on the thirtieth day after all Parties have informed the Secretary General of their acceptance thereof.
Article 45 – Settlement of disputes
1 The European Committee on Crime Problems (CDPC) shall be kept informed regarding the interpretation and application of this Convention.
2 In case of a dispute between Parties as to the interpretation or application of this Convention, they shall seek a settlement of the dispute through negotiation or any other peaceful means of their choice, including submission of the dispute to the CDPC, to an arbitral tribunal whose decisions shall be binding upon the Parties, or to the International Court of Justice, as agreed upon by the Parties concerned.
Article 46 – Consultations of the Parties
1 The Parties shall, as appropriate, consult periodically with a view to facilitating:
a the effective use and implementation of this Convention, including the identification of any problems thereof, as well as the effects of any declaration or reservation made under this Convention;
b the exchange of information on significant legal, policy or technological developments pertaining to cybercrime and the collection of evidence in electronic form;
c consideration of possible supplementation or amendment of the Convention.
2 The European Committee on Crime Problems (CDPC) shall be kept periodically informed regarding the result of consultations referred to in paragraph 1.
3 The CDPC shall, as appropriate, facilitate the consultations referred to in paragraph 1 and take the measures necessary to assist the Parties in their efforts to supplement or amend the Convention. At the latest three years after the present Convention enters into force, the European Committee on Crime Problems (CDPC) shall, in co-operation with the Parties, conduct a review of all of the Convention’s provisions and, if necessary, recommend any appropriate amendments.
4 Except where assumed by the Council of Europe, expenses incurred in carrying out the provisions of paragraph 1 shall be borne by the Parties in the manner to be determined by them.
5 The Parties shall be assisted by the Secretariat of the Council of Europe in carrying out their functions pursuant to this article.
Article 47 – Denunciation
1 Any Party may, at any time, denounce this Convention by means of a notification addressed to the Secretary General of the Council of Europe.
2 Such denunciation shall become effective on the first day of the month following the expiration of a period of three months after the date of receipt of the notification by the Secretary General.
Article 48 – Notification
The Secretary General of the Council of Europe shall notify the member States of the Council of Europe, the non-member States which have participated in the elaboration of this Convention as well as any State which has acceded to, or has been invited to accede to, this Convention of:
a any signature;
b the deposit of any instrument of ratification, acceptance, approval or accession;
c any date of entry into force of this Convention in accordance with Articles 36 and 37;
d any declaration made under Article 40 or reservation made in accordance with Article 42;
e any other act, notification or communication relating to this Convention.
 
In witness whereof the undersigned, being duly authorised thereto, have signed this Convention.
 
Done at Budapest, this 23rd day of November 2001, in English and in French, both texts being equally authentic, in a single copy which shall be deposited in the archives of the Council of Europe. The Secretary General of the Council of Europe shall transmit certified copies to each member State of the Council of Europe, to the non-member States which have participated in the elaboration of this Convention, and to any State invited to accede to it.
A D D I T I O N A L P R O T O C O L
TO THE CONVENTION ON CYBERCRIME, CONCERNING THE CRIMINALISATION OF ACTS OF A RACIST AND XENOPHOBIC NATURE COMMITTED THROUGH COMPUTER SYSTEMS
The member States of the Council of Europe and the other States Parties to the Convention on Cybercrime, opened for signature in Budapest on 23 November 2001, signatory hereto;
Considering that the aim of the Council of Europe is to achieve a greater unity between its members;
Recalling that all human beings are born free and equal in dignity and rights;
Stressing the need to secure a full and effective implementation of all human rights without any discrimination or distinction, as enshrined in European and other international instruments;
Convinced that acts of a racist and xenophobic nature constitute a violation of human rights and a threat to the rule of law and democratic stability;
Considering that national and international law need to provide adequate legal responses to propaganda of a racist and xenophobic nature committed through computer systems;
Aware of the fact that propaganda to such acts is often subject to criminalisation in national legislation;
Having regard to the Convention on Cybercrime, which provides for modern and flexible means of international co-operation and convinced of the need to harmonise substantive law provisions concerning the fight against racist and xenophobic propaganda;
Aware that computer systems offer an unprecedented means of facilitating freedom of expression and communication around the globe;
Recognising that freedom of expression constitutes one of the essential foundations of a democratic society, and is one of the basic conditions for its progress and for the development of every human being;
Concerned, however, by the risk of misuse or abuse of such computer systems to disseminate racist and xenophobic propaganda;
Mindful of the need to ensure a proper balance between freedom of expression and an effective fight against acts of a racist and xenophobic nature;
Recognising that this Protocol is not intended to affect established principles relating to freedom of expression in national legal systems;
Taking into account the relevant international legal instruments in this field, and in particular the Convention for the Protection of Human Rights and Fundamental Freedoms and its Protocol No. 12 concerning the general prohibition of discrimination, the existing Council of Europe conventions on co-operation in the penal field, in particular the Convention on Cybercrime, the United Nations International Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Racial Discrimination of 21 December 1965, the European Union Joint Action of 15 July 1996 adopted by the Council on the basis of Article K.3 of the Treaty on European Union, concerning action to combat racism and xenophobia;
Welcoming the recent developments which further advance international understanding and co-operation in combating cybercrime and racism and xenophobia;
Having regard to the Action Plan adopted by the Heads of State and Government of the Council of Europe on the occasion of their Second Summit (Strasbourg, 10-11 October 1997) to seek common responses to the developments of the new technologies based on the standards and values of the Council of Europe;
Have agreed as follows:
Chapter I – Common provisions
Article 1 – Purpose
The purpose of this Protocol is to supplement, as between the Parties to the Protocol, the provisions of the Convention on Cybercrime, opened for signature in Budapest on 23 November 2001 (hereinafter referred to as “the Convention”), as regards the criminalisation of acts of a racist and xenophobic nature committed through computer systems.
Article 2 – Definition
1 For the purposes of this Protocol:
“racist and xenophobic material” means any written material, any image or any other representation of ideas or theories, which advocates, promotes or incites hatred, discrimination or violence, against any individual or group of individuals, based on race, colour, descent or national or ethnic origin, as well as religion if used as a pretext for any of these factors.
2 The terms and expressions used in this Protocol shall be interpreted in the same manner as they are interpreted under the Convention.
Chapter II – Measures to be taken at national level
Article 3 – Dissemination of racist and xenophobic material through computer systems
1 Each Party shall adopt such legislative and other measures as may be necessary to establish as criminal offences under its domestic law, when committed intentionally and without right, the following conduct:
distributing, or otherwise making available, racist and xenophobic material to the public through a computer system.
2 A Party may reserve the right not to attach criminal liability to conduct as defined by paragraph 1 of this article, where the material, as defined in Article 2, paragraph 1, advocates, promotes or incites discrimination that is not associated with hatred or violence, provided that other effective remedies are available.
3 Notwithstanding paragraph 2 of this article, a Party may reserve the right not to apply paragraph 1 to those cases of discrimination for which, due to established principles in its national legal system concerning freedom of expression, it cannot provide for effective remedies as referred to in the said paragraph 2.
Article 4 – Racist and xenophobic motivated threat
Each Party shall adopt such legislative and other measures as may be necessary to establish as criminal offences under its domestic law, when committed intentionally and without right, the following conduct:
threatening, through a computer system, with the commission of a serious criminal offence as defined under its domestic law, (i) persons for the reason that they belong to a group, distinguished by race, colour, descent or national or ethnic origin, as well as religion, if used as a pretext for any of these factors, or (ii) a group of persons which is distinguished by any of these characteristics.
Article 5 – Racist and xenophobic motivated insult
1 Each Party shall adopt such legislative and other measures as may be necessary to establish as criminal offences under its domestic law, when committed intentionally and without right, the following conduct:
insulting publicly, through a computer system, (i) persons for the reason that they belong to a group distinguished by race, colour, descent or national or ethnic origin, as well as religion, if used as a pretext for any of these factors; or (ii) a group of persons which is distinguished by any of these characteristics.
2 A Party may either:
a require that the offence referred to in paragraph 1 of this article has the effect that the person or group of persons referred to in paragraph 1 is exposed to hatred, contempt or ridicule; or
b reserve the right not to apply, in whole or in part, paragraph 1 of this article.
Article 6 – Denial, gross minimisation, approval or justification of genocide or crimes against humanity
1 Each Party shall adopt such legislative measures as may be necessary to establish the following conduct as criminal offences under its domestic law, when committed intentionally and without right:
distributing or otherwise making available, through a computer system to the public, material which denies, grossly minimises, approves or justifies acts constituting genocide or crimes against humanity, as defined by international law and recognised as such by final and binding decisions of the International Military Tribunal, established by the London Agreement of 8 August 1945, or of any other international court established by relevant international instruments and whose jurisdiction is recognised by that Party.
2 A Party may either
a require that the denial or the gross minimisation referred to in paragraph 1 of this article is committed with the intent to incite hatred, discrimination or violence against any individual or group of individuals, based on race, colour, descent or national or ethnic origin, as well as religion if used as a pretext for any of these factors, or otherwise
b reserve the right not to apply, in whole or in part, paragraph 1 of this article.
Article 7 – Aiding and abetting
Each Party shall adopt such legislative and other measures as may be necessary to establish as criminal offences under its domestic law, when committed intentionally and without right, aiding or abetting the commission of any of the offences established in accordance with this Protocol, with intent that such offence be committed.
Chapter III — Relations between the Convention and this Protocol
Article 8 – Relations between the Convention and this Protocol
1 Articles 1, 12, 13, 22, 41, 44, 45 and 46 of the Convention shall apply, mutatis mutandis, to this Protocol.
2. The Parties shall extend the scope of application of the measures defined in Articles 14 to 21 and Articles 23 to 35 of the Convention, to Articles 2 to 7 of this Protocol.
Chapter IV – Final provisions
Article 9 – Expression of consent to be bound
1 This Protocol shall be open for signature by the States which have signed the Convention, which may express their consent to be bound by either:
a signature without reservation as to ratification, acceptance or approval; or
b signature subject to ratification, acceptance or approval, followed by ratification, acceptance or approval.
2 A State may not sign this Protocol without reservation as to ratification, acceptance or approval, or deposit an instrument of ratification, acceptance or approval, unless it has already deposited or simultaneously deposits an instrument of ratification, acceptance or approval of the Convention.
3 The instruments of ratification, acceptance or approval shall be deposited with the Secretary General of the Council of Europe.
Article 10 – Entry into force
1 This Protocol shall enter into force on the first day of the month following the expiration of a period of three months after the date on which five States have expressed their consent to be bound by the Protocol, in accordance with the provisions of Article 9.
2 In respect of any State which subsequently expresses its consent to be bound by it, the Protocol shall enter into force on the first day of the month following the expiration of a period of three months after the date of its signature without reservation as to ratification, acceptance or approval or deposit of its instrument of ratification, acceptance or approval.
Article 11 – Accession
1 After the entry into force of this Protocol, any State which has acceded to the Convention may also accede to the Protocol.
2 Accession shall be effected by the deposit with the Secretary General of the Council of Europe of an instrument of accession which shall take effect on the first day of the month following the expiration of a period of three months after the date of its deposit.
Article 12 – Reservations and declarations
1 Reservations and declarations made by a Party to a provision of the Convention shall be applicable also to this Protocol, unless that Party declares otherwise at the time of signature or when depositing its instrument of ratification, acceptance, approval or accession.
2 By a written notification addressed to the Secretary General of the Council of Europe, any Party may, at the time of signature or when depositing its instrument of ratification, acceptance, approval or accession, declare that it avails itself of the reservation(s) provided for in Articles 3, 5 and 6 of this Protocol. At the same time, a Party may avail itself, with respect to the provisions of this Protocol, of the reservation(s) provided for in Article 22, paragraph 2, and Article 41, paragraph 1, of the Convention, irrespective of the implementation made by that Party under the Convention. No other reservations may be made.
3 By a written notification addressed to the Secretary General of the Council of Europe, any State may, at the time of signature or when depositing its instrument of ratification, acceptance, approval or accession, declare that it avails itself of the possibility of requiring additional elements as provided for in Article 5, paragraph 2.a, and Article 6, paragraph 2.a, of this Protocol.
Article 13 – Status and withdrawal of reservations
1 A Party that has made a reservation in accordance with Article 12 above shall withdraw such reservation, in whole or in part, as soon as circumstances so permit. Such withdrawal shall take effect on the date of receipt of a notification addressed to the Secretary General of the Council of Europe. If the notification states that the withdrawal of a reservation is to take effect on a date specified therein, and such date is later than the date on which the notification is received by the Secretary General, the withdrawal shall take effect on such a later date.
2 The Secretary General of the Council of Europe may periodically enquire with Parties that have made one or more reservations in accordance with Article 12 as to the prospects for withdrawing such reservation(s).
Article 14 – Territorial application
1 Any Party may at the time of signature or when depositing its instrument of ratification, acceptance, approval or accession, specify the territory or territories to which this Protocol shall apply.
2 Any Party may, at any later date, by a declaration addressed to the Secretary General of the Council of Europe, extend the application of this Protocol to any other territory specified in the declaration. In respect of such territory, the Protocol shall enter into force on the first day of the month following the expiration of a period of three months after the date of receipt of the declaration by the Secretary General.
3 Any declaration made under the two preceding paragraphs may, in respect of any territory specified in such declaration, be withdrawn by a notification addressed to the Secretary General of the Council of Europe. The withdrawal shall become effective on the first day of the month following the expiration of a period of three months after the date of receipt of such notification by the Secretary General.
Article 15 – Denunciation
1 Any Party may, at any time, denounce this Protocol by means of a notification addressed to the Secretary General of the Council of Europe.
2 Such denunciation shall become effective on the first day of the month following the expiration of a period of three months after the date of receipt of the notification by the Secretary General.
Article 16 – Notification
The Secretary General of the Council of Europe shall notify the member States of the Council of Europe, the non-member States which have participated in the elaboration of this Protocol as well as any State which has acceded to, or has been invited to accede to, this Protocol of:
a any signature;
b the deposit of any instrument of ratification, acceptance, approval or accession;
c any date of entry into force of this Protocol in accordance with its Articles 9, 10 and 11;
d any other act, notification or communication relating to this Protocol.
In witness whereof the undersigned, being duly authorised thereto, have signed this Protocol.
Done at Strasbourg, this 28 January 2003, in English and in French, both texts being equally authentic, in a single copy which shall be deposited in the archives of the Council of Europe. The Secretary General of the Council of Europe shall transmit certified copies to each member State of the Council of Europe, to the non-member States which have participated in the elaboration of this Protocol, and to any State invited to accede to it.
K O N V E N C I J A
O KIBERNETSKI KRIMINALITETI
Preambula
Države članice Sveta Evrope in druge države podpisnice te konvencije so
glede na to, da je cilj Sveta Evrope doseči večjo enotnost med članicami;
priznavajoč pomen pospeševanja sodelovanja s preostalimi državami pogodbenicami te konvencije;
v prepričanju o potrebi po skupni kriminalitetni politiki kot prednostni nalogi, katere cilj je varovanje družbe pred kaznivimi dejanji v kibernetskem prostoru, med drugim tudi s sprejetjem ustrezne zakonodaje in pospeševanjem mednarodnega sodelovanja;
zavedajoč se korenitih sprememb, ki so nastale kot posledica digitalizacije, zbliževanja in nenehne globalizacije računalniških omrežij;
zaskrbljeni zaradi nevarnosti, da se računalniški sistemi in elektronske informacije lahko uporabljajo za storitev kaznivih dejanj, kot tudi zaradi dejstva, da se dokazi o takih kaznivih dejanjih lahko shranjujejo in prenašajo po omenjenih omrežjih;
priznavajoč nujnost sodelovanja med državami in zasebnimi podjetji v boju proti kaznivim dejanjem v kibernetskem prostoru in potrebo po varovanju legitimnih interesov pri uporabi in razvoju informacijskih tehnologij;
v prepričanju, da učinkovit boj proti kaznivim dejanjem v kibernetskem prostoru zahteva obsežnejše, hitrejše in boljše mednarodno sodelovanje v kazenskih zadevah;
v prepričanju, da je ta konvencija potrebna za preprečevanje dejanj zoper zaupnost, celovitost in dostopnost računalniških sistemov, omrežij in računalniških podatkov ter zlorab omenjenih sistemov, omrežij in podatkov, je treba zagotoviti inkriminacijo takih dejanj, kot so opisana v tej konvenciji, in sprejeti ustrezna pooblastila za učinkovit boj proti tovrstnim kaznivim dejanjem, s tem da se olajšajo njihovo odkrivanje, preiskovanje in pregon na državni in mednarodni ravni, ter zagotoviti ureditev za hitro in zanesljivo mednarodno sodelovanje;
zavedajoč se, da je treba zagotoviti ustrezno ravnotežje med interesi zakonske prisile in spoštovanjem temeljnih človekovih pravic, kot so določene v Konvenciji Sveta Evrope o varstvu človekovih pravic in temeljnih svoboščin iz leta 1950, v Mednarodnem paktu Združenih narodov o državljanskih in političnih pravicah iz leta 1966 ter drugih veljavnih mednarodnih pogodbah o človekovih pravicah, ki prav tako poudarjajo pravico vsakogar do lastnega mnenja, svobode izražanja, vključno s svobodo iskanja, sprejemanja in razširjanja informacij in zamisli vseh vrst, ne glede na državne meje ter pravice, ki se nanašajo na spoštovanje zasebnosti;
zavedajoč se tudi pravice do varstva osebnih podatkov, kot je na primer opredeljena v Konvenciji Sveta Evrope o varstvu posameznika glede na avtomatsko obdelavo osebnih podatkov iz leta 1981;
upoštevajoč Konvencijo Združenih narodov o otrokovih pravicah iz leta 1989 in Konvencijo Mednarodne organizacije dela o prepovedi najhujših oblik dela otrok in takojšnjem ukrepanju za njihovo odpravo iz leta 1999;
upoštevajoč obstoječe konvencije Sveta Evrope o sodelovanju na kaznovalnem področju kot tudi podobne obstoječe pogodbe med državami članicami Sveta Evrope in drugimi državami s poudarkom, da je ta konvencija namenjena dopolnitvi vseh omenjenih konvencij, da bi se povečala učinkovitost odkrivanja kaznivih dejanj in kazenskih postopkov, povezanih z računalniškimi sistemi in podatki, ter da bi se omogočilo zbiranje dokazov o kaznivih dejanjih v elektronski obliki;
naklonjene novejšim pobudam, ki pospešujejo mednarodno razumevanje in sodelovanje v boju proti kaznivim dejanjem v kibernetskem prostoru, vključno z ukrepi Združenih narodov, OVSE, Evropske unije in G 8;
glede na Priporočila Odbora ministrov o izvajanju Evropske konvencije o medsebojni pomoči v kazenskih zadevah z upoštevanjem pisnih zaprosil za prestrezanje telekomunikacij, št. R (85) 10, o piratstvu na področju avtorske pravice in sorodnih pravic, št. R (88) 2, o uporabi osebnih podatkov za namene policije, št. R (87) 15, o varstvu osebnih podatkov na področju telekomunikacijskih storitev, še posebej v zvezi s telefonskimi storitvami, št. R (95) 4, kot tudi o zagotavljanju smernic o kaznivih dejanjih, povezanih z računalništvom za notranje zakonodaje glede opredelitve posameznih računalniških kaznivih dejanj, št. R (89) 9 in št. R (95) 13, ki obravnava problematiko kazenskega procesnega prava pri kaznivih dejanjih, povezanih z informacijsko tehnologijo;
glede na Resolucijo št. 1, ki so jo sprejeli evropski ministri za pravosodje na 21. konferenci (Praga, 10. in 11. junij 1997), ki je priporočila Odboru ministrov, da podpre delo na področju kaznivih dejanj v kibernetskem prostoru, ki ga je opravil Evropski odbor za kazensko problematiko (CDPC), z namenom zbližati kazenskopravne določbe notranjih zakonodaj ter omogočiti uporabo učinkovitih preiskovalnih sredstev pri tovrstnih kaznivih dejanjih; kot tudi glede na Resolucijo št. 3, sprejeto na 23. konferenci ministrov za pravosodje (London, 8. in 9. junij 2000), ki je spodbudila pogodbenice k združitvi prizadevanj pri odkrivanju primernih rešitev, ki bodo omogočile sprejetje konvencije kar najširšemu krogu držav, in ki hkrati priznava potrebo po vzpostavitvi hitrega in učinkovitega sistema mednarodnega sodelovanja, ki na primeren način upošteva posebne zahteve boja proti kaznivim dejanjem v kibernetskem prostoru,
ter glede na Akcijski načrt, ki so ga sprejeli voditelji držav in vlad članic Sveta Evrope na svojem drugem srečanju na vrhu (Strasbourg, 10. in 11. oktober 1997) in v katerem se zavzemajo za oblikovanje skupnih rešitev glede razvoja novih informacijskih tehnologij, ki naj temeljijo na normah in vrednotah Sveta Evrope,
sklenile:
I. poglavje – Pomen izrazov
1. člen – Pomen izrazov
V tej konvenciji pomeni:
a) »računalniški sistem« vsako napravo ali skupino med seboj povezanih ali soodvisnih naprav, od katerih ena ali več samodejno obdeluje podatke s pomočjo programa;
b) »računalniški podatki« vsako predstavitev dejstev, informacij ali zamisli v obliki, primerni za obdelavo v računalniškem sistemu, vključno s programom, primernim, da na računalniškem sistemu izvede posamezno opravilo;
c) »ponudnik storitev«:
i) vsako javno ali zasebno pravno ali fizično osebo, ki zagotavlja uporabnikom svojih storitev možnost komunikacije s pomočjo računalniškega sistema, ter
ii) vsako drugo pravno ali fizično osebo, ki obdeluje ali shranjuje računalniške podatke za take komunikacijske storitve ali uporabnike teh storitev;
d) »podatki o prometu« vse računalniške podatke o komuniciranju s pomočjo računalniškega sistema, ustvarjene z računalniškim sistemom, ki je bil del komunikacijske verige, in nakazujejo izvor, cilj, pot, čas, datum, obseg, trajanje ali vrsto take storitve.
II. poglavje – Ukrepi, ki jih je treba sprejeti na državni ravni
Oddelek 1 – Kazensko materialno pravo
Naslov 1 – Kazniva dejanja zoper zaupnost, celovitost in dostopnost računalniških podatkov in sistemov
2. člen – Protipravni dostop
Pogodbenice sprejmejo potrebne zakonodajne in druge ukrepe v svojem notranjem pravu, ki kot kazniva opredeljujejo dejanja naklepnega in neupravičenega vstopa v računalniški sistem ali njegov del. Pogodbenica lahko določi, da je dejanje kaznivo, če je storjeno s kršitvijo varnostnih ukrepov, z namenom pridobiti računalniške podatke ali z drugim nepoštenim namenom ali v povezavi z računalniškim sistemom, povezanim z drugim računalniškim sistemom.
3. člen – Protipravno prestrezanje
Pogodbenice sprejmejo potrebne zakonodajne in druge ukrepe v svojem notranjem pravu, ki kot kazniva opredeljujejo naklepno storjena dejanja neupravičenega prestrezanja nejavnih prenosov računalniških podatkov s tehničnimi sredstvi do računalniškega sistema, od njega ali v njem, vključno s prestrezanjem elektromagnetnega sevanja računalniškega sistema, s katerim se taki računalniški podatki prenašajo. Pogodbenica lahko določi, da je dejanje kaznivo, če je storjeno z nepoštenim namenom ali v zvezi z računalniškim sistemom, povezanim z drugim računalniškim sistemom.
4. člen – Motenje podatkov
1) Pogodbenice sprejmejo potrebne zakonodajne in druge ukrepe v svojem notranjem pravu, ki kot kazniva opredeljujejo naklepno storjena dejanja poškodovanja, izbrisa, poslabšanja, spreminjanja ali oviranja računalniških podatkov.
2) Pogodbenica si lahko pridrži pravico določiti, da dejanja iz prvega odstavka povzročijo resno škodo.
5. člen – Motenje sistemov
Pogodbenice sprejmejo potrebne zakonodajne in druge ukrepe v svojem notranjem pravu, ki kot kazniva opredeljujejo naklepno storjena dejanja resnega, neupravičenega oviranja delovanja računalniškega sistema z vnosom, prenosom, poškodovanjem, izbrisom, poslabšanjem, spreminjanjem ali oviranjem računalniških podatkov.
6. člen – Zloraba naprav
1) Pogodbenice sprejmejo potrebne zakonodajne in druge ukrepe v notranjem pravu, ki kot kazniva opredelijo dejanja, s katerimi nekdo naklepno in neupravičeno:
a) izdeluje, prodaja, daje v uporabo, uvaža, distribuira ali na drug način zagotavlja:
i) naprave, vključno z računalniškimi programi, zasnovane ali prilagojene predvsem za storitev kaznivih dejanj iz 2. do 5. člena konvencije;
ii) računalniška gesla, kode ali podobne podatke, ki omogočajo dostop do računalniškega sistema ali katerega koli njegovega dela z namenom zlorabe za storitev kaznivih dejanj iz 2. do 5. člena konvencije, in
b) poseduje katerega izmed predmetov iz podtočke i ali ii točke a z namenom njegove zlorabe za storitev kaznivih dejanj iz 2. do 5. člena. Pogodbenice lahko v zakonu določijo, da je za podanost kazenske odgovornosti treba posedovati določeno število tovrstnih predmetov.
2) Ta člen se ne sme razlagati na način, da je podana kazenska odgovornost za izdelavo, prodajo, dajanje v uporabo, uvoz, distribucijo ali drugačno zagotavljanje ali posedovanje predmetov iz prvega odstavka tega člena, če se omenjene dejavnosti ne izvajajo z namenom storitve kaznivega dejanja, opredeljenega v 2. do 5. členu konvencije, kot je na primer pooblaščeno preverjanje ali zaščita računalniškega sistema.
3) Pogodbenice si pridržujejo pravico, da ne uporabljajo prvega odstavka tega člena, če se pridržek ne nanaša na prodajo, distribucijo ali drugo obliko zagotavljanja predmetov iz podtočke ii točke a prvega odstavka tega člena.
Naslov 2 – Kazniva dejanja, povezana z računalnikom
7. člen – Računalniško ponarejanje
Pogodbenice sprejmejo potrebne zakonodajne in druge ukrepe v notranjem pravu, ki kot kazniva opredelijo dejanja naklepnega in neupravičenega vnašanja, spreminjanja, brisanja ali oviranja računalniških podatkov, posledica česar so ponarejeni podatki, ki se za pravne namene predstavljajo kot verodostojni, ne glede na to, ali so taki podatki neposredno berljivi in razumljivi. Pogodbenice lahko za podanost kazenske odgovornosti zahtevajo obstoj namena ponareditve ali podobnega nepoštenega namena.
8. člen – Računalniška goljufija
Pogodbenice sprejmejo potrebne zakonodajne in druge ukrepe v notranjem pravu, ki kot kazniva opredelijo dejanja, s katerimi nekdo naklepno in neupravičeno povzroča premoženjsko škodo drugim osebam z:
a) vsakim vnosom, spremembo, izbrisom ali oviranjem računalniških podatkov;
b) vsakim poseganjem v delovanje računalniškega sistema,
z goljufivim ali nepoštenim namenom neupravičene pridobitve premoženjske koristi zase ali za drugo osebo.
Naslov 3 – Kazniva dejanja, povezana z vsebino
9. člen – Kazniva dejanja, povezana z otroško pornografijo
1) Pogodbenice sprejmejo potrebne zakonodajne in druge ukrepe v notranjem pravu, ki kot kazniva opredelijo dejanja, s katerimi nekdo naklepno in neupravičeno:
a) izdeluje otroško pornografijo z namenom njenega razširjanja po računalniškem sistemu;
b) ponuja ali omogoča dostop do otroške pornografije po računalniškem sistemu;
c) razširja ali prenaša otroško pornografijo po računalniškem sistemu;
d) zagotavlja otroško pornografijo po računalniškem sistemu zase ali za drugo osebo;
e) poseduje otroško pornografijo v računalniškem sistemu ali na sredstvu za shranjevanje računalniških podatkov.
2) V prvem odstavku tega člena pomeni izraz »otroška pornografija« pornografsko gradivo, ki slikovno prikazuje:
a) mladoletnika, ki sodeluje v nedvoumnem spolnem dejanju;
b) osebo, za katero se zdi, da je mladoletnik, ki sodeluje v nedvoumnem spolnem dejanju;
c) resnično slikovno prikazovanje mladoletnika, ki sodeluje v nedvoumnem spolnem dejanju.
3) V drugem odstavku tega člena pomeni izraz »mladoletnik« vse osebe, mlajše od 18 let. Pogodbenice lahko določijo tudi nižjo starostno mejo, ki pa ne more biti manj kot 16 let.
4) Pogodbenice si lahko pridržijo pravico, da v celoti ali delno ne uporabijo točk d in e prvega in točk b in c drugega odstavka tega člena.
Naslov 4 – Kazniva dejanja, povezana s kršitvijo avtorske in sorodnih pravic
10. člen – Kazniva dejanja, povezana s kršitvijo avtorske in sorodnih pravic
1) Pogodbenice sprejmejo potrebne zakonodajne in druge ukrepe v svojem notranjem pravu, ki kot kazniva opredelijo dejanja kršitve avtorske pravice po pravu te pogodbenice in v skladu z obveznostmi, ki izhajajo iz Pariškega akta z dne 24. julija 1971, ki dopolnjuje Bernsko konvencijo za varstvo književnih in umetniških del, Sporazuma o trgovinskih vidikih pravic intelektualne lastnine in Pogodbe Svetovne organizacije za intelektualno lastnino (WIPO) o avtorski pravici, razen vseh moralnih pravic, ki jih podeljujejo navedene konvencije, če so ta dejanja storjena zavestno, v komercialne namene in s pomočjo računalniškega sistema.
2) Pogodbenice sprejmejo potrebne zakonodajne in druge ukrepe v svojem notranjem pravu, ki kot kazniva opredelijo dejanja kršitve sorodnih pravic po pravu te pogodbenice, v skladu z obveznostmi, ki izhajajo iz Mednarodne konvencije za varstvo izvajalcev, proizvajalcev fonogramov in radiodifuznih organizacij (Rimske konvencije), Sporazuma o trgovinskih vidikih pravic intelektualne lastnine in Pogodbe Svetovne organizacije za intelektualno lastnino (WIPO) o izvedbah in fonogramih, razen vseh moralnih pravic, ki jih podeljujejo navedene konvencije, če so ta dejanja storjena zavestno, v komercialne namene in s pomočjo računalniškega sistema.
3) Pogodbenica si lahko pridrži pravico, da v omejenih okoliščinah ne uvede kazenske odgovornosti iz prvega in drugega odstavka tega člena, če zagotovi druga učinkovita sredstva in tak pridržek ne odvezuje pogodbenice od izpolnjevanja njenih mednarodnih obveznosti, ki izhajajo iz mednarodnih dokumentov iz prvega in drugega odstavka tega člena.
Naslov 5 – Odgovornost udeležencev pri kaznivih dejanjih in sankcije
11. člen – Poskus in pomoč ali napeljevanje
1) Pogodbenice sprejmejo potrebne zakonodajne in druge ukrepe v notranjem pravu, ki kot kazniva opredelijo dejanja naklepne pomoči ali napeljevanja k storitvi kaznivega dejanja iz 2. do 10. člena te konvencije z namenom storitve takega dejanja.
2) Pogodbenice sprejmejo potrebne zakonodajne in druge ukrepe v notranjem pravu, ki kot kazniva opredelijo dejanja naklepnega poskusa storitve kaznivega dejanja iz 3. do 5. člena, 7. in 8. člena ter točk a in c prvega odstavka 9. člena te konvencije.
3) Pogodbenice si lahko pridržijo pravico, da v celoti ali delno ne uporabijo drugega odstavka tega člena.
12. člen – Odgovornost pravnih oseb
1) Pogodbenice sprejmejo potrebne zakonodajne in druge ukrepe, s katerimi zagotovijo odgovornost pravnih oseb za kazniva dejanja, kot jih opredeljuje ta konvencija, ki jih v korist pravne osebe stori fizična oseba, ki deluje samostojno ali v imenu pravne osebe, v kateri ima vodilni položaj, ki temelji na:
a) pravici zastopanja pravne osebe;
b) pristojnosti za sprejemanje odločitev v imenu pravne osebe;
c) pristojnosti opravljati notranji nadzor v pravni osebi.
2) Poleg primerov iz prvega odstavka tega člena pogodbenice sprejmejo potrebne ukrepe, ki zagotovijo odgovornost pravne osebe tam, kjer je bila zaradi pomanjkljivega nadzora fizične osebe iz prvega odstavka tega člena omogočena storitev kaznivega dejanja po tej konvenciji v korist te pravne osebe od fizične osebe, ki je delovala v okviru njene pristojnosti.
3) V skladu s pravnimi načeli pogodbenic je lahko odgovornost pravne osebe kazenska, civilna ali upravna.
4) Odgovornost iz prejšnjega odstavka ne vpliva na kazensko odgovornost fizičnih oseb, ki so storile kaznivo dejanje.
13. člen – Sankcije in ukrepi
1) Pogodbenice sprejmejo potrebne zakonodajne in druge ukrepe, s katerimi zagotovijo sankcioniranje kaznivih dejanj iz 2. do 11. člena, z učinkovitimi, sorazmernimi in odvračajočimi sankcijami, vključno z odvzemom prostosti.
2) Pogodbenice zagotovijo odgovornost pravnih oseb v skladu z 12. členom z učinkovitimi, sorazmernimi in odvračajočimi kazenskimi ali drugimi sankcijami oziroma ukrepi, vključno z denarnimi kaznimi.
Oddelek 2 – Procesno pravo
Naslov 1 – Splošne določbe
14. člen – Obseg procesnih določb
1) Pogodbenice sprejmejo potrebne zakonodajne in druge ukrepe, s katerimi določijo pooblastila in postopke, namenjene izvajanju posebnih kazenskih postopkov ali odkrivanju kaznivih dejanj, opredeljenih v tem oddelku.
2) Razen če ni izrecno drugače določeno v 21. členu, pogodbenice uporabljajo pooblastila in postopke, na katere se sklicuje prvi odstavek tega člena za:
a) kazniva dejanja iz 2. do 11. člena konvencije;
b) druga kazniva dejanja, storjena z računalniškim sistemom, in
c) zbiranje dokazov o kaznivem dejanju v elektronski obliki.
3) a) Pogodbenice si lahko pridržijo pravico uporabiti ukrepe iz 20. člena le za kazniva dejanja ali vrste kaznivih dejanj, posebej opredeljene v pridržku, če zagotovijo, da obseg takih kaznivih dejanj ali vrst kaznivih dejanj ni ožji od obsega kaznivih dejanj, za katera se uporabljajo ukrepi iz 21. člena. Pogodbenice se zavzemajo za čim bolj omejeno uporabo pridržkov, da omogočijo najširšo uporabo ukrepov iz 20. člena.
b) Kadar pogodbenica zaradi omejitev veljavne zakonodaje ob sprejetju te konvencije ne more uporabljati ukrepov iz 20. in 21. člena za prenose sporočil v računalniškem sistemu ponudnika storitev, katerega sistem:
i) deluje v korist zaprte skupine uporabnikov in
ii) ne uporablja javnih komunikacijskih omrežij in ni povezan z drugim javnim ali zasebnim računalniškim sistemom,
si ta pogodbenica lahko pridrži pravico, da teh ukrepov ne bo uporabljala za taka sporočila. Pogodbenice pretehtajo možnost omejene uporabe pridržkov, da omogočijo najširšo uporabo ukrepov iz 20. in 21. člena.
15. člen – Pogoji in zaščitne določbe
1) Pogodbenice zagotovijo, da se za vzpostavitev, uveljavitev in uporabo pooblastil in postopkov, predvidenih v tem oddelku, uporabljajo pogoji in zaščitne določbe v skladu z notranjim pravom, kar bo zagotovilo primerno varovanje človekovih pravic in temeljnih svoboščin, vključno s pravicami, ki izhajajo iz Konvencije Sveta Evrope o varstvu človekovih pravic in temeljnih svoboščin iz leta 1950, Mednarodnega pakta Združenih narodov o državljanskih in političnih pravicah iz leta 1966 in drugih mednarodnih dokumentov o varstvu človekovih pravic, ki vključujejo načelo sorazmernosti.
2) Ti pogoji in zaščitne določbe naj glede na vrsto postopka ali pooblastila, kadar je to primerno, med drugim vsebujejo sodni ali drug neodvisen nadzor, razloge, ki utemeljujejo uporabo in omejitev obsega in trajanja takega pooblastila ali postopka.
3) Če je v skladu z javnim interesom, predvsem pa z učinkovitim delovanjem sodstva, naj pogodbenice upoštevajo vpliv pooblastil in postopkov iz tega oddelka na pravice, odgovornosti in legitimne interese tretjih strani.
Naslov 2 – Takojšnje zavarovanje shranjenih računalniških podatkov
16. člen – Takojšnje zavarovanje shranjenih računalniških podatkov
1) Pogodbenice sprejmejo potrebne zakonodajne in druge ukrepe, s katerimi omogočijo pristojnim organom, da odredijo ali drugače dosežejo takojšnje zavarovanje določenih računalniških podatkov, vključno s podatki o prometu, ki so bili shranjeni s pomočjo računalniškega sistema, še zlasti kadar so razlogi za prepričanje, da so ti računalniški podatki še posebej občutljivi za izgubo ali spremembo.
2) Kadar pogodbenice uporabljajo prvi odstavek tega člena tako, da posamezni osebi naložijo, da zavaruje določene shranjene računalniške podatke, ki jih oseba poseduje ali upravlja, pogodbenice sprejmejo potrebne zakonodajne in druge ukrepe, ki osebo zavezujejo, da zagotovi in zavaruje celovitost teh računalniških podatkov za čas, ki je potreben, da pristojni organ doseže njihovo razkritje, vendar ne več kot devetdeset dni. Pogodbenice lahko zagotovijo kasnejšo obnovitev take odredbe.
3) Pogodbenice sprejmejo potrebne zakonodajne in druge ukrepe, s katerimi zavežejo skrbnika ali drugo osebo, ki je odgovorna za zavarovanje računalniških podatkov, da ohrani zaupnost tovrstnih postopkov za obdobje, ki ga določi v svojem notranjem pravu.
4) Pooblastila in postopki iz tega člena se uporabljajo v skladu z določbami iz 14. in 15. člena.
17. člen – Takojšnje zavarovanje in delno razkritje podatkov o prometu
1) Pogodbenica glede na podatke o prometu, ki jih je treba zavarovati v skladu s 16. členom, sprejme potrebne zakonodajne in druge ukrepe, s katerimi:
a) zagotovi takojšnje zavarovanje podatkov o prometu ne glede na število ponudnikov storitev, ki so sodelovali pri prenosu tega sporočila, in
b) zagotovi takojšnje razkritje zadostne količine podatkov o prometu pristojnim organom pogodbenice ali pooblaščenim osebam teh organov, ki bodo pogodbenici omogočili ugotovitev istovetnosti ponudnika storitev in pot, po kateri je bilo sporočilo poslano.
2) Pooblastila in postopki iz tega člena se uporabljajo v skladu z določbami 14. in 15. člena.
Naslov 3 – Odredba za pripravo
18. člen – Odredba za pripravo
1) Pogodbenica sprejme potrebne zakonodajne in druge ukrepe, s katerimi pristojnim organom podeli pravico:
a) zahtevati od osebe na njenem ozemlju, da izroči določene računalniške podatke, ki jih ta oseba poseduje ali upravlja in so shranjeni v računalniškem sistemu ali na sredstvu za shranjevanje računalniških podatkov, in
b) zahtevati od ponudnika storitev na njenem ozemlju, da predloži podatke o naročnikih v zvezi s storitvami, ki jih ta ponudnik storitev poseduje ali upravlja.
2) Pooblastila in postopki iz tega člena se uporabljajo v skladu z določbami iz 14. in 15. člena.
3) V tem členu izraz »podatki o naročniku« pomeni vse podatke v obliki računalniških podatkov ali kateri koli drugi obliki, v kateri jih hrani ponudnik storitev in ki se nanašajo na naročnike njegovih storitev in jih ni mogoče šteti za podatke o prometu ali vsebinske podatke in iz katerih je mogoče ugotoviti:
a) vrsto uporabljene komunikacijske storitve, v ta namen uporabljene tehnične rešitve in trajanje storitve;
b) identiteto naročnika, poštni ali geografski naslov, telefonsko ali drugo številko za dostop, podatke o zaračunavanju in plačevanju, ki so na razpolago na podlagi pogodbe ali sporazuma o opravljanju storitev;
c) vsako drugo informacijo o kraju namestitve komunikacijske opreme, ki je na razpolago na podlagi pogodbe ali sporazuma o opravljanju storitev.
Naslov 4 – Preiskovanje in zaseg shranjenih računalniških podatkov
19. člen – Preiskovanje in zaseg shranjenih računalniških podatkov
1) Pogodbenica sprejme potrebne zakonodajne in druge ukrepe, s katerimi pooblasti pristojne organe, da preiščejo ali podobno pridejo do:
a) računalniškega sistema ali njegovega dela in v njem shranjenih podatkov in
b) sredstev za shranjevanje računalniških podatkov, v katerem so lahko ti podatki shranjeni
na njenem ozemlju.
2) Pogodbenica sprejme potrebne zakonodajne in druge ukrepe, s katerimi zagotovi, kadar njeni pristojni organi preiskujejo ali podobno pridejo do določenega računalniškega sistema ali njegovega dela v skladu s točko a) prvega odstavka, pri čemer so razlogi za prepričanje, da so iskani podatki shranjeni v drugem računalniškem sistemu ali njegovem delu na ozemlju pogodbenice in da so ti podatki zakonito dostopni ali na razpolago prvotnemu računalniškemu sistemu, takojšnjo razširitev preiskave ali druge oblike dostopa do drugega sistema.
3) Pogodbenica sprejme potrebne zakonodajne in druge ukrepe, s katerimi pristojne organe pooblasti, da zasežejo ali podobno zavarujejo računalniške podatke, do katerih so prišli v skladu s prvim in drugim odstavkom. Ti ukrepi vključujejo pooblastilo:
a) zaseči ali podobno zavarovati računalniški sistem ali njegov del ali sredstvo za shranjevanje računalniških podatkov;
b) narediti in ohraniti kopije teh računalniških podatkov;
c) ohraniti celovitost pomembnih računalniških podatkov;
d) onemogočiti dostop ali odstraniti te računalniške podatke iz računalniškega sistema, do katerega je imela omogočen dostop.
4) Pogodbenica sprejme potrebne zakonodajne in druge ukrepe, s katerimi pristojne organe pooblasti, da odredijo vsakomur, ki je seznanjen z načinom delovanja računalniškega sistema ali ukrepi za zavarovanje računalniških podatkov v njem, kadar je primerno, da zagotovi potrebne informacije, ki omogočijo izvajanje ukrepov iz prvega in drugega odstavka.
5) Pooblastila in postopki iz tega člena se uporabljajo v skladu z določbami iz 14. in 15. člena.
Naslov 5 – Zbiranje računalniških podatkov v dejanskem času
20. člen – Zbiranje podatkov o prometu v dejanskem času
1) Pogodbenica sprejme potrebne zakonodajne in druge ukrepe, s katerimi pristojne organe pooblasti, da:
a) na njenem ozemlju s pomočjo tehničnih sredstev zbirajo ali zapisujejo in
b) zahtevajo od ponudnika storitev v okviru njegovih tehničnih zmožnosti:
i) zbiranje ali zapisovanje s pomočjo tehničnih sredstev na ozemlju te pogodbenice ali
ii) sodelovanje in pomoč pristojnim organom pri zbiranju ali zapisovanju podatkov o prometu v dejanskem času, povezanih z določenimi komunikacijami, posredovanimi z računalniškim sistemom na njenem ozemlju.
2) Kadar pogodbenica zaradi uveljavljenih načel domačega pravnega sistema ne more sprejeti ukrepov iz točke a prvega odstavka, lahko namesto slednjih sprejme zakonodajne in druge potrebne ukrepe za zagotovitev zbiranja ali zapisovanja podatkov o prometu v dejanskem času, povezanih z določenimi posredovanimi komunikacijami na njenem ozemlju z uporabo tehničnih sredstev na tem ozemlju.
3) Pogodbenica sprejme potrebne zakonodajne in druge ukrepe, ki ponudnika storitev zavezujejo, da ohrani zaupnost izvajanja katerega izmed pooblastil iz tega člena in vseh z njim povezanih informacij.
4) Pooblastila in postopki iz tega člena se uporabljajo v skladu z določbami iz 14. in 15. člena.
21. člen – Prestrezanje vsebinskih podatkov
1) Pogodbenica sprejme potrebne zakonodajne in druge ukrepe, sorazmerne z obsegom resnih kaznivih dejanj, kot jih bo opredelilo notranje pravo, s katerimi pristojne organe pooblasti, da:
a) s pomočjo uporabe tehničnih sredstev na njenem ozemlju zbirajo ali zapisujejo, in
b) zahtevajo od ponudnika storitev v okviru njegovih tehničnih zmožnosti:
i) zbiranje ali zapisovanje s pomočjo tehničnih sredstev na njenem ozemlju ali
ii) sodelovanje in pomoč pristojnim organom pri zbiranju ali zapisovanju vsebinskih podatkov določenih sporočil v dejanskem času, ki se prenašajo s pomočjo računalniškega sistema na njenem ozemlju.
2) Kadar pogodbenica zaradi uveljavljenih načel domačega pravnega sistema ne more sprejeti ukrepov iz točke a prvega odstavka, lahko namesto slednjih sprejme zakonodajne in druge potrebne ukrepe za zagotovitev zbiranja ali zapisovanja vsebinskih podatkov o določenih komunikacijah v dejanskem času na njenem ozemlju z uporabo tehničnih sredstev na tem ozemlju.
3) Pogodbenica sprejme potrebne zakonodajne in druge ukrepe, ki ponudnika storitev zavezujejo, da ohrani zaupnost izvajanja katerega izmed pooblastil iz tega člena in vseh z njim povezanih informacij.
4) Pooblastila in postopki iz tega člena se uporabljajo v skladu z določbami iz 14. in 15. člena.
Oddelek 3 – Sodna pristojnost
22. člen – Sodna pristojnost
1) Pogodbenica sprejme potrebne zakonodajne in druge ukrepe za vzpostavitev sodne pristojnosti nad kaznivimi dejanji, opredeljenimi v skladu z 2. do 11. členom te konvencije, če je kaznivo dejanje storjeno:
a) na njenem ozemlju ali
b) na ladji, ki pluje pod zastavo te pogodbenice, ali
c) na letalu, ki je registrirano po pravu te pogodbenice, ali
d) če ga stori njen državljan, ki ga je mogoče kaznovati po kazenskem pravu kraja storitve, ali če ga stori zunaj teritorialne sodne pristojnosti katere koli države.
2) Pogodbenica si lahko pridrži pravico, da ne uporabi ali uporabi le v določenih primerih ali pogojih pravila o sodni pristojnosti, opredeljena v točkah b do d prvega odstavka, ali kateri koli njihov del.
3) Pogodbenica sprejme potrebne ukrepe za vzpostavitev sodne pristojnosti nad kaznivimi dejanji, opredeljenimi v prvem odstavku 24. člena te konvencije, v primerih, ko je domnevni storilec navzoč na ozemlju pogodbenice in ga zgolj zaradi njegovega državljanstva ne more izročiti drugi pogodbenici na zahtevo za izročitev.
4) Ta konvencija ne izključuje sodne pristojnosti za kazniva dejanja, ki jo pogodbenica izvaja v skladu z notranjim pravom.
5) Kadar več pogodbenic uveljavlja sodno pristojnost glede domnevnega kaznivega dejanja, opredeljenega v skladu s to konvencijo, se vpletene pogodbenice, kadar je primerno, posvetujejo o določitvi najprimernejše sodne pristojnosti za pregon.
III. poglavje – Mednarodno sodelovanje
Oddelek 1 – Splošna načela
Naslov 1 – Splošna načela, povezana z mednarodnim sodelovanjem
23. člen – Splošna načela, povezana z mednarodnim sodelovanjem
Pogodbenice za namene preiskav ali postopkov v zvezi s kaznivimi dejanji, povezanimi z računalniškimi sistemi in podatki, ali za zbiranje dokazov o kaznivem dejanju v elektronski obliki sodelujejo v skladu z določbami tega poglavja in z izvajanjem ustreznih mednarodnih dokumentov o mednarodnem sodelovanju v kazenskih zadevah, sporazumov, sklenjenih na podlagi poenotene ali vzajemne zakonodaje, in notranjo zakonodajo v najširšem možnem obsegu.
Naslov 2 – Načela za izročitev
24. člen – Izročitev
1) a) Ta člen se med pogodbenicami uporablja za izročitev za kazniva dejanja, opredeljena v skladu z 2. do 11. členom te konvencije, če je za dejanja po pravu obeh vpletenih pogodbenic najvišja predpisana kazen odvzema prostosti najmanj eno leta ali strožja kazen.
b) Kadar je dogovorjena druga najnižja kazen po sporazumu na podlagi poenotene ali vzajemne zakonodaje ali pogodbe o izročitvi, vključno z Evropsko konvencijo o izročitvi (EK št. 24), in se uporablja med dvema ali več pogodbenicami, se upošteva najnižja kazen po takem sporazumu ali pogodbi.
2) Kazniva dejanja, opisana v prvem odstavku tega člena, veljajo za kazniva dejanja, zaradi katerih je možna izročitev po vseh veljavnih pogodbah o izročitvi med pogodbenicami. Pogodbenice vključijo taka kazniva dejanja med kazniva dejanja, zaradi katerih je možna izročitev po vseh pogodbah o izročitvi, ki jih sklenejo med seboj.
3) Če pogodbenica, ki izročitev pogojuje z obstojem pogodbe, prejme zahtevo za izročitev od druge pogodbenice, s katero nima sklenjene pogodbe o izročitvi, lahko to konvencijo šteje kot pravno podlago za izročitev za katero koli kaznivo dejanje iz prvega odstavka tega člena.
4) Pogodbenice, ki izročitve ne pogojujejo z obstojem pogodbe, medsebojno priznavajo kazniva dejanja iz prvega odstavka tega člena kot kazniva dejanja, zaradi katerih je možna izročitev.
5) Izročitev se obravnava pod pogoji, ki jih določa notranje pravo zaprošene pogodbenice, ali veljavnih pogodb o izročitvi, vključno z razlogi, zaradi katerih lahko zaprošena pogodbenica zavrne izročitev.
6) Če je izročitev zaradi kaznivega dejanja iz prvega odstavka tega člena zavrnjena samo zaradi državljanstva iskane osebe ali ker zaprošena pogodbenica meni, da ima sodno pristojnost nad kaznivim dejanjem, na zahtevo pogodbenice prosilke zadevo izroči svojim pristojnim organom v pregon in sporoči pogodbenici prosilki končni izid postopka brez nepotrebnega zavlačevanja. Ti organi sprejemajo odločitve in vodijo preiskave ter postopke enako kot pri drugih primerljivih kaznivih dejanjih po pravu te pogodbenice.
7) a) Pogodbenica ob podpisu ali ko deponira svojo listino o ratifikaciji, sprejetju, odobritvi ali pristopu, sporoči generalnemu sekretarju Sveta Evrope ime in naslov organa, pristojnega za vlaganje ali sprejemanje zahtev za izročitev ali pripor, kadar ni ustrezne pogodbe.
b) Generalni sekretar Sveta Evrope vzpostavi in dopolnjuje seznam pristojnih organov pogodbenic. Vsaka pogodbenica zagotavlja, da so vsi podatki v njem vedno pravilni.
Naslov 3 – Splošna načela, povezana z medsebojno pomočjo
25. člen – Splošna načela, povezana z medsebojno pomočjo
1) Pogodbenice si pri preiskavah ali postopkih v zvezi s kaznivimi dejanji, povezanimi z računalniškimi sistemi in podatki, ali pri zbiranju dokazov o kaznivem dejanju v elektronski obliki medsebojno pomagajo v najširšem možnem obsegu.
2) Pogodbenica sprejme tudi potrebne zakonodajne in druge ukrepe za izvajanje obveznosti iz 27. do 35. člena.
3) Pogodbenica lahko v nujnih okoliščinah zaprosi za medsebojno pomoč ali s tem povezane komunikacije s takojšnjimi načini komuniciranja, vključno s faksimilno obliko ali elektronsko pošto, če taka sredstva zagotavljajo primerno raven varnosti in verodostojnosti (vključno z uporabo enkripcije, kadar je potrebna), ki jim sledi uradna potrditev, kadar jo zahteva zaprošena pogodbenica. Zaprošena pogodbenica sprejme in odgovori na zaprosilo s katerim koli takim takojšnjim načinom komuniciranja.
4) Razen če ni v členih tega poglavja posebej drugače določeno, je medsebojna pomoč vezana na pogoje notranjega prava zaprošene pogodbenice ali veljavne pogodbe o medsebojni pomoči skupaj z razlogi, ki zaprošeni pogodbenici dovoljujejo zavrnitev sodelovanja. Zaprošena pogodbenica ne zavrne medsebojne pomoči v zvezi s kaznivimi dejanji iz 2. do 11. člena samo zato, ker se zaprosilo nanaša na kazniva dejanja, ki se štejejo za davčna kazniva dejanja.
5) Kadar lahko v skladu z določbami tega poglavja zaprošena pogodbenica medsebojno pomoč pogojuje z obstojem dvojne kaznivosti, se ta pogoj šteje za izpolnjen, ne glede na to, ali njena zakonodaja uvršča kaznivo dejanje v isto vrsto kaznivih dejanj, ali ga označuje z enakimi izrazi kot pogodbenica prosilka, če je dejanski stan kaznivega dejanja, za katero se zahteva pomoč, kaznivo dejanje tudi po njenem pravu.
26. člen – Pošiljanje informacij brez zaprosila
1) Pogodbenica lahko v okviru omejitev notranjega prava in brez predhodnega zaprosila pošilja drugi pogodbenici informacije, ki jih je pridobila z lastnimi preiskavami, če meni, da bi razkritje takih informacij utegnilo državi prejemnici pomagati pri uvedbi ali izvajanju preiskav ali postopkov, povezanih s kaznivimi dejanji, opredeljenimi v skladu s to konvencijo, ali če bi utegnilo biti povod za zaprosilo za sodelovanje s to pogodbenico po tem poglavju.
2) Preden zagotovi take informacije, lahko pogodbenica pošiljateljica zahteva njihovo zaupno obravnavo ali njihovo uporabo pod določenimi pogoji. Če pogodbenica prejemnica takim zaprosilom ne more ugoditi, o tem obvesti pogodbenico pošiljateljico, ki se nato odloči, ali bo informacije kljub temu zagotovila. Če pogodbenica prejemnica prejme informacije pod določenimi pogoji, jo ti zavezujejo.
Naslov 4 – Postopki v zvezi z zaprosili za medsebojno pomoč, kadar ni veljavnih mednarodnih pogodb
27. člen – Postopki v zvezi z zaprosili za medsebojno pomoč, kadar ni veljavnih mednarodnih pogodb
1) Kadar ni veljavne pogodbe ali sporazuma o medsebojni pomoči na podlagi poenotene ali vzajemne zakonodaje med pogodbenico prosilko in zaprošeno pogodbenico, se uporabljajo določbe drugega do devetega odstavka tega člena. Določbe tega člena se ne uporabljajo, kadar taka pogodba, sporazum ali zakonodaja obstaja, razen če se pogodbenici ne sporazumeta o uporabi katere koli določbe iz preostalega dela tega člena.
2) a) Pogodbenica imenuje osrednji organ ali več organov, odgovornih za pošiljanje in odgovarjanje na zaprosila za medsebojno pomoč, za reševanje zaprosil ali njihovo pošiljanje organom, pristojnim za njihovo reševanje.
b) Osrednji organi se drug z drugim sporazumevajo neposredno.
c) Pogodbenica ob podpisu ali deponiranju listine o ratifikaciji, sprejetju, soglasju ali pristopu sporoči generalnemu sekretarju Sveta Evrope imena in naslove imenovanih organov iz tega odstavka.
d) Generalni sekretar Sveta Evrope vzpostavi in dopolnjuje uradni seznam imenovanih organov pogodbenic. Vsaka pogodbenica zagotavlja, da so vsi podatki v seznamu vedno pravilni.
3) Zaprosila za medsebojno pomoč iz tega člena se rešujejo v skladu s postopki, ki jih določi pogodbenica prosilka, razen kadar niso združljivi s pravom zaprošene pogodbenice.
4) Zaprošena pogodbenica lahko skupaj z zavrnitvenimi razlogi iz četrtega odstavka 25. člena zavrne pomoč, če:
a) zaprosilo zadeva kaznivo dejanje, ki ga zaprošena pogodbenica šteje za politično kaznivo dejanje ali kaznivo dejanje, povezano s političnim kaznivim dejanjem, ali
b) meni, da bi rešitev zaprosila posegla v njeno suverenost, varnost, javni red ali druge pomembne interese.
5) Zaprošena pogodbenica lahko odloži ukrepe, povezane z zaprosilom, če posegajo v odkrivanje kaznivih dejanj ali kazenske postopke pred njenimi organi.
6) Preden zavrne ali odloži pomoč, zaprošena pogodbenica, kadar je primerno in po posvetu s pogodbenico prosilko presodi, ali je mogoče ugoditi zaprosilu delno ali pod pogoji, za katere meni, da so potrebni.
7) Zaprošena pogodbenica nemudoma obvesti pogodbenico prosilko o reševanju zaprosila za pomoč. Za zavrnitev ali odložitev zaprosila je treba navesti razloge. Zaprošena pogodbenica obvesti pogodbenico prosilko tudi o vseh razlogih, zaradi katerih je reševanje zaprosila nemogoče ali po vsej verjetnosti zelo zamudno.
8) Pogodbenica prosilka lahko zaprosi zaprošeno pogodbenico, da zaupno obravnava zaprosila iz tega poglavja in njihovo vsebino, razen v obsegu, potrebnem za njihovo rešitev. Če zaprošena pogodbenica zahtevi po zaupnosti ne more ugoditi, o tem nemudoma obvesti pogodbenico prosilko, ki se nato odloči, ali naj se zaprosilo kljub temu reši.
9) a) V nujnih primerih lahko pravosodni organi pogodbenice prosilke zaprosila za medsebojno pomoč ali z njimi povezana sporočila pošljejo neposredno pravosodnim organom zaprošene pogodbenice. V vseh teh primerih se izvod zaprosila pošlje istočasno tudi osrednjemu organu zaprošene pogodbenice po osrednjem organu pogodbenice prosilke.
b) Vsako zaprosilo ali sporočilo iz tega odstavka se lahko pošlje po Mednarodni organizaciji kriminalistične policije (Interpolu).
c) Kadar je zaprosilo vloženo po določbah točke a tega člena in organ ni pristojen za obravnavo zaprosila, ga pošlje pristojnemu državnemu organu in o tem neposredno obvesti pogodbenico prosilko.
d) Zaprosila ali sporočila iz tega odstavka, ki ne vključujejo prisilnih ukrepov, lahko pristojni organi pogodbenice prosilke pošljejo neposredno pristojnim organom zaprošene pogodbenice.
e) Pogodbenica lahko ob podpisu ali deponiranju listine o ratifikaciji, sprejetju, soglasju ali pristopu sporoči generalnemu sekretarju Sveta Evrope, da je treba zaprosila iz tega odstavka zaradi učinkovitosti naslavljati na njen osrednji organ.
28. člen – Zaupnost in omejitev uporabe
1) Kadar ni veljavne pogodbe ali sporazuma o medsebojni pomoči na podlagi poenotene ali vzajemne zakonodaje med pogodbenico prosilko in zaprošeno pogodbenico, se uporabljajo določbe tega člena. Določbe tega člena se ne uporabljajo, kadar taka pogodba, sporazum ali zakonodaja obstaja, razen če se pogodbenici ne sporazumeta o uporabi katere koli določbe iz preostalega dela tega člena.
2) Zaprošena pogodbenica lahko zagotavlja informacije ali gradivo v odgovor na zaprosilo s pogojem, da se:
a) obravnavajo zaupno, kadar zaprosilu za medsebojno pravno pomoč ni bilo mogoče ugoditi, če ni bilo takega pogoja, ali
b) ne uporabljajo za druge preiskave ali postopke, razen navedenih v zaprosilu.
3) Če pogodbenica prosilka ne more sprejeti pogoja iz drugega odstavka, o tem nemudoma obvesti drugo pogodbenico, ki se nato odloči, ali bo informacije kljub temu zagotovila. Če pogodbenica prosilka sprejme pogoj, jo ta zavezuje.
4) Pogodbenica, ki zagotovi informacije ali gradivo pod pogojem iz drugega odstavka, lahko od druge pogodbenice zahteva obrazložitev tega pogoja o uporabi takih informacij ali gradiva.
Oddelek 2 – Posebne določbe
Naslov 1 – Medsebojna pomoč pri začasnih ukrepih
29. člen – Takojšnje zavarovanje shranjenih računalniških podatkov
1) Pogodbenica lahko zaprosi drugo pogodbenico, da odredi ali drugače doseže takojšnje zavarovanje podatkov, shranjenih z računalniškim sistemom na njenem ozemlju, in glede katerega namerava pogodbenica prosilka zaprositi za medsebojno pomoč za preiskovanje ali podoben dostop do podatkov, njihov zaseg ali njihovo podobno zavarovanje ali razkritje.
2) Zaprosilo za zavarovanje iz prvega odstavka določa:
a) organ, ki zahteva zavarovanje;
b) kaznivo dejanje, ki je predmet preiskave ali postopkov, in kratek povzetek s tem povezanih dejstev;
c) shranjene računalniške podatke, ki jih je treba zavarovati, in njihovo povezavo s kaznivim dejanjem;
d) vsako dostopno informacijo, ki ugotavlja istovetnost skrbnika shranjenih računalniških podatkov ali določi kraj, kjer je računalniški sistem;
e) nujnost zavarovanja in
f) da namerava pogodbenica vložiti zaprosilo za medsebojno pomoč za preiskovanje ali podoben dostop do podatkov, njihov zaseg ali podobno zavarovanje ali razkritje shranjenih računalniških podatkov.
3) Po prejemu zaprosila druge pogodbenice zaprošena pogodbenica sprejme ustrezne ukrepe za takojšnje zavarovanje navedenih podatkov v skladu s svojim notranjim pravom. Za odgovor na zaprosilo se dvojna kaznivost ne zahteva kot pogoj za zagotovitev takega zavarovanja.
4) Pogodbenica, ki zahteva dvojno kaznivost kot pogoj za odgovor na zaprosilo za medsebojno pomoč za preiskovanje ali podoben dostop do podatkov, njihov zaseg ali podobno zavarovanje ali razkritje shranjenih podatkov, si lahko za kazniva dejanja, ki niso opredeljena v skladu z 2. do 11. členom te konvencije, pridrži pravico, da zavrne zaprosilo za zavarovanje iz tega člena, kadar utemeljeno meni, da ob razkritju pogoj dvojne kaznivosti ne bo izpolnjen.
5) Poleg tega je zaprosilo za zavarovanje mogoče zavrniti samo, kadar:
a) zaprosilo zadeva kaznivo dejanje, ki ga zaprošena pogodbenica šteje za politično kaznivo dejanje, ali kaznivo dejanje, povezano s političnim kaznivim dejanjem, ali
b) meni, da bi rešitev zaprosila po vsej verjetnosti posegla v njeno suverenost, varnost, javni red ali druge pomembne interese.
6) Kadar zaprošena pogodbenica meni, da zavarovanje ne bo zagotovilo dostopnosti podatkov v prihodnje ali bo ogrozilo zaupnost ali drugače poseglo v preiskavo pogodbenice prosilke, o tem nemudoma obvesti pogodbenico prosilko, ki se nato odloči, ali se zaprosilo kljub temu obravnava.
7) Vsako zavarovanje, opravljeno kot odgovor na zaprosilo iz prvega odstavka, se zagotovi za najmanj 60 dni, kar pogodbenici prosilki omogoči vložitev zaprosila za preiskovanje ali podoben dostop do podatkov, njihov zaseg ali podobno zavarovanje ali razkritje podatkov. Po prejemu takega zaprosila se podatki še naprej zavarujejo vse do odločitve o zaprosilu.
30. člen – Takojšnje razkritje zavarovanih podatkov o prometu
1) Kadar pri reševanju zaprosila, vloženega po določbah 29. člena, za zavarovanje podatkov o prometu v zvezi z opredeljenim sporočilom zaprošena pogodbenica ugotovi, da je pri prenosu sporočila sodeloval ponudnik storitev iz druge države, zaprošena pogodbenica nemudoma razkrije pogodbenici prosilki zadostno količino podatkov o prometu, ki omogočijo ugotovitev istovetnosti tega ponudnika storitev in pot, po kateri je bilo sporočilo poslano.
2) Razkritje podatkov o prometu iz prvega odstavka se lahko zadrži samo, kadar:
a) zaprosilo zadeva kaznivo dejanje, ki ga zaprošena pogodbenica šteje za politično kaznivo dejanje, ali kaznivo dejanje, povezano s političnim kaznivim dejanjem, ali
b) meni, da bi rešitev zaprosila po vsej verjetnosti posegla v njeno suverenost, varnost, javni red ali druge pomembne interese.
Naslov 2 – Medsebojna pomoč pri preiskovalnih pooblastilih
31. člen – Medsebojna pomoč pri dostopu do shranjenih računalniških podatkov
1) Pogodbenica lahko zaprosi drugo pogodbenico, da poišče podatke ali podobno pride do njih, jih zaseže ali jih podobno zavaruje in razkrije podatke, shranjene z računalniškim sistemom na ozemlju zaprošene pogodbenice, skupaj s podatki, zavarovanimi po 29. členu.
2) Zaprošena pogodbenica odgovori na zaprosilo s pomočjo mednarodnih dokumentov, sporazumov in zakonov iz 23. člena in v skladu z drugimi ustreznimi določbami iz tega poglavja.
3) Pogodbenica takoj odgovori na zaprosilo, kadar:
a) obstajajo utemeljeni razlogi, da so zadevni podatki še posebej občutljivi za izgubo ali spremembo, ali
b) dokumenti, sporazumi in zakoni iz drugega odstavka na drug način zagotavljajo takojšnje sodelovanje.
32. člen – Čezmejni dostop do shranjenih računalniških podatkov s soglasjem ali kadar so podatki javno dostopni
Pogodbenica lahko brez dovoljenja druge pogodbenice pride do:
a) javno dostopnih (odprta koda) shranjenih računalniških podatkov ne glede na to, kje so ti podatki, ali
b) shranjenih računalniških podatkov ali prejme po računalniškem sistemu na svojem ozemlju shranjene računalniške podatke, ki so v drugi pogodbenici, če prva pogodbenica prejme zakonito in prostovoljno soglasje osebe, ki ima veljavno pooblastilo za razkritje podatkov pogodbenici s pomočjo računalniškega sistema.
33. člen – Medsebojna pomoč pri zbiranju podatkov o prometu v dejanskem času
1) Pogodbenice si medsebojno zagotovijo pomoč pri zbiranju z računalniškim sistemom prenesenih podatkov o prometu v dejanskem času, povezanih z določenimi sporočili na njihovem ozemlju. V skladu z določbami drugega odstavka to pomoč urejajo pogoji in postopki, zagotovljeni z notranjim pravom.
2) Pogodbenica zagotovi pomoč vsaj za kazniva dejanja, za katera bi bilo zbiranje podatkov o prometu v dejanskem času zagotovljeno tudi v podobnem primeru iz notranjega prava.
34. člen – Medsebojna pomoč pri prestrezanju vsebinskih podatkov
Pogodbenice si medsebojno zagotovijo pomoč pri zbiranju ali snemanju z računalniškim sistemom prenesenih vsebinskih podatkov opredeljenih sporočil v dejanskem času v obsegu, ki ga dovoljujejo njihove veljavne pogodbe ali notranji predpisi.
Naslov 3 – Omrežje 24/7
35. člen – Omrežje 24/7
1) Pogodbenica imenuje točko za stike, dosegljivo štiriindvajset ur na dan in sedem dni na teden, za zagotavljanje takojšnje pomoči za preiskave ali postopke v zvezi s kaznivimi dejanji, povezanimi z računalniškimi sistemi in podatki, ali za zbiranje dokazov o kaznivem dejanju v elektronski obliki. Taka pomoč vključuje poenostavitev ali, če to dovoljuje njena notranja zakonodaja in praksa, neposredno izvajanje teh ukrepov:
a) zagotavljanje strokovnega svetovanja;
b) zavarovanje podatkov v skladu z 29. in 30. členom;
c) zbiranje dokazov, zagotavljanje pravnih informacij in ugotavljanje, kje so osumljenci;
2)
a) Točki za stike pogodbenice naj bo zagotovljena možnost za takojšnje komuniciranje s točko za stike druge pogodbenice.
b) Če imenovana točka za stike pogodbenice ni del organa ali organov, ki so v tej pogodbenici pooblaščeni za mednarodno medsebojno pomoč ali izročanje, točka za stike zagotovi, da je zmožna za takojšnje usklajevanje s takim organom ali organi.
3) Pogodbenica za lažje delovanje omrežja zagotovi usposobljeno in ustrezno opremljeno osebje.
IV. poglavje – Končne določbe
36. člen – Podpis in začetek veljavnosti
1) Ta konvencija je na voljo za podpis državam članicam Sveta Evrope in državam nečlanicam, ki so sodelovale pri njeni pripravi.
2) To konvencijo je treba ratificirati, sprejeti ali k njej pristopiti. Listine o ratifikaciji, sprejetju ali pristopu se deponirajo pri generalnem sekretarju Sveta Evrope.
3) Ta konvencija začne veljati prvi dan meseca, ki sledi trem mesecem po datumu, ko pet držav, med njimi najmanj tri države članice Sveta Evrope, izrazijo svoje soglasje o tem, da jih konvencija zavezuje v skladu z določbami prvega in drugega odstavka.
4) Za vsako državo podpisnico, ki soglasje, da jo konvencija zavezuje, izrazi kasneje, začne konvencija veljati prvi dan meseca, ki sledi trem mesecem od datuma, ko je izrazila soglasje o tem, da jo konvencija zavezuje v skladu z določbami prvega in drugega odstavka.
37. člen – Pristop h konvenciji
1) Ko ta konvencija začne veljati, lahko Odbor ministrov Sveta Evrope po posvetovanju in pridobitvi soglasja držav podpisnic konvencije povabi k pristopu k tej konvenciji katero koli državo, ki ni članica Sveta in ni sodelovala pri njeni pripravi. Odločitev o tem se sprejme z večino, določeno v 20. d členu Statuta Sveta Evrope in s soglasjem predstavnikov držav podpisnic s pravico do glasovanja v Odboru ministrov.
2) Za vsako državo, ki pristopa h konvenciji v skladu z določbami prvega odstavka zgoraj, začne konvencija veljati prvi dan meseca, ki sledi trem mesecem od datuma, ko je deponirala svojo listino o pristopu pri generalnem sekretarju Sveta Evrope.
38. člen – Ozemeljska veljavnost
1) Vsaka država lahko ob podpisu ali deponiranju listine o ratifikaciji, sprejetju, odobritvi ali pristopu določi ozemlje ali ozemlja, na katerih se konvencija uporablja.
2) Vsaka država lahko kadar koli pozneje z izjavo, naslovljeno na generalnega sekretarja Sveta Evrope, razširi uporabo te konvencije na katero koli drugo ozemlje, navedeno v izjavi. Za tako ozemlje začne konvencija veljati prvi dan meseca, ki sledi trem mesecem od datuma, ko je generalni sekretar prejel izjavo.
3) Izjave iz prejšnjih odstavkov se lahko za katero koli ozemlje, navedeno v izjavi, umaknejo z uradnim obvestilom, naslovljenim na generalnega sekretarja Sveta Evrope. Umik začne veljati prvi dan meseca, ki sledi trem mesecem od datuma, ko je generalni sekretar prejel uradno obvestilo.
39. člen – Učinki konvencije
1) Namen te konvencije je dopolniti veljavne večstranske ali dvostranske pogodbe ali sporazume med pogodbenicami skupaj z določbami:
– Evropske konvencije o izročitvi, na voljo za podpis v Parizu 13. decembra 1957 (EK št. 24);
– Evropske konvencije o medsebojni pomoči v kazenskih zadevah, na voljo za podpis v Strasbourgu 20. aprila 1959 (EK št. 30);
– Dodatnega protokola Evropske konvencije o medsebojni pomoči v kazenskih zadevah, na voljo za podpis v Strasbourgu 17. marca 1978 (EK št. 99).
2) Če sta dve ali je več pogodbenic že sklenilo sporazum ali pogodbo o zadevah, ki jih obravnava ta konvencija, ali drugače uredilo medsebojna razmerja o teh zadevah ali če bodo to storile v prihodnosti, so tudi upravičene, da ustrezno uporabljajo ta sporazum ali pogodbo ali da ta razmerja ustrezno uredijo. Kadar pa pogodbenice uredijo medsebojna razmerja v zadevah, ki jih obravnava ta konvencija drugače, kot so urejene v njej, to storijo tako, da ni neskladja s cilji in načeli te konvencije.
3) Nobena določba v tej konvenciji ne posega v druge pravice, omejitve, obveznosti in odgovornosti pogodbenic.
40. člen – Izjave
S pisnim obvestilom, naslovljenim na generalnega sekretarja Sveta Evrope, lahko katera koli država ob podpisu ali deponiranju listine o ratifikaciji, sprejetju, odobritvi ali pristopu izjavi, da namerava uveljavljati možnost, da zahteva dodatne elemente, določene v 2. in 3. členu, točki b prvega odstavka 6. člena, 7. členu, tretjem odstavku 9. člena in točki e devetega odstavka 27. člena.
41. člen – Zvezna klavzula
Zvezna država si lahko pridrži pravico do sprejetja obveznosti iz II. poglavja te konvencije v skladu s temeljnimi načeli, ki urejajo razmerje med osrednjo oblastjo in državami ali podobnimi teritorialnimi enotami, ki jo sestavljajo, če lahko še naprej sodeluje v skladu s III. poglavjem.
Ko država uveljavi pridržek iz prvega odstavka, zvezna država ne sme uporabiti pogojev tega pridržka tako, da izključi ali bistveno zmanjša svoje obveznosti za zagotavljanje ukrepov, predvidenih v II. poglavju. Nasploh mora zagotoviti obširno in učinkovito zakonsko prisilo v zvezi s temi ukrepi.
Glede na določbe te konvencije, katerih izvajanje prehaja v sodno pristojnost držav ali drugih podobnih ozemeljskih enot, ki sestavljajo zvezo, in jih ustavni sistem zveze ne zavezuje k sprejetju zakonodajnih ukrepov, zvezna vlada seznani pristojne organe takih držav o svojem pozitivnem mnenju o navedenih določbah in jih spodbuja, da sprejmejo ustrezne ukrepe za njihovo uresničevanje.
42. člen – Pridržki
S pisnim obvestilom, naslovljenim na generalnega sekretarja Sveta Evrope, lahko katera koli država ob podpisu ali deponiranju listine o ratifikaciji, sprejetju, odobritvi ali pristopu izjavi, da namerava uveljavljati pridržke, kot jih določajo drugi odstavek 4. člena, tretji odstavek 6. člena, četrti odstavek 9. člena, tretji odstavek 10. člena, tretji odstavek 11. člena, tretji odstavek 14. člena, drugi odstavek 22. člena, četrti odstavek 29. člena in prvi odstavek 41. člena. Drugi pridržki niso dopustni.
43. člen – Stanje in umik pridržkov
1) Pogodbenica, ki je uveljavila pridržek v skladu z 42. členom, ga lahko v celoti ali delno umakne z uradnim obvestilom, naslovljenim na generalnega sekretarja Sveta Evrope. Umik začne veljati na dan, ko generalni sekretar prejme uradno obvestilo. Če je v njem navedeno, da umik pridržka začne veljati na navedeni datum, ki je poznejši od datuma, ko je generalni sekretar prejel uradno obvestilo, velja umik od tega poznejšega datuma.
2) Pogodbenica, ki je uveljavila pridržek po 42. členu, ga v celoti ali delno umakne, takoj ko ji okoliščine to dovoljujejo.
3) Generalni sekretar Sveta Evrope lahko pri pogodbenicah, ki so uveljavile enega ali več pridržkov po 42. členu, občasno poizveduje o možnostih za umik pridržka ali pridržkov.
44. člen – Spremembe
1) Pogodbenice lahko predlagajo spremembe te konvencije, ki jih generalni sekretar Sveta Evrope sporoči državam članicam Sveta Evrope, državam nečlanicam, ki so sodelovale pri pripravi te konvencije, in vsem državam, ki so k njej pristopile ali so bile povabljene k pristopu v skladu z določbami 37. člena.
2) Vsaka sprememba, ki jo pogodbenica predlaga, se sporoči tudi Evropskemu odboru za kazensko problematiko (CDPC), ki Odboru ministrov predloži svoje mnenje o predlagani spremembi.
3) Odbor ministrov preuči predlagano spremembo in mnenje, ki ga je predložil CDPC, ter lahko po posvetu z državami nečlanicami, ki so pogodbenice te konvencije, sprejme spremembo.
4) Besedilo vsake spremembe, ki jo sprejme Odbor ministrov v skladu s tretjim odstavkom tega člena, se pošlje pogodbenicam v sprejetje.
5) Vsaka sprememba, sprejeta v skladu s tretjim odstavkom tega člena, začne veljati trideseti dan po tem, ko vse pogodbenice obvestijo generalnega sekretarja o sprejetju spremembe.
45. člen – Reševanje sporov
1) Evropski odbor za kazensko problematiko (CDPC) je treba obveščati o razlagi in uporabi te konvencije.
2) Ob sporu med pogodbenicami glede razlage ali uporabe te konvencije se pogodbenice zavzemajo za rešitev spora s pomočjo pogajanj ali katerih koli drugih načinov mirnega reševanja sporov, ki jih same izberejo, vključno s predložitvijo spora v presojo CDPC, arbitražnemu sodišču, katerega odločitve so zavezujoče za pogodbenice, ali Meddržavnemu sodišču v skladu z dogovorom pogodbenic.
46. člen – Posvetovanja pogodbenic
1) Pogodbenice se po potrebi občasno posvetujejo, da bi pospešile:
a) učinkovito uporabo in izvajanje te konvencije, vključno s prepoznavanjem vseh problemov in učinkov vseh izjav ali pridržkov, uveljavljenih po tej konvenciji;
b) izmenjavo informacij o pomembnih vprašanjih pravnega, političnega ali tehnološkega razvoja, ki zadevajo kazniva dejanja v kibernetskem prostoru in zbiranje dokazov v elektronski obliki;
c) premislek o možnih dopolnitvah ali spremembah konvencije.
2) Evropskemu odboru za kazensko problematiko (CDPC) se občasno poroča o izidu posvetovanj iz prvega odstavka.
3) CDPC po potrebi pospeši posvetovanja iz prvega odstavka in sprejme ukrepe, potrebne za pomoč pogodbenicam pri dopolnjevanju ali spreminjanju konvencije. Najpozneje v treh letih od začetka veljavnosti te konvencije Evropski odbor za kazensko problematiko (CDPC) v sodelovanju s pogodbenicami pregleda vse določbe konvencije in po potrebi predlaga ustrezne spremembe.
4) Stroške, povezane z izvajanjem določb prvega odstavka, krijejo pogodbenice na način, ki ga same določijo, razen kadar krije stroške Svet Evrope.
5) Sekretariat Sveta Evrope pomaga pogodbenicam pri izvajanju njihovih nalog iz tega člena.
47. člen – Odpoved
1) Pogodbenica lahko kadar koli odpove to konvencijo z uradnim obvestilom, naslovljenim na generalnega sekretarja Sveta Evrope.
2) Odpoved začne veljati prvi dan meseca po preteku treh mesecev od dneva, ko je generalni sekretar Sveta Evrope prejel uradno obvestilo.
48. člen – Uradno obveščanje
Generalni sekretar Sveta Evrope uradno obvesti države članice Sveta Evrope, države nečlanice, ki so sodelovale pri pripravi te konvencije, in države, ki so k njej pristopile ali so bile povabljene k pristopu, o:
a) vseh podpisih;
b) deponiranju listin o ratifikaciji, sprejetju, odobritvi ali pristopu;
c) vseh datumih začetka veljavnosti te konvencije v skladu s 36. in 37. členom;
d) vseh izjavah po 40. členu ali pridržkih po 42. členu;
e) vseh drugih dejanjih, uradnih obvestilih ali sporočilih v zvezi s to konvencijo.
 
Da bi to potrdili, so spodaj navedeni, ki so bili za to pravilno pooblaščeni, podpisali to konvencijo.
 
Sestavljeno v Budimpešti 23. novembra 2001 v angleškem in francoskem jeziku, pri čemer sta besedili enako verodostojni, v enem izvodu, ki se shrani v arhivih Sveta Evrope. Generalni sekretar Sveta Evrope pošlje overjene izvode vsem državam članicam Sveta Evrope, državam nečlanicam, ki so sodelovale pri pripravi te konvencije, in vsem državam, povabljenim k pristopu h konvenciji.
D O D A T N I P R O T O K O L
H KONVENCIJI O KIBERNETSKI KRIMINALITETI, KI OBRAVNAVA INKRIMINACIJO RASISTIČNIH IN KSENOFOBIČNIH DEJANJ, STORJENIH V RAČUNALNIŠKIH SISTEMIH
Države članice Sveta Evrope in druge države podpisnice Konvencije o kibernetski kriminaliteti, ki je bila dana na voljo za podpis 23. novembra 2001 v Budimpešti, podpisnice tega protokola, so:
glede na to, da je cilj Sveta Evrope doseči večjo enotnost med članicami;
priznavajoč, da so vsi ljudje rojeni svobodni in enaki v svojem dostojanstvu in pravicah;
poudarjajoč potrebo zagotoviti popolno in učinkovito uveljavitev vseh človekovih pravic brez diskriminacije ali razlikovanja, kot določajo evropski in drugi mednarodni dokumenti;
v prepričanju, da dejanja, povezana z rasizmom in ksenofobijo, pomenijo kršitev človekovih pravic in grožnjo vladavini prava in demokratični stabilnosti;
upoštevajoč, da mora notranje in mednarodno pravo zagotoviti ustrezne pravne odgovore na propagando z rasistično in ksenofobično vsebino v računalniških sistemih;
zavedajoč se dejstva, da je propaganda takih dejanj pogosto inkriminirana v notranjem pravu;
upoštevajoč Konvencijo o kibernetski kriminaliteti, ki zagotavlja sodobne in prilagodljive ukrepe za mednarodno sodelovanje, in v prepričanju, da je treba uskladiti določbe materialnega prava o boju proti propagandi z rasistično in ksenofobično vsebino;
zavedajoč se, da ponujajo računalniški sistemi vedno nove možnosti za omogočanje svobode izražanja in sporočanja po vsem svetu;
priznavajoč, da je svoboda izražanja eden od ključnih temeljev demokratične družbe in temeljnih pogojev za njen napredek in razvoj vsakega posameznika;
zaskrbljene zaradi tveganja zlonamerne uporabe ali zlorabe računalniških sistemov za razširjanje rasistične ali ksenofobične propagande;
zavedajoč se potrebe po zagotovitvi ustreznega ravnovesja med svobodo izražanja in učinkovitim bojem proti rasističnim ali ksenofobičnim dejanjem;
priznavajoč, da ta protokol nima namena vplivati na uveljavljena načela v zvezi s svobodo izražanja v državnih pravnih sistemih;
upoštevajoč ustrezne mednarodnopravne dokumente na tem področju in še posebej Evropsko konvencijo o varstvu človekovih pravic in temeljnih svoboščin in njen protokol št. 12 o splošni prepovedi diskriminacije, ustreznih konvencij Sveta Evrope o sodelovanju na kazenskem področju in še posebej Konvencijo o kibernetski kriminaliteti, Mednarodno konvencijo Združenih narodov o odpravi vseh oblik rasne diskriminacije z dne 21. decembra 1965 in Skupni ukrep Evropske unije z dne 15. julija 1996, ki ga je sprejel Svet na podlagi člena K.3 Pogodbe o Evropski uniji o ukrepih v boju proti rasizmu in ksenofobiji;
pozdravljajoč najnovejši razvoj, ki nadalje poglablja mednarodno razumevanje in sodelovanje v boju proti kibernetski kriminaliteti ter rasizmu in ksenofobiji;
glede na Akcijski načrt, ki so ga sprejeli voditelji držav in vlad članic Sveta Evrope na svojem drugem srečanju na vrhu (Strasbourg, 10. in 11. oktober 1997) in v katerem se zavzemajo za oblikovanje skupnih rešitev glede razvoja novih informacijskih tehnologij, ki naj temeljijo na normah in vrednotah Sveta Evrope,
sklenile:
I. poglavje – Splošne določbe
1. člen – Namen
Namen tega protokola je, da podpisnice protokola dopolnijo določbe Konvencije o kibernetski kriminaliteti, ki je bila dana na voljo za podpis 23. novembra 2001 v Budimpešti (v nadaljevanju »konvencija«), z inkriminacijo rasističnih in ksenofobičnih dejanj, storjenih v računalniških sistemih.
2. člen – Pomen izrazov
1) V tem protokolu pomeni:
»rasistično in ksenofobično gradivo« vsako pisno gradivo, vsako upodobitev ali drugo izražanje mnenj ali teorij, ki zagovarja, podpira ali spodbuja sovraštvo, diskriminacijo ali nasilje proti kateremu koli posamezniku ali skupini posameznikov zaradi njihove rase, barve, porekla ali narodnostnega ali etničnega izvora ali pa veroizpovedi, če se ta uporablja kot pretveza za katero od naštetih okoliščin ali ki spodbuja k takim dejanjem.
2) Pojmi in izrazi v tem protokolu se razlagajo tako, kot so razloženi v konvenciji.
II. poglavje – Ukrepi, ki jih je treba sprejeti na državni ravni
3. člen – Razširjanje rasističnega in ksenofobičnega gradiva v računalniških sistemih
1) Pogodbenice sprejmejo potrebne zakonodajne in druge ukrepe v svojem notranjem pravu, ki kot kazniva opredeljujejo dejanja naklepnega in neupravičenega razširjanja ali drugačnega zagotavljanja rasističnega in ksenofobičnega gradiva javnosti v računalniškem sistemu.
2) Pogodbenica si lahko pridrži pravico, da ne določi kazenske odgovornosti za dejanja iz prvega odstavka tega člena, kadar gradivo iz prvega odstavka 2. člena zagovarja, podpira ali spodbuja diskriminacijo, ki ni povezana s sovraštvom ali nasiljem, če obstajajo druga učinkovita pravna sredstva.
3) Ne glede na določbe drugega odstavka tega člena si lahko pogodbenica pridrži pravico, da ne uporabi prvega odstavka v tistih primerih diskriminacije, kadar zaradi uveljavljenih načel svobode izražanja v državnem pravnem sistemu ne more zagotoviti učinkovitih pravnih sredstev po drugem odstavku.
4. člen – Rasistična in ksenofobična grožnja
Pogodbenice sprejmejo potrebne zakonodajne in druge ukrepe v svojem notranjem pravu, ki kot kaznivo dejanje opredelijo naklepno in neupravičeno grožnjo v računalniškem sistemu s storitvijo hujšega kaznivega dejanja po notranjem pravu (i) osebam zaradi njihove pripadnosti skupini, ki se razlikuje po rasi, barvi, poreklu ali narodnostnem ali etničnem izvoru ali pa po veroizpovedi, če se ta uporablja kot pretveza za katero od naštetih okoliščin, ali (ii) skupini oseb, ki se razlikuje po kateri od teh okoliščin.
5. člen – Rasistična in ksenofobična žalitev
1) Pogodbenice sprejmejo potrebne zakonodajne in druge ukrepe v svojem notranjem pravu, ki kot kaznivo dejanje opredelijo naklepno in neupravičeno javno žalitev v računalniškem sistemu (i) oseb zaradi njihove pripadnosti skupini, ki se razlikuje po rasi, barvi, poreklu ali narodnostnem ali etničnem izvoru ali pa po veroizpovedi, če se ta uporablja kot pretveza za katero od naštetih okoliščin, ali (ii) skupini oseb, ki se razlikuje po kateri od teh okoliščin.
2) Pogodbenica:
a) lahko zahteva, da ima kaznivo dejanje iz prvega odstavka tega člena učinek, da je posameznik ali skupina oseb izpostavljena sovraštvu zaničevanju ali posmehu ali
b) si lahko pridrži pravico, da delno ali v celoti ne uporabi prvega odstavka tega člena.
6. člen – Zanikanje, hujše zmanjševanje pomena, odobravanje ali zagovarjanje genocida ali hudodelstev zoper človečnost
1) Pogodbenice sprejmejo take potrebne zakonodajne in druge ukrepe v svojem notranjem pravu, ki kot kaznivo dejanje opredelijo naklepno in neupravičeno razširjanje ali drugačno zagotavljanje gradiva javnosti v računalniškem sistemu, ki zanika, huje zmanjšuje pomen, odobrava ali zagovarja dejanja genocida ali hudodelstev zoper človečnost, kot jih določa mednarodno pravo in kot taka priznavajo pravnomočne in obvezujoče odločitve Mednarodnega vojaškega sodišča, ustanovljenega z Londonskim sporazumom 8. avgusta 1945, ali vsakega drugega mednarodnega sodišča, ustanovljenega z ustreznimi mednarodnimi dokumenti, katerega pristojnost priznava pogodbenica.
2) Pogodbenica:
a) lahko zahteva, da je zanikanje ali hujše zmanjševanje pomena iz prvega odstavka tega člena storjeno z namenom spodbujanja sovraštva, diskriminacije ali nasilja proti posamezniku ali skupini oseb zaradi njihove pripadnosti skupini, ki se razlikuje po rasi, barvi, poreklu ali narodnostnem ali etničnem izvoru ali pa po veroizpovedi, če se ta uporablja kot pretveza za katero od naštetih okoliščin, ali si v nasprotnem primeru
b) lahko pridrži pravico, da delno ali v celoti ne uporabi prvega odstavka tega člena.
7. člen – Pomoč in napeljevanje
Pogodbenice sprejmejo potrebne zakonodajne in druge ukrepe v svojem notranjem pravu, ki kaznivo dejanje opredelijo naklepno in neupravičeno pomoč ali napeljevanje k storitvi kaznivega dejanja iz tega protokola z namenom storitve tega dejanja.
III. poglavje – Razmerja med konvencijo in tem protokolom
8. člen – Razmerja med konvencijo in tem protokolom
1) 1., 12., 13., 22., 41., 44., 45. in 46. člen konvencije se smiselno uporabljajo v tem protokolu.
2) Pogodbenice razširijo obseg uporabe ukrepov, opredeljenih v 14. do 21. in 23. do 35. členu konvencije, na 2. do 7. člen tega protokola.
IV. poglavje – Končne določbe
9. člen – Izjava o soglasju
1) Ta protokol je na voljo za podpis državam podpisnicam konvencije, ki lahko izrazijo svoje soglasje, da jih ta protokol zavezuje s:
a) podpisom brez pridržka ratifikacije, sprejetja ali odobritve;
b) podpisom, ki ga je treba ratificirati, sprejeti ali odobriti nato sledi ratifikacija, sprejetje ali odobritev.
2) Država ne more podpisati tega protokola brez pridržka ratifikacije, sprejetja ali odobritve ali deponirati listine o ratifikaciji, sprejetju ali odobritvi, če ni predhodno ali istočasno vložila listine o ratifikaciji, sprejetju ali odobritvi konvencije.
3) Listine o ratifikaciji, sprejetju ali odobritvi se deponirajo pri generalnem sekretarju Sveta Evrope.
10. člen – Začetek veljavnosti
1) Ta protokol začne veljati prvi dan meseca po poteku treh mesecev od datuma, ko je pet držav izrazilo svoje soglasje, da jih ta protokol zavezuje, v skladu z določbami 9. člena.
2) Za vsako državo, ki da soglasje, da jo protokol zavezuje, izrazi kasneje, začne protokol veljati prvi dan meseca po poteku treh mesecev od datuma podpisa brez pridržka ratifikacije, sprejetja ali odobritve ali deponiranja listine o ratifikaciji, sprejetju ali odobritvi.
11. člen – Pristop
1) Po začetku veljavnosti tega protokola lahko vsaka država, ki je pristopila h konvenciji, pristopi tudi k protokolu.
2) Pristopi se z deponiranjem pristopne listine pri generalnem sekretarju Sveta Evrope, ki začne veljati prvi dan meseca po poteku treh mesecev od datuma deponiranja.
12. člen – Pridržki in izjave
1) Pridržki in izjave, ki jih da država k določbi konvencije, se uporabijo tudi za ta protokol, razen če država ob podpisu ali deponiranju listine o ratifikaciji, sprejetju ali odobritvi ne izjavi drugače.
2) S pisnim obvestilom, naslovljenim na generalnega sekretarja Sveta Evrope, lahko katera koli pogodbenica ob podpisu ali deponiranju listine o ratifikaciji, sprejetju, odobritvi ali pristopu izjavi, da namerava uveljavljati pridržek ali pridržke, določene v 3., 5. in 6. členu tega protokola. Istočasno lahko pogodbenica v zvezi z določbami tega protokola izjavi, da namerava uveljavljati pridržek ali pridržke, določene v drugem odstavku 22. in prvem odstavku 41. člena konvencije, ne glede to, ali pogodbenica že izvaja konvencijo. Drugi pridržki niso dopustni.
3) S pisnim obvestilom, naslovljenim na generalnega sekretarja Sveta Evrope, lahko katera koli pogodbenica ob podpisu ali deponiranju listine o ratifikaciji, sprejetju, odobritvi ali pristopu izjavi, da namerava uveljavljati možnost zahtevati dodatne pogoje, kot jih določata točka a drugega odstavka 5. člena in točka a drugega odstavka 6. člena tega protokola.
13. člen – Stanje in umik pridržkov
1) Pogodbenica, ki je uveljavila pridržek v skladu z 12. členom, ga lahko v celoti ali delno umakne, takoj ko ji okoliščine to dopuščajo. Umik začne veljati tisti dan, ko generalni sekretar Sveta Evrope prejme uradno obvestilo. Če je v uradnem obvestilu navedeno, da umik pridržka začne veljati na navedeni datum, ki je poznejši od datuma, ko je generalni sekretar prejel uradno obvestilo, velja umik od tega poznejšega datuma.
2) Generalni sekretar Sveta Evrope lahko pri pogodbenicah, ki so uveljavile enega ali več pridržkov po 12. členu, občasno poizveduje o možnostih za umik pridržka ali pridržkov.
14. člen – Ozemeljska veljavnost
1) Vsaka država lahko ob podpisu ali deponiranju listine o ratifikaciji, sprejetju, odobritvi ali pristopu določi ozemlje ali ozemlja, na katerih se ta protokol uporablja.
2) Vsaka država lahko kadar koli pozneje z izjavo, naslovljeno na generalnega sekretarja Sveta Evrope, razširi veljavnost tega protokola na katero koli drugo ozemlje, navedeno v izjavi. Za tako ozemlje začne protokol veljati prvi dan meseca po poteku treh mesecev od datuma, ko je generalni sekretar prejel izjavo.
3) Izjave iz prejšnjih odstavkov se lahko za katero koli ozemlje, navedeno v izjavi, umaknejo z uradnim obvestilom, naslovljenim na generalnega sekretarja Sveta Evrope. Umik začne veljati prvi dan meseca po poteku treh mesecev od datuma, ko je generalni sekretar prejel uradno obvestilo.
15. člen – Odpoved
1) Pogodbenica lahko kadar koli odpove ta protokol z uradnim obvestilom, naslovljenim na generalnega sekretarja Sveta Evrope.
2) Odpoved začne veljati prvi dan meseca po poteku treh mesecev od datuma, ko je generalni sekretar Sveta Evrope prejel uradno obvestilo.
16. člen – Uradno obveščanje
Generalni sekretar Sveta Evrope uradno obvesti države članice Sveta Evrope, države nečlanice, ki so sodelovale pri pripravi tega protokola, in države, ki so k njemu pristopile ali so bile povabljene k pristopu, o:
a) vseh podpisih;
b) deponiranju listin o ratifikaciji, sprejetju, odobritvi ali pristopu;
c) vseh datumih začetka veljavnosti tega protokola v skladu z 9., 10. in 11. členom;
d) vseh drugih dejanjih, uradnih obvestilih ali sporočilih v zvezi s tem protokolom.
 
Da bi to potrdili, so spodaj navedeni, ki so bili za to pravilno pooblaščeni, podpisali ta protokol.
 
Sestavljeno v Strasbourgu, 28. januarja 2003 v angleškem in francoskem jeziku, pri čemer sta besedili enako verodostojni, v enem izvodu, ki se shrani v arhivih Sveta Evrope. Generalni sekretar Sveta Evrope pošlje overjene izvode vsem državam članicam Sveta Evrope, državam nečlanicam, ki so sodelovale pri pripravi tega protokola, in vsem državam, povabljenim k pristopu k protokolu.
3. člen
Za izvajanje konvencije in dodatnega protokola skrbi Ministrstvo za informacijsko družbo.
4. člen
Ta zakon začne veljati petnajsti dan po objavi v Uradnem listu Republike Slovenije – Mednarodne pogodbe.
Št. 043-03/04-4/1
Ljubljana, dne 20. maja 2004
EPA 1252-III
Predsednik
Državnega zbora
Republike Slovenije
Borut Pahor l. r.