Uradni list

Številka 41
Uradni list RS, št. 41/2004 z dne 22. 4. 2004
Uradni list

Uradni list RS, št. 41/2004 z dne 22. 4. 2004

Kazalo

42. Zakon o ratifikaciji Konvencije Združenih narodov proti mednarodnemu organiziranemu kriminalu (MZNMOK), stran 3873.

Na podlagi druge alinee prvega odstavka 107. člena in prvega odstavka 91. člena Ustave Republike Slovenije izdajam
U K A Z
O RAZGLASITVI ZAKONA O RATIFIKACIJI KONVENCIJE ZDRUŽENIH NARODOV PROTI MEDNARODNEMU ORGANIZIRANEMU KRIMINALU (MZNMOK)
Razglašam Zakon o ratifikaciji Konvencije Združenih narodov proti mednarodnemu organiziranemu kriminalu (MZNMOK), ki ga je sprejel Državni zbor Republike Slovenije na seji 9. aprila 2004.
Št. 001-22-67/04
Ljubljana, dne 19. aprila 2004
Predsednik
Republike Slovenije
dr. Janez Drnovšek l. r.
Z A K O N
O RATIFIKACIJI KONVENCIJE ZDRUŽENIH NARODOV PROTI MEDNARODNEMU ORGANIZIRANEMU KRIMINALU (MZNMOK)
1. člen
Ratificira se Konvencija Združenih narodov proti mednarodnemu organiziranemu kriminalu, podpisana v Palermu dne 12. decembra 2000.
2. člen
Besedilo konvencije se v izvirniku v angleškem jeziku ter prevodu v slovenskem jeziku glasi:
UNITED NATIONS CONVENTION
AGAINST TRANSNATIONAL ORGANIZED CRIME
Article 1
Statement of purpose
The purpose of this Convention is to promote cooperation to prevent and combat transnational organized crime more effectively.
Article 2
Use of terms
For the purposes of this Convention:
(a) “Organized criminal group” shall mean a structured group of three or more persons, existing for a period of time and acting in concert with the aim of committing one or more serious crimes or offences established in accordance with this Convention, in order to obtain, directly or indirectly, a financial or other material benefit;
(b) “Serious crime” shall mean conduct constituting an offence punishable by a maximum deprivation of liberty of at least four years or a more serious penalty;
(c) “Structured group” shall mean a group that is not randomly formed for the immediate commission of an offence and that does not need to have formally defined roles for its members, continuity of its membership or a developed structure;
(d) “Property” shall mean assets of every kind, whether corporeal or incorporeal, movable or immovable, tangible or intangible, and legal documents or instruments evidencing title to, or interest in, such assets;
(e) “Proceeds of crime” shall mean any property derived from or obtained, directly or indirectly, through the commission of an offence;
(f) “Freezing” or “seizure” shall mean temporarily prohibiting the transfer, conversion, disposition or movement of property or temporarily assuming custody or control of property on the basis of an order issued by a court or other competent authority;
(g) “Confiscation”, which includes forfeiture where applicable, shall mean the permanent deprivation of property by order of a court or other competent authority;
(h) “Predicate offence” shall mean any offence as a result of which proceeds have been generated that may become the subject of an offence as defined in article 6 of this Convention;
(i) “Controlled delivery” shall mean the technique of allowing illicit or suspect consignments to pass out of, through or into the territory of one or more States, with the knowledge and under the supervision of their competent authorities, with a view to the investigation of an offence and the identification of persons involved in the commission of the offence;
(j) “Regional economic integration organization” shall mean an organization constituted by sovereign States of a given region, to which its member States have transferred competence in respect of matters governed by this Convention and which has been duly authorized, in accordance with its internal procedures, to sign, ratify, accept, approve or accede to it; references to “States Parties” under this Convention shall apply to such organizations within the limits of their competence.
Article 3
Scope of application
1. This Convention shall apply, except as otherwise stated herein, to the prevention, investigation and prosecution of:
(a) The offences established in accordance with articles 5, 6, 8 and 23 of this Convention; and
(b) Serious crime as defined in article 2 of this Convention; where the offence is transnational in nature and involves an organized criminal group.
2. For the purpose of paragraph 1 of this article, an offence is transnational in nature if:
(a) It is committed in more than one State;
(b) It is committed in one State but a substantial part of its preparation, planning, direction or control takes place in another State;
(c) It is committed in one State but involves an organized criminal group that engages in criminal activities in more than one State; or
(d) It is committed in one State but has substantial effects in another State.
Article 4
Protection of sovereignty
1. States Parties shall carry out their obligations under this Convention in a manner consistent with the principles of sovereign equality and territorial integrity of States and that of non-intervention in the domestic affairs of other States.
2. Nothing in this Convention entitles a State Party to undertake in the territory of another State the exercise of jurisdiction and performance of functions that are reserved exclusively for the authorities of that other State by its domestic law.
Article 5
Criminalization of participation in an organized criminal group
1. Each State Party shall adopt such legislative and other measures as may be necessary to establish as criminal offences, when committed intentionally:
(a) Either or both of the following as criminal offences distinct from those involving the attempt or completion of the criminal activity:
(i) Agreeing with one or more other persons to commit a serious crime for a purpose relating directly or indirectly to the obtaining of a financial or other material benefit and, where required by domestic law, involving an act undertaken by one of the participants in furtherance of the agreement or involving an organized criminal group;
(ii) Conduct by a person who, with knowledge of either the aim and general criminal activity of an organized criminal group or its intention to commit the crimes in question, takes an active part in:
a. Criminal activities of the organized criminal group;
b. Other activities of the organized criminal group in the knowledge that his or her participation will contribute to the achievement of the above-described criminal aim;
(b) Organizing, directing, aiding, abetting, facilitating or counselling the commission of serious crime involving an organized criminal group.
2. The knowledge, intent, aim, purpose or agreement referred to in paragraph 1 of this article may be inferred from objective factual circumstances.
3. States Parties whose domestic law requires involvement of an organized criminal group for purposes of the offences established in accordance with paragraph 1 (a) (i) of this article shall ensure that their domestic law covers all serious crimes involving organized criminal groups. Such States Parties, as well as States Parties whose domestic law requires an act in furtherance of the agreement for purposes of the offences established in accordance with paragraph 1 (a) (i) of this article, shall so inform the Secretary-General of the United Nations at the time of their signature or of deposit of their instrument of ratification, acceptance or approval of or accession to this Convention.
Article 6
Criminalization of the laundering of proceeds of crime
1. Each State Party shall adopt, in accordance with fundamental principles of its domestic law, such legislative and other measures as may be necessary to establish as criminal offences, when committed intentionally:
(a) (i) The conversion or transfer of property, knowing that such property is the proceeds of crime, for the purpose of concealing or disguising the illicit origin of the property or of helping any person who is involved in the commission of the predicate offence to evade the legal consequences of his or her action;
(ii) The concealment or disguise of the true nature, source, location, disposition, movement or ownership of or rights with respect to property, knowing that such property is the proceeds of crime;
(b) Subject to the basic concepts of its legal system:
(i) The acquisition, possession or use of property, knowing, at the time of receipt, that such property is the proceeds of crime;
(ii) Participation in, association with or conspiracy to commit, attempts to commit and aiding, abetting, facilitating and counselling the commission of any of the offences established in accordance with this article.
2. For purposes of implementing or applying paragraph 1 of this article:
(a) Each State Party shall seek to apply paragraph 1 of this article to the widest range of predicate offences;
(b) Each State Party shall include as predicate offences all serious crime as defined in article 2 of this Convention and the offences established in accordance with articles 5, 8 and 23 of this Convention. In the case of States Parties whose legislation sets out a list of specific predicate offences, they shall, at a minimum, include in such list a comprehensive range of offences associated with organized criminal groups;
(c) For the purposes of subparagraph (b), predicate offences shall include offences committed both within and outside the jurisdiction of the State Party in question. However, offences committed outside the jurisdiction of a State Party shall constitute predicate offences only when the relevant conduct is a criminal offence under the domestic law of the State where it is committed and would be a criminal offence under the domestic law of the State Party implementing or applying this article had it been committed there;
(d) Each State Party shall furnish copies of its laws that give effect to this article and of any subsequent changes to such laws or a description thereof to the Secretary-General of the United Nations;
(e) If required by fundamental principles of the domestic law of a State Party, it may be provided that the offences set forth in paragraph 1 of this article do not apply to the persons who committed the predicate offence;
(f) Knowledge, intent or purpose required as an element of an offence set forth in paragraph 1 of this article may be inferred from objective factual circumstances.
Article 7
Measures to combat money-laundering
1. Each State Party:
(a) Shall institute a comprehensive domestic regulatory and supervisory regime for banks and non-bank financial institutions and, where appropriate, other bodies particularly susceptible to money-laundering, within its competence, in order to deter and detect all forms of money-laundering, which regime shall emphasize requirements for customer identification, record-keeping and the reporting of suspicious transactions;
(b) Shall, without prejudice to articles 18 and 27 of this Convention, ensure that administrative, regulatory, law enforcement and other authorities dedicated to combating money-laundering (including, where appropriate under domestic law, judicial authorities) have the ability to cooperate and exchange information at the national and international levels within the conditions prescribed by its domestic law and, to that end, shall consider the establishment of a financial intelligence unit to serve as a national centre for the collection, analysis and dissemination of information regarding potential money-laundering.
2. States Parties shall consider implementing feasible measures to detect and monitor the movement of cash and appropriate negotiable instruments across their borders, subject to safeguards to ensure proper use of information and without impeding in any way the movement of legitimate capital. Such measures may include a requirement that individuals and businesses report the cross-border transfer of substantial quantities of cash and appropriate negotiable instruments.
3. In establishing a domestic regulatory and supervisory regime under the terms of this article, and without prejudice to any other article of this Convention, States Parties are called upon to use as a guideline the relevant initiatives of regional, interregional and multilateral organizations against money-laundering.
4. States Parties shall endeavour to develop and promote global, regional, subregional and bilateral cooperation among judicial, law enforcement and financial regulatory authorities in order to combat money-laundering.
Article 8
Criminalization of corruption
1. Each State Party shall adopt such legislative and other measures as may be necessary to establish as criminal offences, when committed intentionally:
(a) The promise, offering or giving to a public official, directly or indirectly, of an undue advantage, for the official himself or herself or another person or entity, in order that the official act or refrain from acting in the exercise of his or her official duties;
(b) The solicitation or acceptance by a public official, directly or indirectly, of an undue advantage, for the official himself or herself or another person or entity, in order that the official act or refrain from acting in the exercise of his or her official duties.
2. Each State Party shall consider adopting such legislative and other measures as may be necessary to establish as criminal offences conduct referred to in paragraph 1 of this article involving a foreign public official or international civil servant. Likewise, each State Party shall consider establishing as criminal offences other forms of corruption.
3. Each State Party shall also adopt such measures as may be necessary to establish as a criminal offence participation as an accomplice in an offence established in accordance with this article.
4. For the purposes of paragraph 1 of this article and article 9 of this Convention, “public official” shall mean a public official or a person who provides a public service as defined in the domestic law and as applied in the criminal law of the State Party in which the person in question performs that function.
Article 9
Measures against corruption
1. In addition to the measures set forth in article 8 of this Convention, each State Party shall, to the extent appropriate and consistent with its legal system, adopt legislative, administrative or other effective measures to promote integrity and to prevent, detect and punish the corruption of public officials.
2. Each State Party shall take measures to ensure effective action by its authorities in the prevention, detection and punishment of the corruption of public officials, including providing such authorities with adequate independence to deter the exertion of inappropriate influence on their actions.
Article 10
Liability of legal persons
1. Each State Party shall adopt such measures as may be necessary, consistent with its legal principles, to establish the liability of legal persons for participation in serious crimes involving an organized criminal group and for the offences established in accordance with articles 5, 6, 8 and 23 of this Convention.
2. Subject to the legal principles of the State Party, the liability of legal persons may be criminal, civil or administrative.
3. Such liability shall be without prejudice to the criminal liability of the natural persons who have committed the offences.
4. Each State Party shall, in particular, ensure that legal persons held liable in accordance with this article are subject to effective, proportionate and dissuasive criminal or non-criminal sanctions, including monetary sanctions.
Article 11
Prosecution, adjudication and sanctions
1. Each State Party shall make the commission of an offence established in accordance with articles 5, 6, 8 and 23 of this Convention liable to sanctions that take into account the gravity of that offence.
2. Each State Party shall endeavour to ensure that any discretionary legal powers under its domestic law relating to the prosecution of persons for offences covered by this Convention are exercised to maximize the effectiveness of law enforcement measures in respect of those offences and with due regard to the need to deter the commission of such offences.
3. In the case of offences established in accordance with articles 5, 6, 8 and 23 of this Convention, each State Party shall take appropriate measures, in accordance with its domestic law and with due regard to the rights of the defence, to seek to ensure that conditions imposed in connection with decisions on release pending trial or appeal take into consideration the need to ensure the presence of the defendant at subsequent criminal proceedings.
4. Each State Party shall ensure that its courts or other competent authorities bear in mind the grave nature of the offences covered by this Convention when considering the eventuality of early release or parole of persons convicted of such offences.
5. Each State Party shall, where appropriate, establish under its domestic law a long statute of limitations period in which to commence proceedings for any offence covered by this Convention and a longer period where the alleged offender has evaded the administration of justice.
6. Nothing contained in this Convention shall affect the principle that the description of the offences established in accordance with this Convention and of the applicable legal defences or other legal principles controlling the lawfulness of conduct is reserved to the domestic law of a State Party and that such offences shall be prosecuted and punished in accordance with that law.
Article 12
Confiscation and seizure
1. States Parties shall adopt, to the greatest extent possible within their domestic legal systems, such measures as may be necessary to enable confiscation of:
(a) Proceeds of crime derived from offences covered by this Convention or property the value of which corresponds to that of such proceeds;
(b) Property, equipment or other instrumentalities used in or destined for use in offences covered by this Convention.
2. States Parties shall adopt such measures as may be necessary to enable the identification, tracing, freezing or seizure of any item referred to in paragraph 1 of this article for the purpose of eventual confiscation.
3. If proceeds of crime have been transformed or converted, in part or in full, into other property, such property shall be liable to the measures referred to in this article instead of the proceeds.
4. If proceeds of crime have been intermingled with property acquired from legitimate sources, such property shall, without prejudice to any powers relating to freezing or seizure, be liable to confiscation up to the assessed value of the intermingled proceeds.
5. Income or other benefits derived from proceeds of crime, from property into which proceeds of crime have been transformed or converted or from property with which proceeds of crime have been intermingled shall also be liable to the measures referred to in this article, in the same manner and to the same extent as proceeds of crime.
6. For the purposes of this article and article 13 of this Convention, each State Party shall empower its courts or other competent authorities to order that bank, financial or commercial records be made available or be seized. States Parties shall not decline to act under the provisions of this paragraph on the ground of bank secrecy.
7. States Parties may consider the possibility of requiring that an offender demonstrate the lawful origin of alleged proceeds of crime or other property liable to confiscation, to the extent that such a requirement is consistent with the principles of their domestic law and with the nature of the judicial and other proceedings.
8. The provisions of this article shall not be construed to prejudice the rights of bona fide third parties.
9. Nothing contained in this article shall affect the principle that the measures to which it refers shall be defined and implemented in accordance with and subject to the provisions of the domestic law of a State Party.
Article 13
International cooperation for purposes of confiscation
1. A State Party that has received a request from another State Party having jurisdiction over an offence covered by this Convention for confiscation of proceeds of crime, property, equipment or other instrumentalities referred to in article 12, paragraph 1, of this Convention situated in its territory shall, to the greatest extent possible within its domestic legal system:
(a) Submit the request to its competent authorities for the purpose of obtaining an order of confiscation and, if such an order is granted, give effect to it; or
(b) Submit to its competent authorities, with a view to giving effect to it to the extent requested, an order of confiscation issued by a court in the territory of the requesting State Party in accordance with article 12, paragraph 1, of this Convention insofar as it relates to proceeds of crime, property, equipment or other instrumentalities referred to in article 12, paragraph 1, situated in the territory of the requested State Party.
2. Following a request made by another State Party having jurisdiction over an offence covered by this Convention, the requested State Party shall take measures to identify, trace and freeze or seize proceeds of crime, property, equipment or other instrumentalities referred to in article 12, paragraph 1, of this Convention for the purpose of eventual confiscation to be ordered either by the requesting State Party or, pursuant to a request under paragraph 1 of this article, by the requested State Party.
3. The provisions of article 18 of this Convention are applicable, mutatis mutandis, to this article. In addition to the information specified in article 18, paragraph 15, requests made pursuant to this article shall contain:
(a) In the case of a request pertaining to paragraph 1 (a) of this article, a description of the property to be confiscated and a statement of the facts relied upon by the requesting State Party sufficient to enable the requested State Party to seek the order under its domestic law;
(b) In the case of a request pertaining to paragraph 1 (b) of this article, a legally admissible copy of an order of confiscation upon which the request is based issued by the requesting State Party, a statement of the facts and information as to the extent to which execution of the order is requested;
(c) In the case of a request pertaining to paragraph 2 of this article, a statement of the facts relied upon by the requesting State Party and a description of the actions requested.
4. The decisions or actions provided for in paragraphs 1 and 2 of this article shall be taken by the requested State Party in accordance with and subject to the provisions of its domestic law and its procedural rules or any bilateral or multilateral treaty, agreement or arrangement to which it may be bound in relation to the requesting State Party.
5. Each State Party shall furnish copies of its laws and regulations that give effect to this article and of any subsequent changes to such laws and regulations or a description thereof to the Secretary-General of the United Nations.
6. If a State Party elects to make the taking of the measures referred to in paragraphs 1 and 2 of this article conditional on the existence of a relevant treaty, that State Party shall consider this Convention the necessary and sufficient treaty basis.
7. Cooperation under this article may be refused by a State Party if the offence to which the request relates is not an offence covered by this Convention.
8. The provisions of this article shall not be construed to prejudice the rights of bona fide third parties.
9. States Parties shall consider concluding bilateral or multilateral treaties, agreements or arrangements to enhance the effectiveness of international cooperation undertaken pursuant to this article.
Article 14
Disposal of confiscated proceeds of crime or property
1. Proceeds of crime or property confiscated by a State Party pursuant to articles 12 or 13, paragraph 1, of this Convention shall be disposed of by that State Party in accordance with its domestic law and administrative procedures.
2. When acting on the request made by another State Party in accordance with article 13 of this Convention, States Parties shall, to the extent permitted by domestic law and if so requested, give priority consideration to returning the confiscated proceeds of crime or property to the requesting State Party so that it can give compensation to the victims of the crime or return such proceeds of crime or property to their legitimate owners.
3. When acting on the request made by another State Party in accordance with articles 12 and 13 of this Convention, a State Party may give special consideration to concluding agreements or arrangements on:
(a) Contributing the value of such proceeds of crime or property or funds derived from the sale of such proceeds of crime or property or a part thereof to the account designated in accordance with article 30, paragraph 2 (c), of this Convention and to intergovernmental bodies specializing in the fight against organized crime;
(b) Sharing with other States Parties, on a regular or case-by-case basis, such proceeds of crime or property, or funds derived from the sale of such proceeds of crime or property, in accordance with its domestic law or administrative procedures.
Article 15
Jurisdiction
1. Each State Party shall adopt such measures as may be necessary to establish its jurisdiction over the offences established in accordance with articles 5, 6, 8 and 23 of this Convention when:
(a) The offence is committed in the territory of that State Party; or
(b) The offence is committed on board a vessel that is flying the flag of that State Party or an aircraft that is registered under the laws of that State Party at the time that the offence is committed.
2. Subject to article 4 of this Convention, a State Party may also establish its jurisdiction over any such offence when:
(a) The offence is committed against a national of that State Party;
(b) The offence is committed by a national of that State Party or a stateless person who has his or her habitual residence in its territory; or
(c) The offence is:
(i) One of those established in accordance with article 5, paragraph 1, of this Convention and is committed outside its territory with a view to the commission of a serious crime within its territory;
(ii) One of those established in accordance with article 6, paragraph 1 (b) (ii), of this Convention and is committed outside its territory with a view to the commission of an offence established in accordance with article 6, paragraph 1 (a) (i) or (ii) or (b) (i), of this Convention within its territory.
3. For the purposes of article 16, paragraph 10, of this Convention, each State Party shall adopt such measures as may be necessary to establish its jurisdiction over the offences covered by this Convention when the alleged offender is present in its territory and it does not extradite such person solely on the ground that he or she is one of its nationals.
4. Each State Party may also adopt such measures as may be necessary to establish its jurisdiction over the offences covered by this Convention when the alleged offender is present in its territory and it does not extradite him or her.
5. If a State Party exercising its jurisdiction under paragraph 1 or 2 of this article has been notified, or has otherwise learned, that one or more other States Parties are conducting an investigation, prosecution or judicial proceeding in respect of the same conduct, the competent authorities of those States Parties shall, as appropriate, consult one another with a view to coordinating their actions.
6. Without prejudice to norms of general international law, this Convention does not exclude the exercise of any criminal jurisdiction established by a State Party in accordance with its domestic law.
Article 16
Extradition
1. This article shall apply to the offences covered by this Convention or in cases where an offence referred to in article 3, paragraph 1 (a) or (b), involves an organized criminal group and the person who is the subject of the request for extradition is located in the territory of the requested State Party, provided that the offence for which extradition is sought is punishable under the domestic law of both the requesting State Party and the requested State Party.
2. If the request for extradition includes several separate serious crimes, some of which are not covered by this article, the requested State Party may apply this article also in respect of the latter offences.
3. Each of the offences to which this article applies shall be deemed to be included as an extraditable offence in any extradition treaty existing between States Parties. States Parties undertake to include such offences as extraditable offences in every extradition treaty to be concluded between them.
4. If a State Party that makes extradition conditional on the existence of a treaty receives a request for extradition from another State Party with which it has no extradition treaty, it may consider this Convention the legal basis for extradition in respect of any offence to which this article applies.
5. States Parties that make extradition conditional on the existence of a treaty shall:
(a) At the time of deposit of their instrument of ratification, acceptance, approval of or accession to this Convention, inform the Secretary-General of the United Nations whether they will take this Convention as the legal basis for cooperation on extradition with other States Parties to this Convention; and
(b) If they do not take this Convention as the legal basis for cooperation on extradition, seek, where appropriate, to conclude treaties on extradition with other States Parties to this Convention in order to implement this article.
6. States Parties that do not make extradition conditional on the existence of a treaty shall recognize offences to which this article applies as extraditable offences between themselves.
7. Extradition shall be subject to the conditions provided for by the domestic law of the requested State Party or by applicable extradition treaties, including, inter alia, conditions in relation to the minimum penalty requirement for extradition and the grounds upon which the requested State Party may refuse extradition.
8. States Parties shall, subject to their domestic law, endeavour to expedite extradition procedures and to simplify evidentiary requirements relating thereto in respect of any offence to which this article applies.
9. Subject to the provisions of its domestic law and its extradition treaties, the requested State Party may, upon being satisfied that the circumstances so warrant and are urgent and at the request of the requesting State Party, take a person whose extradition is sought and who is present in its territory into custody or take other appropriate measures to ensure his or her presence at extradition proceedings.
10. A State Party in whose territory an alleged offender is found, if it does not extradite such person in respect of an offence to which this article applies solely on the ground that he or she is one of its nationals, shall, at the request of the State Party seeking extradition, be obliged to submit the case without undue delay to its competent authorities for the purpose of prosecution. Those authorities shall take their decision and conduct their proceedings in the same manner as in the case of any other offence of a grave nature under the domestic law of that State Party. The States Parties concerned shall cooperate with each other, in particular on procedural and evidentiary aspects, to ensure the efficiency of such prosecution.
11. Whenever a State Party is permitted under its domestic law to extradite or otherwise surrender one of its nationals only upon the condition that the person will be returned to that State Party to serve the sentence imposed as a result of the trial or proceedings for which the extradition or surrender of the person was sought and that State Party and the State Party seeking the extradition of the person agree with this option and other terms that they may deem appropriate, such conditional extradition or surrender shall be sufficient to discharge the obligation set forth in paragraph 10 of this article.
12. If extradition, sought for purposes of enforcing a sentence, is refused because the person sought is a national of the requested State Party, the requested Party shall, if its domestic law so permits and in conformity with the requirements of such law, upon application of the requesting Party, consider the enforcement of the sentence that has been imposed under the domestic law of the requesting Party or the remainder thereof.
13. Any person regarding whom proceedings are being carried out in connection with any of the offences to which this article applies shall be guaranteed fair treatment at all stages of the proceedings, including enjoyment of all the rights and guarantees provided by the domestic law of the State Party in the territory of which that person is present.
14. Nothing in this Convention shall be interpreted as imposing an obligation to extradite if the requested State Party has substantial grounds for believing that the request has been made for the purpose of prosecuting or punishing a person on account of that person’s sex, race, religion, nationality, ethnic origin or political opinions or that compliance with the request would cause prejudice to that person’s position for any one of these reasons.
15. States Parties may not refuse a request for extradition on the sole ground that the offence is also considered to involve fiscal matters.
16. Before refusing extradition, the requested State Party shall, where appropriate, consult with the requesting State Party to provide it with ample opportunity to present its opinions and to provide information relevant to its allegation.
17. States Parties shall seek to conclude bilateral and multilateral agreements or arrangements to carry out or to enhance the effectiveness of extradition.
Article 17
Transfer of sentenced persons
States Parties may consider entering into bilateral or multilateral agreements or arrangements on the transfer to their territory of persons sentenced to imprisonment or other forms of deprivation of liberty for offences covered by this Convention, in order that they may complete their sentences there.
Article 18
Mutual legal assistance
1. States Parties shall afford one another the widest measure of mutual legal assistance in investigations, prosecutions and judicial proceedings in relation to the offences covered by this Convention as provided for in article 3 and shall reciprocally extend to one another similar assistance where the requesting State Party has reasonable grounds to suspect that the offence referred to in article 3, paragraph 1 (a) or (b), is transnational in nature, including that victims, witnesses, proceeds, instrumentalities or evidence of such offences are located in the requested State Party and that the offence involves an organized criminal group.
2. Mutual legal assistance shall be afforded to the fullest extent possible under relevant laws, treaties, agreements and arrangements of the requested State Party with respect to investigations, prosecutions and judicial proceedings in relation to the offences for which a legal person may be held liable in accordance with article 10 of this Convention in the requesting State Party.
3. Mutual legal assistance to be afforded in accordance with this article may be requested for any of the following purposes:
(a) Taking evidence or statements from persons;
(b) Effecting service of judicial documents;
(c) Executing searches and seizures, and freezing;
(d) Examining objects and sites;
(e) Providing information, evidentiary items and expert evaluations;
(f) Providing originals or certified copies of relevant documents and records, including government, bank, financial, corporate or business records;
(g) Identifying or tracing proceeds of crime, property, instrumentalities or other things for evidentiary purposes;
(h) Facilitating the voluntary appearance of persons in the requesting State Party;
(i) Any other type of assistance that is not contrary to the domestic law of the requested State Party.
4. Without prejudice to domestic law, the competent authorities of a State Party may, without prior request, transmit information relating to criminal matters to a competent authority in another State Party where they believe that such information could assist the authority in undertaking or successfully concluding inquiries and criminal proceedings or could result in a request formulated by the latter State Party pursuant to this Convention.
5. The transmission of information pursuant to paragraph 4 of this article shall be without prejudice to inquiries and criminal proceedings in the State of the competent authorities providing the information. The competent authorities receiving the information shall comply with a request that said information remain confidential, even temporarily, or with restrictions on its use. However, this shall not prevent the receiving State Party from disclosing in its proceedings information that is exculpatory to an accused person. In such a case, the receiving State Party shall notify the transmitting State Party prior to the disclosure and, if so requested, consult with the transmitting State Party.
If, in an exceptional case, advance notice is not possible, the receiving State Party shall inform the transmitting State Party of the disclosure without delay.
6. The provisions of this article shall not affect the obligations under any other treaty, bilateral or multilateral, that governs or will govern, in whole or in part, mutual legal assistance.
7. Paragraphs 9 to 29 of this article shall apply to requests made pursuant to this article if the States Parties in question are not bound by a treaty of mutual legal assistance. If those States Parties are bound by such a treaty, the corresponding provisions of that treaty shall apply unless the States Parties agree to apply paragraphs 9 to 29 of this article in lieu thereof. States Parties are strongly encouraged to apply these paragraphs if they facilitate cooperation.
8. States Parties shall not decline to render mutual legal assistance pursuant to this article on the ground of bank secrecy.
9. States Parties may decline to render mutual legal assistance pursuant to this article on the ground of absence of dual criminality. However, the requested State Party may, when it deems appropriate, provide assistance, to the extent it decides at its discretion, irrespective of whether the conduct would constitute an offence under the domestic law of the requested State Party.
10. A person who is being detained or is serving a sentence in the territory of one State Party whose presence in another State Party is requested for purposes of identification, testimony or otherwise providing assistance in obtaining evidence for investigations, prosecutions or judicial proceedings in relation to offences covered by this Convention may be transferred if the following conditions are met:
(a) The person freely gives his or her informed consent;
(b) The competent authorities of both States Parties agree, subject to such conditions as those States Parties may deem appropriate.
11. For the purposes of paragraph 10 of this article:
(a) The State Party to which the person is transferred shall have the authority and obligation to keep the person transferred in custody, unless otherwise requested or authorized by the State Party from which the person was transferred;
(b) The State Party to which the person is transferred shall without delay implement its obligation to return the person to the custody of the State Party from which the person was transferred as agreed beforehand, or as otherwise agreed, by the competent authorities of both States Parties;
(c) The State Party to which the person is transferred shall not require the State Party from which the person was transferred to initiate extradition proceedings for the return of the person;
(d) The person transferred shall receive credit for service of the sentence being served in the State from which he or she was transferred for time spent in the custody of the State Party to which he or she was transferred.
12. Unless the State Party from which a person is to be transferred in accordance with paragraphs 10 and 11 of this article so agrees, that person, whatever his or her nationality, shall not be prosecuted, detained, punished or subjected to any other restriction of his or her personal liberty in the territory of the State to which that person is transferred in respect of acts, omissions or convictions prior to his or her departure from the territory of the State from which he or she was transferred.
13. Each State Party shall designate a central authority that shall have the responsibility and power to receive requests for mutual legal assistance and either to execute them or to transmit them to the competent authorities for execution. Where a State Party has a special region or territory with a separate system of mutual legal assistance, it may designate a distinct central authority that shall have the same function for that region or territory. Central authorities shall ensure the speedy and proper execution or transmission of the requests received. Where the central authority transmits the request to a competent authority for execution, it shall encourage the speedy and proper execution of the request by the competent authority. The Secretary-General of the United Nations shall be notified of the central authority designated for this purpose at the time each State Party deposits its instrument of ratification, acceptance or approval of or accession to this Convention. Requests for mutual legal assistance and any communication related thereto shall be transmitted to the central authorities designated by the States Parties. This requirement shall be without prejudice to the right of a State Party to require that such requests and communications be addressed to it through diplomatic channels and, in urgent circumstances, where the States Parties agree, through the International Criminal Police Organization, if possible.
14. Requests shall be made in writing or, where possible, by any means capable of producing a written record, in a language acceptable to the requested State Party, under conditions allowing that State Party to establish authenticity. The Secretary-General of the United Nations shall be notified of the language or languages acceptable to each State Party at the time it deposits its instrument of ratification, acceptance or approval of or accession to this Convention. In urgent circumstances and where agreed by the States Parties, requests may be made orally, but shall be confirmed in writing forthwith.
15. A request for mutual legal assistance shall contain:
(a) The identity of the authority making the request;
(b) The subject matter and nature of the investigation, prosecution or judicial proceeding to which the request relates and the name and functions of the authority conducting the investigation, prosecution or judicial proceeding;
(c) A summary of the relevant facts, except in relation to requests for the purpose of service of judicial documents;
(d) A description of the assistance sought and details of any particular procedure that the requesting State Party wishes to be followed;
(e) Where possible, the identity, location and nationality of any person concerned; and
(f) The purpose for which the evidence, information or action is sought.
16. The requested State Party may request additional information when it appears necessary for the execution of the request in accordance with its domestic law or when it can facilitate such execution.
17. A request shall be executed in accordance with the domestic law of the requested State Party and, to the extent not contrary to the domestic law of the requested State Party and where possible, in accordance with the procedures specified in the request.
18. Wherever possible and consistent with fundamental principles of domestic law, when an individual is in the territory of a State Party and has to be heard as a witness or expert by the judicial authorities of another State Party, the first State Party may, at the request of the other, permit the hearing to take place by video conference if it is not possible or desirable for the individual in question to appear in person in the territory of the requesting State Party. States Parties may agree that the hearing shall be conducted by a judicial authority of the requesting State Party and attended by a judicial authority of the requested State Party.
19. The requesting State Party shall not transmit or use information or evidence furnished by the requested State Party for investigations, prosecutions or judicial proceedings other than those stated in the request without the prior consent of the requested State Party. Nothing in this paragraph shall prevent the requesting State Party from disclosing in its proceedings information or evidence that is exculpatory to an accused person. In the latter case, the requesting State Party shall notify the requested State Party prior to the disclosure and, if so requested, consult with the requested State Party. If, in an exceptional case, advance notice is not possible, the requesting State Party shall inform the requested State Party of the disclosure without delay.
20. The requesting State Party may require that the requested State Party keep confidential the fact and substance of the request, except to the extent necessary to execute the request. If the requested State Party cannot comply with the requirement of confidentiality, it shall promptly inform the requesting State Party.
21. Mutual legal assistance may be refused:
(a) If the request is not made in conformity with the provisions of this article;
(b) If the requested State Party considers that execution of the request is likely to prejudice its sovereignty, security, ordre public or other essential interests;
(c) If the authorities of the requested State Party would be prohibited by its domestic law from carrying out the action requested with regard to any similar offence, had it been subject to investigation, prosecution or judicial proceedings under their own jurisdiction;
(d) If it would be contrary to the legal system of the requested State Party relating to mutual legal assistance for the request to be granted.
22. States Parties may not refuse a request for mutual legal assistance on the sole ground that the offence is also considered to involve fiscal matters.
23. Reasons shall be given for any refusal of mutual legal assistance.
24. The requested State Party shall execute the request for mutual legal assistance as soon as possible and shall take as full account as possible of any deadlines suggested by the requesting State Party and for which reasons are given, preferably in the request. The requested State Party shall respond to reasonable requests by the requesting State Party on progress of its handling of the request. The requesting State Party shall promptly inform the requested State Party when the assistance sought is no longer required.
25. Mutual legal assistance may be postponed by the requested State Party on the ground that it interferes with an ongoing investigation, prosecution or judicial proceeding.
26. Before refusing a request pursuant to paragraph 21 of this article or postponing its execution pursuant to paragraph 25 of this article, the requested State Party shall consult with the requesting State Party to consider whether assistance may be granted subject to such terms and conditions as it deems necessary. If the requesting State Party accepts assistance subject to those conditions, it shall comply with the conditions.
27. Without prejudice to the application of paragraph 12 of this article, a witness, expert or other person who, at the request of the requesting State Party, consents to give evidence in a proceeding or to assist in an investigation, prosecution or judicial proceeding in the territory of the requesting State Party shall not be prosecuted, detained, punished or subjected to any other restriction of his or her personal liberty in that territory in respect of acts, omissions or convictions prior to his or her departure from the territory of the requested State Party. Such safe conduct shall cease when the witness, expert or other person having had, for a period of fifteen consecutive days or for any period agreed upon by the States Parties from the date on which he or she has been officially informed that his or her presence is no longer required by the judicial authorities, an opportunity of leaving, has nevertheless remained voluntarily in the territory of the requesting State Party or, having left it, has returned of his or her own free will.
28. The ordinary costs of executing a request shall be borne by the requested State Party, unless otherwise agreed by the States Parties concerned. If expenses of a substantial or extraordinary nature are or will be required to fulfil the request, the States Parties shall consult to determine the terms and conditions under which the request will be executed, as well as the manner in which the costs shall be borne.
29. The requested State Party:
(a) Shall provide to the requesting State Party copies of government records, documents or information in its possession that under its domestic law are available to the general public;
(b) May, at its discretion, provide to the requesting State Party in whole, in part or subject to such conditions as it deems appropriate, copies of any government records, documents or information in its possession that under its domestic law are not available to the general public.
30. States Parties shall consider, as may be necessary, the possibility of concluding bilateral or multilateral agreements or arrangements that would serve the purposes of, give practical effect to or enhance the provisions of this article.
Article 19
Joint investigations
States Parties shall consider concluding bilateral or multilateral agreements or arrangements whereby, in relation to matters that are the subject of investigations, prosecutions or judicial proceedings in one or more States, the competent authorities concerned may establish joint investigative bodies. In the absence of such agreements or arrangements, joint investigations may be undertaken by agreement on a case-by-case basis. The States Parties involved shall ensure that the sovereignty of the State Party in whose territory such investigation is to take place is fully respected.
Article 20
Special investigative techniques
1. If permitted by the basic principles of its domestic legal system, each State Party shall, within its possibilities and under the conditions prescribed by its domestic law, take the necessary measures to allow for the appropriate use of controlled delivery and, where it deems appropriate, for the use of other special investigative techniques, such as electronic or other forms of surveillance and undercover operations, by its competent authorities in its territory for the purpose of effectively combating organized crime.
2. For the purpose of investigating the offences covered by this Convention, States Parties are encouraged to conclude, when necessary, appropriate bilateral or multilateral agreements or arrangements for using such special investigative techniques in the context of cooperation at the international level. Such agreements or arrangements shall be concluded and implemented in full compliance with the principle of sovereign equality of States and shall be carried out strictly in accordance with the terms of those agreements or arrangements.
3. In the absence of an agreement or arrangement as set forth in paragraph 2 of this article, decisions to use such special investigative techniques at the international level shall be made on a case-by-case basis and may, when necessary, take into consideration financial arrangements and understandings with respect to the exercise of jurisdiction by the States Parties concerned.
4. Decisions to use controlled delivery at the international level may, with the consent of the States Parties concerned, include methods such as intercepting and allowing the goods to continue intact or be removed or replaced in whole or in part.
Article 21
Transfer of criminal proceedings
States Parties shall consider the possibility of transferring to one another proceedings for the prosecution of an offence covered by this Convention in cases where such transfer is considered to be in the interests of the proper administration of justice, in particular in cases where several jurisdictions are involved, with a view to concentrating the prosecution.
Article 22
Establishment of criminal record
Each State Party may adopt such legislative or other measures as may be necessary to take into consideration, under such terms as and for the purpose that it deems appropriate, any previous conviction in another State of an alleged offender for the purpose of using such information in criminal proceedings relating to an offence covered by this Convention.
Article 23
Criminalization of obstruction of justice
Each State Party shall adopt such legislative and other measures as may be necessary to establish as criminal offences, when committed intentionally:
(a) The use of physical force, threats or intimidation or the promise, offering or giving of an undue advantage to induce false testimony or to interfere in the giving of testimony or the production of evidence in a proceeding in relation to the commission of offences covered by this Convention;
(b) The use of physical force, threats or intimidation to interfere with the exercise of official duties by a justice or law enforcement official in relation to the commission of offences covered by this Convention. Nothing in this subparagraph shall prejudice the right of States Parties to have legislation that protects other categories of public officials.
Article 24
Protection of witnesses
1. Each State Party shall take appropriate measures within its means to provide effective protection from potential retaliation or intimidation for witnesses in criminal proceedings who give testimony concerning offences covered by this Convention and, as appropriate, for their relatives and other persons close to them.
2. The measures envisaged in paragraph 1 of this article may include, inter alia, without prejudice to the rights of the defendant, including the right to due process:
(a) Establishing procedures for the physical protection of such persons, such as, to the extent necessary and feasible, relocating them and permitting, where appropriate, non-disclosure or limitations on the disclosure of information concerning the identity and whereabouts of such persons;
(b) Providing evidentiary rules to permit witness testimony to be given in a manner that ensures the safety of the witness, such as permitting testimony to be given through the use of communications technology such as video links or other adequate means.
3. States Parties shall consider entering into agreements or arrangements with other States for the relocation of persons referred to in paragraph 1 of this article.
4. The provisions of this article shall also apply to victims insofar as they are witnesses.
Article 25
Assistance to and protection of victims
1. Each State Party shall take appropriate measures within its means to provide assistance and protection to victims of offences covered by this Convention, in particular in cases of threat of retaliation or intimidation.
2. Each State Party shall establish appropriate procedures to provide access to compensation and restitution for victims of offences covered by this Convention.
3. Each State Party shall, subject to its domestic law, enable views and concerns of victims to be presented and considered at appropriate stages of criminal proceedings against offenders in a manner not prejudicial to the rights of the defence.
Article 26
Measures to enhance cooperation with law enforcement authorities
1. Each State Party shall take appropriate measures to encourage persons who participate or who have participated in organized criminal groups:
(a) To supply information useful to competent authorities for investigative and evidentiary purposes on such matters as:
(i) The identity, nature, composition, structure, location or activities of organized criminal groups;
(ii) Links, including international links, with other organized criminal groups;
(iii) Offences that organized criminal groups have committed or may commit;
(b) To provide factual, concrete help to competent authorities that may contribute to depriving organized criminal groups of their resources or of the proceeds of crime.
2. Each State Party shall consider providing for the possibility, in appropriate cases, of mitigating punishment of an accused person who provides substantial cooperation in the investigation or prosecution of an offence covered by this Convention.
3. Each State Party shall consider providing for the possibility, in accordance with fundamental principles of its domestic law, of granting immunity from prosecution to a person who provides substantial cooperation in the investigation or prosecution of an offence covered by this Convention.
4. Protection of such persons shall be as provided for in article 24 of this Convention.
5. Where a person referred to in paragraph 1 of this article located in one State Party can provide substantial cooperation to the competent authorities of another State Party, the States Parties concerned may consider entering into agreements or arrangements, in accordance with their domestic law, concerning the potential provision by the other State Party of the treatment set forth in paragraphs 2 and 3 of this article.
Article 27
Law enforcement cooperation
1. States Parties shall cooperate closely with one another, consistent with their respective domestic legal and administrative systems, to enhance the effectiveness of law enforcement action to combat the offences covered by this Convention. Each State Party shall, in particular, adopt effective measures:
(a) To enhance and, where necessary, to establish channels of communication between their competent authorities, agencies and services in order to facilitate the secure and rapid exchange of information concerning all aspects of the offences covered by this Convention, including, if the States Parties concerned deem it appropriate, links with other criminal activities;
(b) To cooperate with other States Parties in conducting inquiries with respect to offences covered by this Convention concerning:
(i) The identity, whereabouts and activities of persons suspected of involvement in such offences or the location of other persons concerned;
(ii) The movement of proceeds of crime or property derived from the commission of such offences;
(iii) The movement of property, equipment or other instrumentalities used or intended for use in the commission of such offences;
(c) To provide, when appropriate, necessary items or quantities of substances for analytical or investigative purposes;
(d) To facilitate effective coordination between their competent authorities, agencies and services and to promote the exchange of personnel and other experts, including, subject to bilateral agreements or arrangements between the States Parties concerned, the posting of liaison officers;
(e) To exchange information with other States Parties on specific means and methods used by organized criminal groups, including, where applicable, routes and conveyances and the use of false identities, altered or false documents or other means of concealing their activities;
(f) To exchange information and coordinate administrative and other measures taken as appropriate for the purpose of early identification of the offences covered by this Convention.
2. With a view to giving effect to this Convention, States Parties shall consider entering into bilateral or multilateral agreements or arrangements on direct cooperation between their law enforcement agencies and, where such agreements or arrangements already exist, amending them. In the absence of such agreements or arrangements between the States Parties concerned, the Parties may consider this Convention as the basis for mutual law enforcement cooperation in respect of the offences covered by this Convention. Whenever appropriate, States Parties shall make full use of agreements or arrangements, including international or regional organizations, to enhance the cooperation between their law enforcement agencies.
3. States Parties shall endeavour to cooperate within their means to respond to transnational organized crime committed through the use of modern technology.
Article 28
Collection, exchange and analysis of information on the nature of organized crime
1. Each State Party shall consider analysing, in consultation with the scientific and academic communities, trends in organized crime in its territory, the circumstances in which organized crime operates, as well as the professional groups and technologies involved.
2. States Parties shall consider developing and sharing analytical expertise concerning organized criminal activities with each other and through international and regional organizations. For that purpose, common definitions, standards and methodologies should be developed and applied as appropriate.
3. Each State Party shall consider monitoring its policies and actual measures to combat organized crime and making assessments of their effectiveness and efficiency.
Article 29
Training and technical assistance
1. Each State Party shall, to the extent necessary, initiate, develop or improve specific training programmes for its law enforcement personnel, including prosecutors, investigating magistrates and customs personnel, and other personnel charged with the prevention, detection and control of the offences covered by this Convention. Such programmes may include secondments and exchanges of staff. Such programmes shall deal, in particular and to the extent permitted by domestic law, with the following:
(a) Methods used in the prevention, detection and control of the offences covered by this Convention;
(b) Routes and techniques used by persons suspected of involvement in offences covered by this Convention, including in transit States, and appropriate countermeasures;
(c) Monitoring of the movement of contraband;
(d) Detection and monitoring of the movements of proceeds of crime, property, equipment or other instrumentalities and methods used for the transfer, concealment or disguise of such proceeds, property, equipment or other instrumentalities, as well as methods used in combating money-laundering and other financial crimes;
(e) Collection of evidence;
(f) Control techniques in free trade zones and free ports;
(g) Modern law enforcement equipment and techniques, including electronic surveillance, controlled deliveries and undercover operations;
(h) Methods used in combating transnational organized crime committed through the use of computers, telecommunications networks or other forms of modern technology; and
(i) Methods used in the protection of victims and witnesses.
2. States Parties shall assist one another in planning and implementing research and training programmes designed to share expertise in the areas referred to in paragraph 1 of this article and to that end shall also, when appropriate, use regional and international conferences and seminars to promote cooperation and to stimulate discussion on problems of mutual concern, including the special problems and needs of transit States.
3. States Parties shall promote training and technical assistance that will facilitate extradition and mutual legal assistance. Such training and technical assistance may include language training, secondments and exchanges between personnel in central authorities or agencies with relevant responsibilities.
4. In the case of existing bilateral and multilateral agreements or arrangements, States Parties shall strengthen, to the extent necessary, efforts to maximize operational and training activities within international and regional organizations and within other relevant bilateral and multilateral agreements or arrangements.
Article 30
Other measures: implementation of the Convention through economic development and technical assistance
1. States Parties shall take measures conducive to the optimal implementation of this Convention to the extent possible, through international cooperation, taking into account the negative effects of organized crime on society in general, in particular on sustainable development.
2. States Parties shall make concrete efforts to the extent possible and in coordination with each other, as well as with international and regional organizations:
(a) To enhance their cooperation at various levels with developing countries, with a view to strengthening the capacity of the latter to prevent and combat transnational organized crime;
(b) To enhance financial and material assistance to support the efforts of developing countries to fight transnational organized crime effectively and to help them implement this Convention successfully;
(c) To provide technical assistance to developing countries and countries with economies in transition to assist them in meeting their needs for the implementation of this Convention. To that end, States Parties shall endeavour to make adequate and regular voluntary contributions to an account specifically designated for that purpose in a United Nations funding mechanism. States Parties may also give special consideration, in accordance with their domestic law and the provisions of this Convention, to contributing to the aforementioned account a percentage of the money or of the corresponding value of proceeds of crime or property confiscated in accordance with the provisions of this Convention;
(d) To encourage and persuade other States and financial institutions as appropriate to join them in efforts in accordance with this article, in particular by providing more training programmes and modern equipment to developing countries in order to assist them in achieving the objectives of this Convention.
3. To the extent possible, these measures shall be without prejudice to existing foreign assistance commitments or to other financial cooperation arrangements at the bilateral, regional or international level.
4. States Parties may conclude bilateral or multilateral agreements or arrangements on material and logistical assistance, taking into consideration the financial arrangements necessary for the means of international cooperation provided for by this Convention to be effective and for the prevention, detection and control of transnational organized crime.
Article 31
Prevention
1. States Parties shall endeavour to develop and evaluate national projects and to establish and promote best practices and policies aimed at the prevention of transnational organized crime.
2. States Parties shall endeavour, in accordance with fundamental principles of their domestic law, to reduce existing or future opportunities for organized criminal groups to participate in lawful markets with proceeds of crime, through appropriate legislative, administrative or other measures. These measures should focus on:
(a) The strengthening of cooperation between law enforcement agencies or prosecutors and relevant private entities, including industry;
(b) The promotion of the development of standards and procedures designed to safeguard the integrity of public and relevant private entities, as well as codes of conduct for relevant professions, in particular lawyers, notaries public, tax consultants and accountants;
(c) The prevention of the misuse by organized criminal groups of tender procedures conducted by public authorities and of subsidies and licences granted by public authorities for commercial activity;
(d) The prevention of the misuse of legal persons by organized criminal groups; such measures could include:
(i) The establishment of public records on legal and natural persons involved in the establishment, management and funding of legal persons;
(ii) The introduction of the possibility of disqualifying by court order or any appropriate means for a reasonable period of time persons convicted of offences covered by this Convention from acting as directors of legal persons incorporated within their jurisdiction;
(iii) The establishment of national records of persons disqualified from acting as directors of legal persons; and
(iv) The exchange of information contained in the records referred to in subparagraphs (d) (i) and (iii) of this paragraph with the competent authorities of other States Parties.
3. States Parties shall endeavour to promote the reintegration into society of persons convicted of offences covered by this Convention.
4. States Parties shall endeavour to evaluate periodically existing relevant legal instruments and administrative practices with a view to detecting their vulnerability to misuse by organized criminal groups.
5. States Parties shall endeavour to promote public awareness regarding the existence, causes and gravity of and the threat posed by transnational organized crime. Information may be disseminated where appropriate through the mass media and shall include measures to promote public participation in preventing and combating such crime.
6. Each State Party shall inform the Secretary-General of the United Nations of the name and address of the authority or authorities that can assist other States Parties in developing measures to prevent transnational organized crime.
7. States Parties shall, as appropriate, collaborate with each other and relevant international and regional organizations in promoting and developing the measures referred to in this article. This includes participation in international projects aimed at the prevention of transnational organized crime, for example by alleviating the circumstances that render socially marginalized groups vulnerable to the action of transnational organized crime.
Article 32
Conference of the Parties to the Convention
1. A Conference of the Parties to the Convention is hereby established to improve the capacity of States Parties to combat transnational organized crime and to promote and review the implementation of this Convention.
2. The Secretary-General of the United Nations shall convene the Conference of the Parties not later than one year following the entry into force of this Convention. The Conference of the Parties shall adopt rules of procedure and rules governing the activities set forth in paragraphs 3 and 4 of this article (including rules concerning payment of expenses incurred in carrying out those activities).
3. The Conference of the Parties shall agree upon mechanisms for achieving the objectives mentioned in paragraph 1 of this article, including:
(a) Facilitating activities by States Parties under articles 29, 30 and 31 of this Convention, including by encouraging the mobilization of voluntary contributions;
(b) Facilitating the exchange of information among States Parties on patterns and trends in transnational organized crime and on successful practices for combating it;
(c) Cooperating with relevant international and regional organizations and non-governmental organizations;
(d) Reviewing periodically the implementation of this Convention;
(e) Making recommendations to improve this Convention and its implementation.
4. For the purpose of paragraphs 3 (d) and (e) of this article, the Conference of the Parties shall acquire the necessary knowledge of the measures taken by States Parties in implementing this Convention and the difficulties encountered by them in doing so through information provided by them and through such supplemental review mechanisms as may be established by the Conference of the Parties.
5. Each State Party shall provide the Conference of the Parties with information on its programmes, plans and practices, as well as legislative and administrative measures to implement this Convention, as required by the Conference of the Parties.
Article 33
Secretariat
1. The Secretary-General of the United Nations shall provide the necessary secretariat services to the Conference of the Parties to the Convention.
2. The secretariat shall:
(a) Assist the Conference of the Parties in carrying out the activities set forth in article 32 of this Convention and make arrangements and provide the necessary services for the sessions of the Conference of the Parties;
(b) Upon request, assist States Parties in providing information to the Conference of the Parties as envisaged in article 32, paragraph 5, of this Convention; and
(c) Ensure the necessary coordination with the secretariats of relevant international and regional organizations.
Article 34
Implementation of the Convention
1. Each State Party shall take the necessary measures, including legislative and administrative measures, in accordance with fundamental principles of its domestic law, to ensure the implementation of its obligations under this Convention.
2. The offences established in accordance with articles 5, 6, 8 and 23 of this Convention shall be established in the domestic law of each State Party independently of the transnational nature or the involvement of an organized criminal group as described in article 3, paragraph 1, of this Convention, except to the extent that article 5 of this Convention would require the involvement of an organized criminal group.
3. Each State Party may adopt more strict or severe measures than those provided for by this Convention for preventing and combating transnational organized crime.
Article 35
Settlement of disputes
l. States Parties shall endeavour to settle disputes concerning the interpretation or application of this Convention through negotiation.
2. Any dispute between two or more States Parties concerning the interpretation or application of this Convention that cannot be settled through negotiation within a reasonable time shall, at the request of one of those States Parties, be submitted to arbitration. If, six months after the date of the request for arbitration, those States Parties are unable to agree on the organization of the arbitration, any one of those States Parties may refer the dispute to the International Court of Justice by request in accordance with the Statute of the Court.
3. Each State Party may, at the time of signature, ratification, acceptance or approval of or accession to this Convention, declare that it does not consider itself bound by paragraph 2 of this article. The other States Parties shall not be bound by paragraph 2 of this article with respect to any State Party that has made such a reservation.
4. Any State Party that has made a reservation in accordance with paragraph 3 of this article may at any time withdraw that reservation by notification to the Secretary-General of the United Nations.
Article 36
Signature, ratification, acceptance, approval and accession
1. This Convention shall be open to all States for signature from 12 to 15 December 2000 in Palermo, Italy, and thereafter at United Nations Headquarters in New York until 12 December 2002.
2. This Convention shall also be open for signature by regional economic integration organizations provided that at least one member State of such organization has signed this Convention in accordance with paragraph 1 of this article.
3. This Convention is subject to ratification, acceptance or approval. Instruments of ratification, acceptance or approval shall be deposited with the Secretary-General of the United Nations. A regional economic integration organization may deposit its instrument of ratification, acceptance or approval if at least one of its member States has done likewise. In that instrument of ratification, acceptance or approval, such organization shall declare the extent of its competence with respect to the matters governed by this Convention. Such organization shall also inform the depositary of any relevant modification in the extent of its competence.
4. This Convention is open for accession by any State or any regional economic integration organization of which at least one member State is a Party to this Convention. Instruments of accession shall be deposited with the Secretary-General of the United Nations. At the time of its accession, a regional economic integration organization shall declare the extent of its competence with respect to matters governed by this Convention. Such organization shall also inform the depositary of any relevant modification in the extent of its competence.
Article 37
Relation with protocols
1. This Convention may be supplemented by one or more protocols.
2. In order to become a Party to a protocol, a State or a regional economic integration organization must also be a Party to this Convention.
3. A State Party to this Convention is not bound by a protocol unless it becomes a Party to the protocol in accordance with the provisions thereof.
4. Any protocol to this Convention shall be interpreted together with this Convention, taking into account the purpose of that protocol.
Article 38
Entry into force
1. This Convention shall enter into force on the ninetieth day after the date of deposit of the fortieth instrument of ratification, acceptance, approval or accession. For the purpose of this paragraph, any instrument deposited by a regional economic integration organization shall not be counted as additional to those deposited by member States of such organization.
2. For each State or regional economic integration organization ratifying, accepting, approving or acceding to this Convention after the deposit of the fortieth instrument of such action, this Convention shall enter into force on the thirtieth day after the date of deposit by such State or organization of the relevant instrument.
Article 39
Amendment
1. After the expiry of five years from the entry into force of this Convention, a State Party may propose an amendment and file it with the Secretary-General of the United Nations, who shall thereupon communicate the proposed amendment to the States Parties and to the Conference of the Parties to the Convention for the purpose of considering and deciding on the proposal. The Conference of the Parties shall make every effort to achieve consensus on each amendment. If all efforts at consensus have been exhausted and no agreement has been reached, the amendment shall, as a last resort, require for its adoption a two-thirds majority vote of the States Parties present and voting at the meeting of the Conference of the Parties.
2. Regional economic integration organizations, in matters within their competence, shall exercise their right to vote under this article with a number of votes equal to the number of their member States that are Parties to this Convention. Such organizations shall not exercise their right to vote if their member States exercise theirs and vice versa.
3. An amendment adopted in accordance with paragraph 1 of this article is subject to ratification, acceptance or approval by States Parties.
4. An amendment adopted in accordance with paragraph 1 of this article shall enter into force in respect of a State Party ninety days after the date of the deposit with the Secretary-General of the United Nations of an instrument of ratification, acceptance or approval of such amendment.
5. When an amendment enters into force, it shall be binding on those States Parties which have expressed their consent to be bound by it. Other States Parties shall still be bound by the provisions of this Convention and any earlier amendments that they have ratified, accepted or approved.
Article 40
Denunciation
1. A State Party may denounce this Convention by written notification to the Secretary-General of the United Nations. Such denunciation shall become effective one year after the date of receipt of the notification by the Secretary-General.
2. A regional economic integration organization shall cease to be a Party to this Convention when all of its member States have denounced it.
3. Denunciation of this Convention in accordance with paragraph 1 of this article shall entail the denunciation of any protocols thereto.
Article 41
Depositary and languages
1. The Secretary-General of the United Nations is designated depositary of this Convention.
2. The original of this Convention, of which the Arabic, Chinese, English, French, Russian and Spanish texts are equally authentic, shall be deposited with the Secretary-General of the United Nations.
IN WITNESS WHEREOF, the undersigned plenipotentiaries, being duly authorized thereto by their respective Governments, have signed this Convention.
KONVENCIJA ZDRUŽENIH NARODOV
PROTI MEDNARODNEMU ORGANIZIRANEMU KRIMINALU
1. člen
Opredelitev cilja
Cilj konvencije je krepitev sodelovanja za učinkovitejše preprečevanje in zatiranje mednarodnega organiziranega kriminala.
2. člen
Uporaba pojmov
V tej konvenciji:
(a) »organizirana kriminalna združba« pomeni strukturirano skupino treh ali več oseb, ki v daljšem časovnem obdobju usklajeno deluje z namenom storitve enega ali več hudih kaznivih dejanj po tej konvenciji, da bi neposredno ali posredno pridobila finančne ali druge premoženjske koristi;
(b) »hudo kaznivo dejanje« pomeni kaznivo dejanje, ki se kaznuje najmanj s štirimi leti zapora ali strožjo kaznijo;
(c) »strukturirana skupina« pomeni skupino, ki se ni naključno oblikovala za neposredno storitev kaznivega dejanja, za katero pa ni nujno, da so vloge članov formalno določene, da je članstvo v njej trajno ali da ima zahtevno strukturo;
(d) »premoženje« pomeni sredstva vsake vrste, materialna ali nematerialna, premična ali nepremična, denarna ali druga ter pravne dokumente ali instrumente, ki dokazujejo upravičenost ali interese do teh sredstev;
(e) »premoženjska korist, pridobljena s kaznivim dejanjem« pomeni vsako premoženje, ki izhaja iz kaznivega dejanja ali je z njim neposredno ali posredno pridobljeno;
(f) »zamrznitev« ali »zaseg« pomeni začasno prepoved prenosa, menjave, razpolaganja ali gibanja premoženja ali začasno hrambo ali nadzor premoženja na podlagi odredbe sodišča ali drugega pristojnega organa;
(g) »odvzem« pomeni trajni odvzem premoženja po odredbi sodišča ali drugega pristojnega organa;
(h) »predhodno kaznivo dejanje« pomeni vsako kaznivo dejanje, s katerim je bila pridobljena protipravna premoženjska korist, ki lahko postane predmet kaznivega dejanja, določenega v 6. členu te konvencije;
(i) »nadzorovana pošiljka« pomeni metodo, ki dopušča vstop, prehod ali izstop protipravnih ali sumljivih pošiljk na ozemlje, čezenj ali z ozemlja ene ali več držav ob vednosti in pod nadzorom njihovih pristojnih organov z namenom preiskave kaznivega dejanja in identifikacije oseb, udeleženih pri storitvi tega kaznivega dejanja;
(j) »regionalna organizacija za gospodarsko povezovanje« pomeni organizacijo, ki jo sestavljajo suverene države posamezne regije, na katero so države, njene članice, prenesle pristojnosti glede zadev, ki jih ureja ta konvencija, in je bila skladno s svojimi notranjimi postopki ustrezno pooblaščena za podpis, ratifikacijo, sprejetje in odobritev konvencije ali pristop k njej; sklicevanje na »pogodbenice« po tej konvenciji se nanaša na take organizacije v okviru njihove pristojnosti.
3. člen
Področje uporabe
1. Razen če ni drugače določeno, se ta konvencija uporablja za preprečevanje, preiskavo in kazenski pregon:
(a) kaznivih dejanj, določenih v 5., 6., 8. in 23. členu te konvencije, in
(b) hudih kaznivih dejanj, določenih v 2. členu te konvencije,
kadar je kaznivo dejanje mednarodne narave in je vanj vpletena organizirana kriminalna združba.
2. Kaznivo dejanje po prvem odstavku tega člena je mednarodne narave, če:
(a) je storjeno v več kot eni državi;
(b) je storjeno v eni državi, vendar se precejšen del priprav, načrtovanja, vodenja ali usmerjanja odvija v drugi državi;
(c) je storjeno v eni državi in je vanj vpletena organizirana kriminalna združba, ki se ukvarja s kriminalnimi dejavnostmi v več kot eni državi;
(d) je storjeno v eni državi, vendar ima precejšnje posledice v drugi državi.
4. člen
Zaščita suverenosti
1. Države pogodbenice izpolnjujejo svoje obveznosti po tej konvenciji skladno z načeli suverene enakosti in ozemeljske nedotakljivosti držav ter načelom nevmešavanja v notranje zadeve drugih držav.
2. Nobena določba te konvencije ne pooblašča države pogodbenice, da na ozemlju druge države izvaja svojo sodno pristojnost ali naloge, ki so izključno v pristojnosti državnih organov te države skladno z njenim notranjim pravom.
5. člen
Kaznivost sodelovanja v organizirani kriminalni združbi
1. Vsaka država pogodbenica sprejme zakonodajne in druge ukrepe, potrebne, da se kot kazniva določijo dejanja, kadar so storjena naklepno:
(a) eno ali drugo ali obe ravnanji, ki nista poskus ali dokončanje kaznivega dejanja:
(i) dogovor z eno ali več osebami za storitev hudega kaznivega dejanja z namenom neposredne ali posredne pridobitve finančne ali druge premoženjske koristi in v skladu z notranjim pravom države tudi dejanje, ki ga stori eden od udeležencev v skladu z dogovorom ali ob vpletenosti organizirane kriminalne združbe;
(ii) ravnanje osebe, ki, seznanjena s ciljem in splošno kriminalno dejavnostjo organizirane kriminalne združbe ali njenim naklepom, da stori zadevna kazniva dejanja, dejavno sodeluje pri:
a. kriminalnih dejavnostih organizirane kriminalne združbe;
b. drugih dejavnostih organizirane kriminalne združbe ob vedenju, da bo njeno sodelovanje prispevalo k uresničitvi navedenih ciljev;
(b) organizacija, vodenje, pomoč, napeljevanje, olajševanje ali svetovanje pri izvedbi hudega kaznivega dejanja, v katero je vpletena organizirana kriminalna združba.
2. Vedenje, naklep, cilj, namen ali dogovor iz prvega odstavka tega člena se lahko ugotavlja na podlagi objektivnih dejanskih okoliščin.
3. Države pogodbenice, katerih notranje pravo za kazniva dejanja, ki so določena v točki i pododstavka a prvega odstavka tega člena, zahteva vpletenost organizirane kriminalne združbe, zagotovijo, da njihova notranja zakonodaja zajema vsa huda kazniva dejanja, v katera so vpletene organizirane kriminalne združbe. Te države pogodbenice kakor tudi tiste države pogodbenice, katerih notranje pravo za kazniva dejanja, določena v skladu s točko i pododstavka a prvega odstavka tega člena, zahteva ravnanje kot nadaljevanje dogovora, ob podpisu ali deponiranju listine o ratifikaciji, sprejetju, odobritvi konvencije ali pristopu k njej o tem obvestijo generalnega sekretarja Združenih narodov.
6. člen
Kaznivost pranja premoženjske koristi, pridobljene s kaznivim dejanjem
1. Vsaka država pogodbenica v skladu s temeljnimi načeli svojega notranjega prava sprejme zakonodajne in druge ukrepe, potrebne, da se kot kazniva določijo dejanja, kadar so storjena naklepno:
(a) (i) menjava ali prenos premoženja z vednostjo, da gre za premoženjsko korist, pridobljeno s kaznivim dejanjem, da se prikrije nezakonit izvor premoženja ali pomaga osebi, vpleteni v storitev predhodnega kaznivega dejanja, da se izogne pravnim posledicam tega dejanja;
(ii) skrivanje ali prikrivanje prave narave, izvora, kraja, razpolaganja, gibanja ali lastništva premoženja ali pravic v zvezi z njim, kadar se ve, da je tako premoženje premoženjska korist;
(b) v skladu s temeljnimi načeli svojega notranjega prava tudi:
(i) pridobitev, posest ali uporaba premoženja, kadar se ob prejemu ve, da je bilo tako premoženje premoženjska korist;
(ii) udeležba, povezovanje ali tajen dogovor o storitvi ali poskusu storitve kaznivega dejanja, določenega v skladu s tem členom, ter pomoč, napeljevanje, omogočanje in svetovanje pri storitvi takega kaznivega dejanja.
2. Za izvajanje ali uporabo prvega odstavka tega člena:
(a) vsaka država pogodbenica uporablja prvi odstavek tega člena za čim širši obseg predhodnih kaznivih dejanj;
(b) vsaka država pogodbenica med predhodna kazniva dejanja uvrsti vsa huda kazniva dejanja, kot so določena v 2. členu te konvencije, in kazniva dejanja, določena v 5., 8. in 23. členu te konvencije. Države pogodbenice, katerih zakonodaja vsebuje seznam določenih predhodnih kaznivih dejanj, vanj vključijo čim več kaznivih dejanj, v katera so vpletene organizirane kriminalne združbe.
(c) za namene pododstavka b predhodna kazniva dejanja vključujejo dejanja, storjena v sodni pristojnosti države pogodbenice in zunaj nje. Dejanja, storjena zunaj sodne pristojnosti države pogodbenice, so predhodna kazniva dejanja le, če so kazniva po notranjem pravu države, v kateri je bilo dejanje storjeno, in bi bila kazniva tudi po notranjem pravu države pogodbenice, ki izvaja ali uporablja ta člen, če bi do njih prišlo na njenem ozemlju;
(d) vsaka država pogodbenica generalnemu sekretarju Združenih narodov pošlje kopije svojih zakonov, ki uveljavljajo ta člen, prav tako pa tudi vse njihove naknadne spremembe ali njihov opis;
(e) če to zahtevajo temeljna načela notranjega prava pogodbenice, se lahko določi, da se kazniva dejanja, navedena v prvem odstavku tega člena, ne nanašajo na osebe, ki so storile predhodno kaznivo dejanje;
(f) vedenje, naklep ali namen iz prvega odstavka tega člena se lahko ugotavlja na podlagi objektivnih dejanskih okoliščin.
7. člen
Ukrepi za preprečevanje pranja denarja
1. Vsaka država pogodbenica:
(a) zaradi odkrivanja in preprečevanja vseh oblik pranja denarja znotraj svoje pristojnosti vzpostavi obširen notranji sistem predpisov in nadzora za banke in druge finančne ustanove, in če je to potrebno, za druge organe, posebej občutljive za pranje denarja; ta sistem poudarja zahteve po identifikaciji strank, vodenje evidenc in poročanje o sumljivih transakcijah;
(b) zagotovi, ne da bi s tem posegala v 18. in 27. člen te konvencije, da imajo upravni organi, organi kazenskega pregona in drugi organi, katerih naloga je boj proti pranju denarja (vključno s sodišči, če tako narekuje notranje pravo države), možnost za sodelovanje in izmenjavo informacij na državni in mednarodni ravni pod pogoji, ki jih določa notranji pravni red, in v ta namen preučijo možnosti za ustanovitev finančne obveščevalne enote, ki bi bila državni center za zbiranje, analizo in dajanje informacij o možnem pranju denarja.
2. Države pogodbenice preučijo izvedljive ukrepe za odkrivanje in spremljanje gotovine in ustreznih prenosljivih vrednostnih papirjev čez svoje meje z zaščitnimi ukrepi, ki zagotavljajo ustrezno uporabo informacij in na noben način ne ovirajo gibanja zakonitega kapitala. Ti ukrepi lahko vključujejo zahtevo, da posamezniki in pravne osebe poročajo o prenosu večjih količin gotovine in ustreznih prenosljivih vrednostnih papirjev čez meje.
3. Pri vzpostavljanju notranjega sistema predpisov in nadzora po določbah tega člena ter brez poseganja v kateri koli drug člen te konvencije naj države pogodbenice kot usmeritve uporabljajo ustrezne pobude regionalnih, medregionalnih in večstranskih organizacij proti pranju denarja.
4. Države pogodbenice si prizadevajo, da razvijajo in pospešujejo globalno, regionalno, subregionalno in dvostransko sodelovanje med sodnimi organi, organi odkrivanja in pregona in organi za finančni nadzor za boj proti pranju denarja.
8. člen
Kaznivost korupcije
1. Vsaka država pogodbenica sprejme zakonodajne in druge ukrepe, potrebne, da se kot kazniva določijo dejanja, kadar so storjena naklepno:
(a) neposredno ali posredno obljubljanje, ponujanje ali dajanje neupravičenih ugodnosti javnemu uslužbencu, zanj ali za drugo fizično ali pravno osebo, da uslužbenec pri izvajanju svojih uradnih dolžnosti opravi uradno dejanje ali ga ne opravi;
(b) če javni uslužbenec posredno ali neposredno zase ali za drugo fizično ali pravno osebo zahteva ali sprejme neupravičeno ugodnost, da uslužbenec pri izvajanju svojih uradnih dolžnosti opravi uradno dejanje ali ga ne opravi.
2. Vsaka država pogodbenica preuči sprejem zakonodajnih ali drugih ukrepov, potrebnih, da se kot kaznivo določi ravnanje, opisano v prvem odstavku tega člena, v katero je vpleten tuj ali mednarodni javni uslužbenec. Prav tako vsaka država pogodbenica preuči določitev drugih oblik korupcije za kazniva dejanja.
3. Vsaka država pogodbenica sprejme ukrepe, potrebne, da se kot kaznivo dejanje določi tudi sostorilstvo pri kaznivem dejanju iz tega člena.
4. Za namene prvega odstavka tega člena in 9. člena te konvencije je »javni uslužbenec« javni uslužbenec ali oseba, ki opravlja javno službo, kot jo določa notranje pravo in se uporablja v kazenski zakonodaji države pogodbenice, v kateri ta oseba opravlja svojo funkcijo.
9. člen
Ukrepi proti korupciji
1. Razen ukrepov, določenih v 8. členu te konvencije, vsaka država pogodbenica v skladu s svojim pravnim redom sprejme ustrezne zakonske, upravne ali druge učinkovite ukrepe za zagotavljanje integritete in preprečevanje, odkrivanje in kaznovanje podkupovanja javnih uslužbencev.
2. Vsaka država pogodbenica sprejme ukrepe za učinkovito delovanje svojih organov pri preprečevanju, odkrivanju in kaznovanju korupcije javnih uslužbencev, tudi z zagotavljanjem ustrezne neodvisnosti teh organov, da se prepreči neprimeren vpliv nanje.
10. člen
Odgovornost pravnih oseb
1. Država pogodbenica skladno s svojimi pravnimi načeli sprejme potrebne ukrepe za določitev odgovornosti pravnih oseb za udeležbo pri hudih kaznivih dejanjih, v katera so vpletene organizirane kriminalne združbe, in pri kaznivih dejanjih, določenih v skladu s 5., 6., 8. in 23. členom te konvencije.
2. Skladno s pravnimi načeli države pogodbenice je odgovornost pravnih oseb lahko kazenska, civilna ali upravna.
3. Taka odgovornost ne posega v kazensko odgovornost fizičnih oseb, ki so storile kazniva dejanja.
4. Država pogodbenica še posebej zagotovi, da so pravne osebe, odgovorne po določbah tega člena, kaznovane z učinkovitimi, sorazmernimi in odvračilnimi kazenskimi ali nekazenskimi sankcijami, vključno z denarnimi kaznimi.
11. člen
Kazenski pregon, sojenje in sankcije
1. Država pogodbenica za storitev kaznivega dejanja, določenega v skladu s 5., 6., 8. in 23. členom te konvencije, določi sankcije glede na težo takega kaznivega dejanja.
2. Država pogodbenica si prizadeva za tako izvajanje diskrecijskih pooblastil po notranjem pravu, ki se nanašajo na kazenski pregon oseb zaradi kaznivih dejanj, ki jih zajema ta konvencija, da se zagotovi kar največja učinkovitost ukrepov kazenskega pregona za ta kazniva dejanja in ob upoštevanju odvračanja od takih kaznivih dejanj.
3. V primeru kaznivih dejanj, določenih v skladu s 5., 6., 8. in 23. členom te konvencije, vsaka država pogodbenica sprejme ustrezne ukrepe skladno s svojim notranjim pravom in ob upoštevanju pravic obrambe, s katerimi skuša zagotoviti, da pogoji v zvezi z odločitvami o izpustitvi na prostost med sojenjem ali pritožbenim postopkom upoštevajo, da je treba zagotoviti navzočnost obdolženca v nadaljnjem kazenskem postopku.
4. Država pogodbenica zagotovi, da njena sodišča ali drugi pristojni organi upoštevajo težo kaznivih dejanj, ki jih zajema ta konvencija, ob obravnavi možnosti za predčasno izpustitev na prostost ali pogojni odpust oseb, obsojenih za taka kazniva dejanja.
5. Kadar je to primerno, država pogodbenica skladno s svojim notranjim pravom določi dolg rok za zastaranje kazenskega pregona za katero koli kaznivo dejanje, ki ga zajema ta konvencija, in daljši rok, če se je domnevni storilec izognil pravici.
6. Nobena določba te konvencije ne vpliva na načelo, da opis kaznivih dejanj, določenih v tej konvenciji, in ustrezno obrambo ali druga pravna načela za nadzor nad zakonitostjo ravnanja ureja notranje pravo države pogodbenice in da se ta kazniva dejanja preganjajo in kaznujejo v skladu s tem pravom.
12. člen
Odvzem in zaseg
1. Države pogodbenice v skladu s svojim pravnim redom sprejmejo ukrepe, ki v največji mogoči meri omogočajo odvzem:
(a) premoženjske koristi, pridobljene s kaznivimi dejanji, ki jih zajema ta konvencija, ali premoženja, katerega vrednost ustreza višini take koristi;
(b) premoženja, opreme ali drugih predmetov, uporabljenih ali namenjenih za uporabo pri kaznivih dejanjih, ki jih zajema ta konvencija.
2. Države pogodbenice zaradi morebitnega odvzema sprejmejo potrebne ukrepe za identifikacijo, odkrivanje, zamrznitev ali zaseg sredstev iz prvega odstavka tega člena.
3. Če je bila premoženjska korist, pridobljena s kaznivim dejanjem, v celoti ali deloma spremenjena v drugo premoženje, se tudi zoper to premoženje uporabijo ukrepi iz tega člena.
4. Če je premoženjska korist, pridobljena s kaznivim dejanjem, pomešana z zakonito pridobljenim premoženjem, se tako premoženje ne glede na pooblastila v zvezi z zamrznitvijo ali zasegom odvzame do ocenjene vrednosti premoženjske koristi, pridobljene s kaznivim dejanjem.
5. Za dohodek ali druge koristi iz premoženjske koristi, pridobljene s kaznivim dejanjem, iz premoženja, v katero so se spremenile ali s katerim so se pomešale, prav tako veljajo ukrepi iz tega člena na enak način in v enakem obsegu kot za premoženjsko korist, pridobljeno s kaznivim dejanjem.
6. Za namene tega člena in 13. člena te konvencije država pogodbenica pooblasti svoja sodišča ali druge pristojne organe, da odredijo, da se bančna, finančna ali poslovna dokumentacija predloži ali zaseže. Države pogodbenice ne smejo zavrniti ukrepanja po določbah tega odstavka zaradi bančne tajnosti.
7. Države pogodbenice lahko predvidijo možnost, da od storilca kaznivega dejanja zahtevajo, da dokaže zakoniti izvor domnevne premoženjske koristi, pridobljene s kaznivim dejanjem, ali drugega premoženja, ki naj bi se odvzelo, do obsega, če je ta zahteva v skladu z načeli njihovega notranjega prava in naravo sodnih in drugih postopkov.
8. Določbe tega člena se ne smejo razlagati tako, da posegajo v pravice dobrovernih tretjih oseb.
9. Nobena določba tega člena ne vpliva na načelo, da se ukrepi, na katere se člen nanaša, določijo in izvajajo v skladu z določbami notranjega prava države pogodbenice.
13. člen
Mednarodno sodelovanje zaradi odvzema
1. Država pogodbenica, ki od druge države pogodbenice, pristojne za kaznivo dejanje po tej konvenciji, prejme zaprosilo za odvzem premoženjske koristi, pridobljene s kaznivim dejanjem, premoženja, opreme ali drugih predmetov, navedenih v prvem odstavku 12. člena te konvencije, in so na njenem ozemlju, v največjem mogočem obsegu v skladu s svojim pravnim redom:
(a) predloži zaprosilo svojim pristojnim organom, da izdajo odredbo za odvzem, in če je izdana, jo tudi izvrši, ali
(b) predloži svojim pristojnim organom odredbo za odvzem, ki jo je skladno s prvim odstavkom 12. člena te konvencije izdalo sodišče pogodbenice prosilke, da odredbo izvršijo do zaprošenega obsega, če se nanaša na premoženjsko korist, premoženje, opremo ali druge predmete, navedene v prvem odstavku 12. člena, in so na ozemlju zaprošene pogodbenice.
2. Skladno z zaprosilom druge države pogodbenice, pristojne za kaznivo dejanje po tej konvenciji, zaprošena pogodbenica sprejme ukrepe za identifikacijo, odkrivanje in zamrznitev ali zaseg premoženjske koristi, pridobljene s kaznivim dejanjem, premoženja, opreme ali drugih predmetov, navedenih v prvem odstavku 12. člena konvencije, zaradi morebitnega odvzema, ki ga odredi pogodbenica prosilka ali zaprošena pogodbenica v skladu z zaprosilom iz prvega odstavka tega člena.
3. Določbe 18. člena konvencije se mutatis mutandis nanašajo na ta člen. Poleg podatkov, navedenih v petnajstem odstavku 18. člena, zaprosila skladno s tem členom vsebujejo:
(a) če gre za zaprosilo po pododstavku a prvega odstavka tega člena, opis premoženja, ki naj se odvzame, ter opis dejstev, na katere se sklicuje pogodbenica prosilka in zaprošeni pogodbenici zadostujejo, da pridobi odredbe po svojem notranjem pravu;
(b) če gre za zaprosilo po pododstavku b prvega odstavka tega člena, pravno sprejemljiv izvod odredbe za odvzem, ki jo je izdala pogodbenica prosilka in na kateri temelji zaprosilo, opis dejstev in podatke, do katerega obsega se zahteva izvršitev odredbe;
(c) če gre za zaprosilo po drugem odstavku tega člena, opis dejstev, na katera se sklicuje pogodbenica prosilka, ter opis zaprošenih ukrepov.
4. Zaprošena pogodbenica sprejme odločitve ali ukrepe po prvem in drugem odstavku tega člena v skladu z določbami svojega notranjega prava in postopkovnimi pravili ali dvostranskimi ali večstranskimi pogodbami, sporazumi ali dogovori, ki jo zavezujejo do pogodbenice prosilke.
5. Vsaka pogodbenica pošlje generalnemu sekretarju Združenih narodov kopije svojih zakonov in predpisov, s katerimi uveljavlja ta člen, prav tako pa tudi vse njihove naknadne spremembe ali njihov opis.
6. Če država pogodbenica sprejem ukrepov iz prvega in drugega odstavka tega člena pogojuje z obstojem ustrezne pogodbe, to konvencijo šteje za potrebno in zadostno pogodbeno podlago.
7. Država pogodbenica lahko odkloni sodelovanje po tem členu, če kaznivo dejanje, na katero se nanaša zaprosilo, ni kaznivo dejanje po tej konvenciji.
8. Določbe tega člena se ne smejo razlagati tako, da posegajo v pravice dobrovernih tretjih oseb.
9. Države pogodbenice preučijo možnosti za sklenitev dvostranskih ali večstranskih pogodb, sporazumov ali dogovorov, da bi tako povečale učinkovitost mednarodnega sodelovanja na podlagi tega člena.
14. člen
Razpolaganje z odvzeto premoženjsko koristjo, pridobljeno s kaznivim dejanjem, ali premoženjem
1. S premoženjsko koristjo, pridobljeno s kaznivim dejanjem, ali premoženjem, ki ga država pogodbenica vzame po določbah 12. člena ali prvega odstavka 13. člena te konvencije, razpolaga skladno s svojim notranjim pravom in upravnimi postopki.
2. Kadar ukrepajo na podlagi zaprosila druge države pogodbenice skladno s 13. členom te konvencije, države pogodbenice, če to dopušča njihovo notranje pravo in če je tako zaprošeno, prednostno obravnavajo vrnitev odvzete premoženjske koristi, pridobljene s kaznivim dejanjem, ali premoženja pogodbenici prosilki, da lahko ta da odškodnino žrtvam kaznivega dejanja ali vrne premoženjsko korist, pridobljeno s kaznivim dejanjem, ali premoženje njegovim zakonitim lastnikom.
3. Kadar država pogodbenica ukrepa na podlagi zaprosila druge države pogodbenice skladno z 12. in 13. členom te konvencije, lahko posebej preuči sklenitev sporazumov ali dogovorov o:
(a) prenosu vrednosti odvzete premoženjske koristi, pridobljene s kaznivim dejanjem, ali premoženja ali sredstev, ki izvirajo iz prodaje te koristi ali premoženja ali njihovega dela, na račun, določen v pododstavku c drugega odstavka 30. člena te konvencije, in medvladnim organizacijam, specializiranim za boj proti organiziranemu kriminalu;
(b) delitvi odvzete premoženjske koristi, pridobljene s kaznivim dejanjem, ali premoženja ali sredstev, ki izvirajo iz prodaje te koristi ali premoženja, z drugimi pogodbenicami v vseh ali v posameznih primerih, v skladu s svojim notranjim pravom.
15. člen
Sodna pristojnost
1. Vsaka država pogodbenica sprejme ukrepe, potrebne za določitev njene sodne pristojnosti za kazniva dejanja po 5., 6., 8. in 23. členu te konvencije, kadar:
(a) je kaznivo dejanje storjeno na njenem ozemlju ali
(b) je kaznivo dejanje storjeno na ladji, ki pluje pod njeno zastavo, ali na letalu, registriranem po njeni zakonodaji v času, ko je bilo storjeno kaznivo dejanje.
2. Ob upoštevanju 4. člena te konvencije lahko pogodbenica za ta kazniva dejanja določi svojo sodno pristojnost tudi, kadar:
(a) je kaznivo dejanje storjeno proti njenemu državljanu;
(b) je kaznivo dejanje storil njen državljan ali oseba brez državljanstva, ki ima stalno prebivališče na njenem ozemlju, ali
(c) gre za eno od kaznivih dejanj:
(i) po prvem odstavku 5. člena te konvencije in je storjeno zunaj njenega ozemlja z namenom izvršitve hudega kaznivega dejanja na njenem ozemlju;
(ii) po točki ii pododstavka b prvega odstavka 6. člena te konvencije in je storjeno zunaj njenega ozemlja z namenom izvršitve kaznivega dejanja po točki i ali ii pododstavka a prvega odstavka ali točki i pododstavka b prvega odstavka 6. člena te konvencije na njenem ozemlju.
3. Za namene desetega odstavka 16. člena te konvencije država pogodbenica sprejme ukrepe, potrebne za določitev njene sodne pristojnosti za kazniva dejanja po tej konvenciji, kadar je domnevni storilec na njenem ozemlju in ga pogodbenica ne izroči samo zato, ker ima njeno državljanstvo.
4. Država pogodbenica lahko sprejme ukrepe, potrebne za določitev njene sodne pristojnosti za kazniva dejanja po tej konvenciji, kadar je domnevni storilec na njenem ozemlju in ga ne izroči.
5. Kadar je država pogodbenica, ki izvaja svojo sodno pristojnost po prvem ali drugem odstavku tega člena, obveščena ali kako drugače izve, da ena ali več držav pogodbenic vodi preiskavo, kazenski pregon ali sodni postopek glede istega dejanja, se pristojni organi teh pogodbenic po potrebi posvetujejo, da uskladijo svoje ukrepanje.
6. Ta konvencija ne glede na norme splošnega mednarodnega prava ne izključuje izvajanja sodne pristojnosti v kazenskih zadevah, ki jo pogodbenica določi v skladu s svojim notranjim pravom.
16. člen
Izročitev
1. Ta člen se uporablja za kazniva dejanja, ki jih zajema ta konvencija, ali kadar je v kaznivo dejanje, navedeno v pododstavku a ali b prvega odstavka 3. člena te konvencije, vpletena organizirana kriminalna združba in je oseba, za izročitev katere se prosi, na ozemlju zaprošene pogodbenice, če je kaznivo dejanje, zaradi katerega se zahteva izročitev, kaznivo po notranjem pravu pogodbenice prosilke in zaprošene pogodbenice.
2. Če se prosi za izročitev zaradi več posameznih hudih kaznivih dejanj, med katerimi niso vsa zajeta v tem členu, lahko zaprošena pogodbenica uporabi ta člen tudi za ta kazniva dejanja.
3. Vsako kaznivo dejanje, za katero se uporablja ta člen, se šteje, da je vključeno v že obstoječe pogodbe o izročitvi med državami pogodbenicami kot kaznivo dejanje, zaradi katerega se storilec izroči. Države pogodbenice ta kazniva dejanja kot kazniva dejanja, za katera se storilec izroči, vključijo tudi v vsako pogodbo o izročitvi, ki jo bodo šele sklenile med seboj.
4. Če država pogodbenica, ki izročitev pogojuje s pogodbo, prejme prošnjo za izročitev od druge države pogodbenice, s katero nima sklenjene pogodbe o izročitvi, lahko šteje to konvencijo kot pravno podlago za izročitev glede katerega koli kaznivega dejanja, na katero se ta člen nanaša.
5. Države pogodbenice, ki izročitev pogojujejo s pogodbo:
(a) ob deponiranju listine o ratifikaciji, sprejetju ali odobritvi konvencije ali pristopu k njej obvestijo generalnega sekretarja Združenih narodov o tem, ali bodo to konvencijo vzele kot pravno podlago za sodelovanje pri izročitvah z drugimi državami pogodbenicami te konvencije in
(b) če te konvencije ne priznajo za pravno podlago za sodelovanje pri izročitvah, si zaradi izvajanja tega člena prizadevajo sklepati pogodbe o izročitvah z drugimi državami pogodbenicami te konvencije, kadar je to primerno.
6. Države pogodbenice, ki izročitve ne pogojujejo s pogodbo, štejejo kazniva dejanja, na katera se ta člen nanaša, za kazniva dejanja, za katera te države med seboj izročajo storilce.
7. Za izročitev veljajo pogoji, določeni z notranjim pravom zaprošene pogodbenice ali s pogodbami o izročitvi, ki se uporabljajo med državami pogodbenicami, vključno s pogoji glede najnižje zahtevane kazni za izročitev in razlogi, zaradi katerih lahko zaprošena pogodbenica odkloni izročitev.
8. Države pogodbenice si skladno s svojim notranjim pravom prizadevajo pospešiti postopke izročitev in poenostaviti s tem povezane zahteve po dokazih glede katerega koli kaznivega dejanja, na katero se nanaša ta člen.
9. Zaprošena pogodbenica lahko ob upoštevanju določb svojega notranjega prava in pogodb o izročitvi, ki jih je sklenila, na prošnjo pogodbenice prosilke in če meni, da okoliščine to opravičujejo in je zadeva nujna, pripre osebo, katere izročitev se zahteva in je na njenem ozemlju, ali sprejme druge ustrezne ukrepe za zagotovitev njene navzočnosti v postopku izročitve.
10. Če država pogodbenica, na katere ozemlju je domnevni storilec kaznivega dejanja po tem členu, te osebe ne izroči, ker je njen državljan, mora na prošnjo pogodbenice, ki prosi za izročitev, nemudoma predati zadevo svojim pristojnim organom zaradi kazenskega pregona. Ti organi se odločijo glede uvedbe postopka in njegovega vodenja na enak način kot pri katerem koli drugem hudem kaznivem dejanju po notranjem pravu te države pogodbenice. Države pogodbenice v takih primerih sodelujejo, še posebej v postopku in pri dokazih, da zagotovijo učinkovitost kazenskega pregona.
11. Če lahko država pogodbenica po svojem notranjem pravu izroči ali drugače preda svojega državljana le pod pogojem, da se bo vrnil v to državo pogodbenico na prestajanje kazni, ki mu je bila izrečena ob koncu sojenja ali postopka, zaradi katerega je bila izročitev ali predaja zaprošena, in se državi pogodbenici strinjata s tem pogojem in drugimi pogoji, ki se jima zdijo primerni, taka pogojna izročitev ali predaja zadošča za to, da obveznosti iz desetega odstavka tega člena ni treba izpolniti.
12. Če se izročitev, ki se zahteva zaradi izvršitve kazni, zavrne samo zato, ker je oseba, za izročitev katere se prosi, državljan zaprošene pogodbenice, ta, če to dopušča njeno notranje pravo in v skladu z zahtevami tega prava na prošnjo pogodbenice prosilke, preuči možnost izvršitve kazni, izrečene po notranjem pravu pogodbenice prosilke, ali njenega preostanka.
13. Vsaki osebi, proti kateri teče sodni postopek zaradi katerega koli kaznivega dejanja po tem členu, se zagotovi poštena obravnava na vseh stopnjah sodnega postopka, vključno z vsemi pravicami in jamstvi, ki jih določa notranje pravo pogodbenice, na ozemlju katere je ta oseba.
14. Nobena določba te konvencije se ne razlaga tako, da zaprošeno pogodbenico obvezuje k izročitvi, če ima utemeljene razloge, da meni, da je bila prošnja vložena zaradi kazenskega pregona ali kaznovanja osebe zaradi njenega spola, rase, vere, državljanstva, etničnega porekla ali političnega prepričanja, ali da bi ugoditev prošnji škodila položaju te osebe iz katerega koli navedenega razloga.
15. Države pogodbenice ne smejo zavrniti prošnje za izročitev samo zato, ker se šteje, da gre za kaznivo dejanje v zvezi z davki.
16. Preden zavrne izročitev, se zaprošena pogodbenica po potrebi posvetuje s pogodbenico prosilko in ji omogoči, da predstavi svoja mnenja in da informacije, ki se nanašajo na njene navedbe.
17. Države pogodbenice si prizadevajo za sklenitev dvostranskih ali večstranskih sporazumov ali dogovorov, ki bi omogočili izvedbo izročitev ali povečali njihovo učinkovitost.
17. člen
Premestitev obsojencev
Države pogodbenice lahko preučijo možnost za sklenitev dvostranskih ali večstranskih sporazumov ali dogovorov o premestitvi oseb, obsojenih na zaporno kazen, ali druge oblike odvzema prostosti za kazniva dejanja po tej konvenciji, na svoje ozemlje, da tam prestanejo svoje kazni.
18. člen
Medsebojna pravna pomoč
1. Države pogodbenice si v največji meri zagotavljajo medsebojno pravno pomoč pri preiskavah, kazenskem pregonu in sodnih postopkih zaradi kaznivih dejanj po tej konvenciji, kot jih določa 3. člen, in si vzajemno pomagajo, kadar pogodbenica prosilka utemeljeno domneva, da je kaznivo dejanje iz pododstavka a ali b prvega odstavka 3. člena mednarodne narave, in so žrtve, priče, premoženjska korist, pridobljena s kaznivim dejanjem, predmeti ali dokazi za taka kazniva dejanja v zaprošeni pogodbenici in je v kaznivo dejanje vpletena organizirana kriminalna združba.
2. Medsebojna pravna pomoč se zagotavlja v največjem mogočem obsegu po ustreznih zakonih, pogodbah, sporazumih in dogovorih zaprošene pogodbenice glede preiskav, kazenskega pregona in sodnih postopkov za kazniva dejanja, za katera so lahko v skladu z 10. členom te konvencije v pogodbenici prosilki odgovorne pravne osebe.
3. Za medsebojno pravno pomoč po tem členu se lahko zaprosi za kateri koli naslednji namen:
(a) zbiranje dokazov ali izjav oseb;
(b) vročitev sodnih dokumentov;
(c) preiskava, zaseg ali zamrznitev;
(d) ogled;
(e) zagotavljanje informacij, dokaznega gradiva in izvedenskih mnenj;
(f) zagotavljanje izvirnikov ali overjene kopije ustrezne dokumentacije, vključno z vladnimi, bančnimi, finančnimi, korporacijskimi ali poslovnimi dokumenti;
(g) identifikacija ali odkrivanje premoženjske koristi, pridobljene s kaznivim dejanjem, premoženja, predmetov ali drugih dokazov;
(h) prostovoljna navzočnost oseb v pogodbenici prosilki;
(i) kakršna koli druga vrsta pomoči, ki ni v nasprotju z notranjim pravom zaprošene pogodbenice.
4. Ne glede na notranje pravo lahko pristojni organi države pogodbenice brez predhodne prošnje dajejo informacije o kazenskih zadevah pristojnemu organu druge države pogodbenice, kadar menijo, da bi lahko pomagale pri izvajanju ali uspešnem dokončanju preiskav in kazenskih postopkov ali bi ta država pogodbenica na njihovi podlagi lahko sestavila zaprosilo skladno s to konvencijo.
5. Pošiljanje informacij po četrtem odstavku tega člena ne posega v preiskave in kazenske postopke v državi, v kateri so pristojni organi, ki priskrbijo informacije. Pristojni organi, ki prejmejo informacije, morajo upoštevati zahtevo po zaupnosti informacij, tudi če je začasna, ali po omejitvah njihove uporabe. To pa državi pogodbenici, ki je informacije prejela, ne preprečuje, da v sodnem postopku razkrije razbremenilne informacije za obtoženca. V takem primeru država prejemnica pred razkritjem o tem obvesti državo pošiljateljico in se z njo posvetuje, če to zahteva. Če v izjemnem primeru ni mogoče predhodno obvestilo, mora država prejemnica brez odlašanja obvestiti državo pošiljateljico o razkritju informacij.
6. Določbe tega člena ne vplivajo na obveznosti po drugih dvo- ali večstranskih pogodbah, ki v celoti ali delno urejajo ali bodo urejale medsebojno pravno pomoč.
7. Deveti do devetindvajseti odstavek tega člena se uporabljajo za zaprosila, izdana po tem členu, če držav pogodbenic ne zavezuje pogodba o medsebojni pravni pomoči. Če te države pogodbenice zavezuje pogodba, se uporabljajo njene ustrezne določbe, razen če se države pogodbenice ne dogovorijo, da se namesto njih uporabljajo deveti do devetindvajseti odstavek tega člena. Državam pogodbenicam se priporoča, da uporabljajo te odstavke, če se s tem olajša njihovo sodelovanje.
8. Države pogodbenice ne zavrnejo medsebojne pravne pomoči po tem členu zaradi bančne tajnosti.
9. Države pogodbenice lahko zavrnejo medsebojno pravno pomoč po tem členu, če ni identitete norme. Vendar pa lahko zaprošena pogodbenica, če se ji to zdi primerno, zagotovi pomoč v obsegu po lastni presoji, ne glede na to, ali bi bilo ravnanje kaznivo dejanje po notranjem pravu zaprošene pogodbenice.
10. Oseba, ki je pridržana ali prestaja kazen na ozemlju ene države pogodbenice in katere navzočnost se zahteva v drugi državi pogodbenici zaradi prepoznave, pričanja ali kakšne druge oblike pomoči pri pridobivanju dokazov za preiskavo, kazenski pregon ali sodne postopke v zvezi s kaznivimi dejanji po tej konvenciji, se lahko premesti, če sta izpolnjena dva pogoja:
(a) oseba je s tem seznanjena in prostovoljno pristane;
(b) pristojni organi obeh držav pogodbenic se s tem strinjajo pod pogoji, ki ustrezajo državama pogodbenicama.
11. Za namene desetega odstavka tega člena:
(a) ima država pogodbenica, v katero je oseba premeščena, pravico in dolžnost, da premeščeno osebo zadrži v priporu, razen če država pogodbenica, iz katere je bila oseba premeščena, ne zahteva ali odobri drugače;
(b) država pogodbenica, v katero je oseba premeščena, nemudoma izpolni svojo obveznost, da vrne osebo v pripor države pogodbenice, iz katere je bila oseba premeščena, kot so se predhodno ali drugače dogovorili pristojni organi obeh držav pogodbenic;
(c) država pogodbenica, v katero je oseba premeščena, ne zahteva od države pogodbenice, iz katere je bila oseba premeščena, da začne postopek za izročitev zaradi vrnitve te osebe;
(d) premeščeni osebi se čas, prebit v zaporu države pogodbenice, v katero je bila premeščena, všteje v kazen, ki jo prestaja v državi, iz katere je bila premeščena.
12. Oseba, ki je premeščena po desetem ali enajstem odstavku tega člena, se na ozemlju države, v katero je premeščena, ne glede na svoje državljanstvo kazensko ne preganja, pridrži, kaznuje ali se ji na kakršen koli drug način omeji prostost zaradi dejanj, opustitev ali obsodb pred njenim odhodom z ozemlja države, iz katere je bila premeščena, razen če se s tem strinja.
13. Vsaka država pogodbenica določi osrednji organ, odgovoren in pooblaščen za sprejem zaprosil za medsebojno pravno pomoč in njihovo izvedbo ali pošiljanje pristojnim organom v izvedbo. Če je v državi pogodbenici posebna regija ali ozemlje z drugačnim sistemom medsebojne pravne pomoči, lahko ta država pogodbenica imenuje poseben osrednji organ, ki ima enako vlogo za tisto regijo ali ozemlje. Osrednji organ zagotavlja hitro in pravilno izvajanje ali pošiljanje prejetih zaprosil. Če osrednji organ pošilja zaprosila v izvedbo pristojnemu organu, ga spodbuja, da hitro in pravilno izvede zaprosilo. Ob deponiranju listine o ratifikaciji, sprejetju ali odobritvi konvencije ali pristopu k njej vse države pogodbenice obvestijo generalnega sekretarja Združenih narodov o osrednjem organu, določenem v ta namen. Zaprosila za medsebojno pravno pomoč in vsa z njimi povezana sporočila se pošiljajo osrednjemu organu, ki ga določijo države pogodbenice. To ne posega v pravico države pogodbenice, da zahteva, da se ji taka zaprosila in sporočila pošiljajo po diplomatski poti, v nujnih okoliščinah, če se države pogodbenice s tem strinjajo, pa po možnosti prek Mednarodne organizacije kriminalistične policije.
14. Zaprosila so pisna, ali če je mogoče, sestavljena na kateri koli način, ki omogoča zapis, v jeziku, ki je sprejemljiv za zaprošeno pogodbenico, pod pogoji, ki omogočajo, da ugotovi verodostojnost zaprosila. Generalni sekretar Združenih narodov mora biti obveščen o jeziku ali jezikih, sprejemljivih za vsako državo pogodbenico ob deponiranju listine o ratifikaciji, sprejetju, odobritvi konvencije ali pristopu k njej. Če je to nujno in če se države pogodbenice tako dogovorijo, so zaprosila lahko ustna, vendar jih je treba nemudoma pisno potrditi.
15. Zaprosilo za medsebojno pravno pomoč mora vsebovati:
(a) ime in naslov organa, ki vlaga zaprosilo;
(b) predmet in vrsto preiskave, kazenskega pregona ali sodnega postopka, na katerega se zaprosilo nanaša, ter ime in funkcijo organa, ki vodi preiskavo, kazenski pregon ali sodni postopek;
(c) povzetek pomembnih dejstev, razen pri zaprosilih, katerih namen je vročitev sodnih dokumentov;
(d) opis zaprošene pomoči in podrobnosti vsakega posameznega postopka, za katerega pogodbenica prosilka želi, da bi se izvedel;
(e) če je to mogoče, identiteto, kraj bivanja in državljanstvo vseh zadevnih oseb;
(f) namen, za katerega se prosijo dokazi, informacije ali ukrepi.
16. Zaprošena pogodbenica lahko prosi za dodatne informacije, če se zdi, da je to potrebno zaradi izvedbe zaprosila v skladu z njenim notranjim pravom ali če to lahko olajša njegovo izvedbo.
17. Zaprosilo se izvede skladno z notranjim pravom zaprošene pogodbenice in postopki, navedenimi v zaprosilu, če to ni v nasprotju z notranjim pravom zaprošene pogodbenice in če je mogoče.
18. Država pogodbenica lahko, če je to mogoče in je skladno s temeljnimi načeli njenega notranjega prava, na zaprosilo druge države pogodbenice dovoli, da sodni organi te države pogodbenice z videokonferenco zaslišijo pričo ali izvedenca, ki je na njenem ozemlju, če osebna navzočnost zaslišanega na ozemlju pogodbenice prosilke ni mogoča ali zaželena. Države pogodbenice se lahko dogovorijo, da zaslišanje vodi sodni organ pogodbenice prosilke ob navzočnosti sodnega organa zaprošene pogodbenice.
19. Pogodbenica prosilka brez predhodnega soglasja zaprošene pogodbenice ne sme poslati ali uporabiti informacij ali dokazov, ki jih je priskrbela zaprošena pogodbenica, za tiste preiskave, kazenski pregon ali sodne postopke, ki niso navedeni v zaprosilu. Nobena določba tega odstavka ne preprečuje pogodbenici prosilki, da v svojem sodnem postopku ne razkrije informacij ali dokazov, razbremenilnih za obtoženca. V tem primeru pogodbenica prosilka o tem obvesti zaprošeno pogodbenico še pred razkritjem in se, če je tako zahtevano, tudi posvetuje z njo. Če izjemoma predhodno obvestilo ni mogoče, pogodbenica prosilka o razkritju nemudoma obvesti zaprošeno pogodbenico.
20. Pogodbenica prosilka lahko zahteva, da zaprošena pogodbenica obstoj in vsebino zaprosila ohrani v tajnosti, razen če to ni potrebno za njegovo izvedbo. Če zaprošena pogodbenica ne more izpolniti tega pogoja, o tem takoj obvesti pogodbenico prosilko.
21. Medsebojna pravna pomoč se lahko zavrne:
(a) če zaprosilo ni sestavljeno v skladu z določbami tega člena;
(b) če zaprošena pogodbenica presodi, da bi izvedba zaprosila lahko ogrozila njeno suverenost, varnost, javni red ali druge bistvene interese;
(c) če notranje pravo zaprošene pogodbenice njenim organom ne bi dopuščalo izvedbe zaprošenih ukrepov pri podobnem kaznivemu dejanju, katerega preiskava, kazenski pregon ali sodni postopek bi bil v njeni sodni pristojnosti;
(d) če bi bila ugoditev zaprosilu v nasprotju s pravnim redom zaprošene pogodbenice.
22. Države pogodbenice ne smejo zavrniti zaprosila za medsebojno pravno pomoč zato, ker se šteje, da gre za kaznivo dejanje v zvezi z davki.
23. Vsako zavrnitev medsebojne pravne pomoči je treba obrazložiti.
24. Zaprošena pogodbenica čim prej izvede zaprosilo za medsebojno pravno pomoč in kolikor mogoče upošteva vse roke, ki jih predlaga pogodbenica prosilka in so po možnosti obrazloženi že v zaprosilu. Zaprošena pogodbenica odgovori pogodbenici prosilki na njene upravičene poizvedbe o napredku pri obravnavi njenega zaprosila. Pogodbenica prosilka mora takoj obvestiti zaprošeno pogodbenico, če zaprošena pomoč ni več potrebna.
25. Zaprošena pogodbenica lahko odloži izvedbo zaprosila za medsebojno pravno pomoč, če ovira potek preiskave, kazenskega pregona ali sodnega postopka.
26. Zaprošena pogodbenica se, preden zavrne zaprosilo po enaindvajsetem odstavku tega člena ali odloži njegovo izvedbo po petindvajsetem odstavku tega člena, posvetuje s pogodbenico prosilko, da se ugotovi, ali lahko zagotovi pomoč pod pogoji, ki jih šteje za potrebne. Če pogodbenica prosilka sprejme pomoč pod temi pogoji, jih mora upoštevati.
27. Ne glede na dvanajsti odstavek tega člena se priča, izvedenec ali druga oseba, ki na prošnjo pogodbenice prosilke soglaša s pričanjem v sodnem postopku ali s pomočjo pri preiskavi, kazenskem pregonu ali sodnem postopku na ozemlju pogodbenice prosilke, kazensko ne preganja, pridrži, kaznuje ali se ji na kakršen koli drug način omeji prostost na tem ozemlju za dejanja, opustitve ali obsodbe pred odhodom z ozemlja zaprošene pogodbenice. Ta zaščita preneha, če priča, izvedenec ali druga oseba po poteku 15 zaporednih dni ali kakršnem koli drugem obdobju, za katero sta se državi pogodbenici dogovorili, od dne, ko je bila uradno obveščena, da njena navzočnost, ki so jo zahtevali sodni organi, ni več potrebna in je imela možnost, da odide z ozemlja te države, kljub temu prostovoljno ostane na ozemlju pogodbenice prosilke ali se je nanj prostovoljno vrnila, ko ga je že zapustila.
28. Redne stroške za izvedbo zaprosil krije zaprošena pogodbenica, če se državi pogodbenici ne dogovorita drugače. Če izvedba zaprosila zahteva velike ali izredne stroške, se državi pogodbenici posvetujeta, da določita pogoje, po katerih se bo zaprosilo izvedlo, in kako se bodo krili stroški.
29. Zaprošena pogodbenica:
(a) pogodbenici prosilki priskrbi izvode vladne dokumentacije ali informacij, s katerimi razpolaga in so po notranjem pravu dostopne javnosti;
(b) lahko po svoji presoji pogodbenici prosilki priskrbi v celoti, deloma ali pod pogoji, ki se ji zdijo ustrezni, izvode kakršne koli vladne dokumentacije ali informacij, s katerimi razpolaga in ki po notranjem pravu niso dostopne javnosti.
30. Države pogodbenice po potrebi preučijo možnost sklepanja dvo- ali večstranskih sporazumov ali dogovorov, namenjenih boljšemu izvajanju določb tega člena.
19. člen
Skupne preiskave
Države pogodbenice preučijo možnost sklepanja dvo- ali večstranskih sporazumov ali dogovorov, s katerimi pristojni organi ustanovijo skupne preiskovalne organe za zadeve, o katerih tečejo preiskave, kazenski pregon ali sodni postopki v eni ali več državah. Če takih sporazumov ali dogovorov ne sklenejo, lahko skupne preiskave potekajo po dogovoru za vsak posamezen primer. Države pogodbenice, ki jih to zadeva, zagotovijo, da se v celoti spoštuje suverenost države pogodbenice, na ozemlju katere naj bi preiskava potekala.
20. člen
Posebne preiskovalne metode
1. Vsaka država pogodbenica po svojih možnostih in pod pogoji, predpisanimi z njenim notranjim pravom, in če to dopuščajo temeljna načela njenega pravnega reda, sprejme potrebne ukrepe, da svojim pristojnim organom omogoči, da zaradi učinkovitega boja proti organiziranemu kriminalu uporabijo nadzorovano pošiljko, in če se ji zdi primerno, tudi druge posebne preiskovalne ukrepe, kot so elektronske in druge oblike nadzora ter tajne operacije.
2. Državam pogodbenicam se priporoča, da za sodelovanje na mednarodni ravni po potrebi sklenejo ustrezne dvo- ali večstranske sporazume ali dogovore o uporabi posebnih preiskovalnih metod zaradi preiskav kaznivih dejanj po tej konvenciji. Taki sporazumi ali dogovori se sklepajo in izvajajo po načelu suverene enakosti držav ter se izvajajo izključno po določbah teh sporazumov ali dogovorov.
3. Če ni sporazumov ali dogovorov iz drugega odstavka tega člena, se o uporabi posebnih preiskovalnih metod na mednarodni ravni odloča za vsak posamezen primer posebej in po potrebi upoštevajo finančni sporazumi in dogovori glede izvajanja sodne pristojnosti držav pogodbenic.
4. Odločitve o uporabi nadzorovane pošiljke na mednarodni ravni lahko s soglasjem udeleženih držav pogodbenic vključujejo metode, kot sta prestrezanje pošiljke in dovoljenje, da nadaljuje pot nedotaknjena ali se njena vsebina odstrani ali v celoti ali delno zamenja.
21. člen
Prenos kazenskih postopkov
Države pogodbenice preučijo možnost prenosa kazenskih postopkov iz ene države v drugo zaradi kazenskega pregona kaznivih dejanj po tej konvenciji z namenom združitve pregona, kadar je tak prenos v interesu učinkovitega delovanja sodstva, posebno če je pristojnih več pogodbenic.
22. člen
Vzpostavitev kazenske evidence
Vsaka država pogodbenica lahko sprejme zakonodajne ali druge potrebne ukrepe pod pogoji in za namen, ki se ji zdi primeren, da upošteva vse prejšnje obsodbe domnevnega storilca v drugi državi, da te informacije uporabi v kazenskem postopku glede kaznivega dejanja po tej konvenciji.
23. člen
Kaznivost oviranja pravosodja
Vsaka država pogodbenica sprejme zakonodajne in druge ukrepe, potrebne, da kot kazniva določi dejanja, kadar so storjena naklepno:
(a) uporaba fizične sile, groženj ali zastraševanja ali obljub, ponudb ali dajanja neupravičenih ugodnosti, katerih namen je spodbuditi lažno pričanje ali preprečiti pričanje ali izvedbo dokazov v kazenskem postopku za kazniva dejanja po tej konvenciji;
(b) uporaba fizične sile, groženj ali zastraševanja, katerega namen je vplivati na uradne osebe v sodstvu ali organih odkrivanja in pregona pri opravljanju njihovih uradnih dolžnosti za kazniva dejanja po tej konvenciji. Nobena določba iz tega pododstavka ne posega v pravico držav pogodbenic, da s svojo zakonodajo zaščitijo tudi druge kategorije javnih uslužbencev.
24. člen
Zaščita prič
1. Država pogodbenica v skladu s svojimi možnostmi sprejme ustrezne ukrepe za zagotovitev učinkovite zaščite prič v kazenskih postopkih pred morebitnim maščevanjem ali zastraševanjem, ker pričajo o kaznivih dejanjih po tej konvenciji, kakor tudi njihovih sorodnikov in drugih bližnjih oseb, če presodi, da je to potrebno.
2. Ukrepi, predvideni v prvem odstavku tega člena, lahko med drugim, ne da bi to posegalo v pravice obdolženca, vključno s pravico do postopka, skladnega s pravili, vključujejo:
(a) uvedbo postopkov za fizično zaščito takih oseb v potrebnem in uresničljivem obsegu, kot je na primer preselitev, in po potrebi omogočanje osebi, da ne razkrije informacij, ki zadevajo njeno istovetnost in bivališče, ali jih samo delno razkrije;
(b) vzpostavitev dokaznih pravil, ki priči omogočajo, da da svojo izjavo tako, da to zagotavlja njeno varnost, npr. pričanje z uporabo komunikacijske tehnologije, kot so videopovezave ali druga ustrezna sredstva.
3. Države pogodbenice preučijo možnost sklenitve sporazumov ali dogovorov z drugimi državami za preselitev oseb iz prvega odstavka tega člena.
4. Določbe tega člena se uporabljajo tudi za oškodovance, če nastopajo kot priče.
25. člen
Pomoč žrtvam in njihova zaščita
1. Država pogodbenica v okviru svojih možnosti sprejme ustrezne ukrepe, da zagotovi pomoč in zaščito žrtvam kaznivih dejanj po tej konvenciji, predvsem pri grožnjah z maščevanjem ali zastraševanju.
2. Država pogodbenica določi ustrezne postopke, ki žrtvam kaznivih dejanj iz te konvencije omogočajo nadomestilo in povračilo.
3. Država pogodbenica skladno s svojim notranjim pravom omogoči, da se predstavijo in obravnavajo mnenja in skrbi žrtev na ustreznih stopnjah kazenskega postopka proti storilcem tako, da to ne posega v pravice obrambe.
26. člen
Ukrepi za krepitev sodelovanja z organi kazenskega pregona
1. Država pogodbenica sprejme ustrezne ukrepe, da spodbudi osebe, ki sodelujejo ali so sodelovale v organiziranih kriminalnih združbah:
(a) da dajo koristne informacije pristojnim organom v preiskovalne in dokazne namene o zadevah, kot so:
(i) identiteta, narava, sestava, struktura, lokacija ali dejavnosti organiziranih kriminalnih združb;
(ii) povezave, tudi mednarodne, z drugimi organiziranimi kriminalnimi združbami;
(iii) kazniva dejanja, ki so jih storile ali jih lahko storijo organizirane kriminalne združbe;
(b) da zagotovijo dejansko, konkretno pomoč pristojnim organom, ki lahko prispeva k odvzemu sredstev ali premoženjske koristi, pridobljene s kaznivim dejanjem, organiziranih kriminalnih združb.
2. Država pogodbenica preuči možnost, da se v ustreznih primerih obtožencu, ki je precej pomagal v preiskavi ali kazenskem pregonu za kaznivo dejanje po tej konvenciji, omili kazen.
3. Država pogodbenica preuči možnost, da v skladu s temeljnimi načeli svojega notranjega prava podeli imuniteto pred kazenskim pregonom osebi, ki je precej pomagala v preiskavi ali kazenskem pregonu za kaznivo dejanje po tej konvenciji.
4. Te osebe se zaščitijo skladno s 24. členom te konvencije.
5. Če je oseba iz prvega odstavka tega člena v eni državi pogodbenici in lahko precej pomaga pristojnim organom druge države pogodbenice, lahko ti državi pogodbenici preučita možnost, da v skladu s svojim notranjim pravom skleneta sporazume ali dogovore glede možnosti, da druga država pogodbenica zagotovi ravnanje, določeno v drugem in tretjem odstavku tega člena.
27. člen
Sodelovanje pri kazenskem pregonu
1. Države pogodbenice skladno s svojimi notranjimi pravnimi in upravnimi ureditvami tesno sodelujejo, da bi povečale učinkovitost kazenskega pregona v boju proti kaznivim dejanjem po tej konvenciji. Vsaka država pogodbenica predvsem sprejme učinkovite ukrepe:
(a) za pospešitev, in kadar je to potrebno, vzpostavitev komunikacijskih poti med svojimi pristojnimi organi, agencijami in službami, da bi s tem olajšala varno in hitro izmenjavo informacij v zvezi z vsemi vidiki kaznivih dejanj po tej konvenciji, vključno s povezavo z drugimi kriminalnimi dejavnostmi, če države pogodbenice menijo, da je to ustrezno.
(b) za sodelovanje z drugimi državami pogodbenicami pri poizvedovanjih o kaznivih dejanjih po tej konvenciji, ki se nanašajo na:
(i) istovetnost, bivališče in dejavnost oseb, osumljenih, da so vpletene v ta kazniva dejanja, ali kraj bivanja drugih vpletenih oseb;
(ii) gibanje premoženjske koristi, pridobljene s kaznivim dejanjem, ali premoženja, ki izvira iz storitve kaznivega dejanja;
(iii) gibanje premoženja, opreme ali drugih predmetov, uporabljenih ali namenjenih za storitev takih kaznivih dejanj;
(c) za zagotovitev, če je to primerno, potrebnih predmetov ali količin snovi za analitične ali preiskovalne namene;
(d) za olajšanje učinkovitega sodelovanja med njihovimi pristojnimi organi, agencijami, službami in pospeševanje izmenjave osebja in drugih izvedencev, vključno z napotitvijo oseb za zvezo po dvostranskih sporazumih ali dogovorih med državami pogodbenicami;
(e) za izmenjavo podatkov z drugimi državami pogodbenicami o posebnih metodah in sredstvih, ki jih uporabljajo organizirane kriminalne združbe, in če je to primerno, tudi o poteh in prevoznih sredstvih ter o uporabi lažne identitete, prirejenih ali ponarejenih dokumentih ali drugih sredstvih za prikrivanje njihovih dejavnosti;
(f) za izmenjavo podatkov in usklajevanje upravnih in drugih ustreznih ukrepov za hitro odkrivanje kaznivih dejanj po tej konvenciji.
2. Za uresničevanje te konvencije države pogodbenice preučijo možnost za sklenitev dvo- ali večstranskih sporazumov ali dogovorov o neposrednem sodelovanju med organi kazenskega pregona, če ti že obstajajo, pa za njihovo spremembo. Če takih sporazumov ali dogovorov med državami pogodbenicami ni, lahko štejejo to konvencijo kot podlago za medsebojno sodelovanje pri kazenskem pregonu za kazniva dejanja po tej konvenciji. Kadar je primerno, države pogodbenice v celoti uporabijo sporazume ali dogovore, tudi z mednarodnimi ali regionalnimi organizacijami, da okrepijo sodelovanje med svojimi organi kazenskega pregona.
3. Države pogodbenice si po svojih možnostih prizadevajo sodelovati v boju proti mednarodnemu organiziranemu kriminalu, pri katerem se uporablja sodobna tehnologija.
28. člen
Zbiranje, izmenjava in analiza informacij o naravi organiziranega kriminala
1. Vsaka država pogodbenica v posvetovanju z znanstvenimi in akademskimi krogi analizira trende organiziranega kriminala na svojem ozemlju, okoliščine, v katerih organizirani kriminal deluje, in tudi vpletene profesionalne skupine in uporabljene tehnologije.
2. Države pogodbenice preučijo možnosti za razvoj in izmenjavo analitičnega strokovnega znanja o dejavnostih organiziranega kriminala med seboj in z mednarodnimi in regionalnimi organizacijami. V ta namen naj bi razvile in po potrebi uporabljale skupne definicije, standarde in metodologije.
3. Vsaka država pogodbenica preuči možnosti za spremljanje svojih usmeritev in dejanskih ukrepov za boj proti organiziranemu kriminalu ter oceni njihovo uspešnost in učinkovitost.
29. člen
Usposabljanje in strokovna pomoč
1. Vsaka država pogodbenica, če je to potrebno, uvede, razvije ali izboljša posebne programe usposabljanja za zaposlene v organih kazenskega pregona, vključno s tožilci, preiskovalnimi sodniki in cariniki ter drugimi odgovornimi za preprečevanje, odkrivanje in nadzorovanje kaznivih dejanj po tej konvenciji. Taki programi lahko vsebujejo tudi napotitve in izmenjavo osebja. Ti programi posebej, in če to dopušča notranje pravo, obravnavajo:
(a) metode, uporabljene za preprečevanje, odkrivanje in nadzorovanje kaznivih dejanj po tej konvenciji;
(b) poti in metode, ki jih tudi v tranzitnih državah uporabljajo osebe, osumljene sodelovanja pri kaznivih dejanjih po tej konvenciji, ter ustrezne protiukrepe;
(c) nadzorovanje tihotapstva;
(d) odkrivanje in nadziranje gibanja premoženjske koristi, pridobljene s kaznivim dejanjem, premoženja, opreme in drugih predmetov ter metod, ki se uporabljajo za prenos ali prikrivanje takih koristi, premoženja, opreme ali drugih predmetov kakor tudi metode za boj proti pranju denarja in drugemu finančnemu kriminalu;
(e) zbiranje dokazov;
(f) metode nadzora v prostotrgovinskih conah in brezcarinskih pristaniščih;
(g) sodobno opremo in metode v kazenskem pregonu, vključno z elektronskim nadzorom, nadzorovanimi pošiljkami in tajnimi operacijami;
(h) metode za boj proti mednarodnemu organiziranemu kriminalu, pri katerem se uporabljajo računalniki, telekomunikacijska omrežja ali druge oblike sodobne tehnologije;
(i) metode, ki se uporabljajo za zaščito žrtev in prič.
2. Države pogodbenice si pomagajo pri načrtovanju in izvajanju raziskovalnih programov in programov usposabljanja za izmenjavo strokovnega znanja s področij iz prvega odstavka tega člena, in če je to primerno, organizirajo regionalne in mednarodne konference in seminarje, da pospešijo sodelovanje in spodbudijo razpravo o skupnih problemih, vključno s posebnimi problemi in potrebami tranzitnih držav.
3. Države pogodbenice pospešujejo usposabljanje in strokovno pomoč, ki olajšuje izročitve in medsebojno pravno pomoč. Tako usposabljanje in strokovna pomoč lahko vključujeta jezikovno usposabljanje, napotitve osebja in njegovo izmenjavo med osrednjimi organi ali agencijami z ustreznimi pristojnostmi.
4. Če že obstajajo dvo- ali večstranski sporazumi ali dogovori, države pogodbenice, kolikor je to potrebno, okrepijo prizadevanja, da bi čim bolj izboljšale dejavnosti operative in usposabljanja v mednarodnih in regionalnih organizacijah in v okviru drugih ustreznih dvo- in večstranskih sporazumov ali dogovorov.
30. člen
Drugi ukrepi: izvajanje konvencije z gospodarskim razvojem in strokovno pomočjo
1. Države pogodbenice sprejmejo ukrepe za kar najboljše izvajanje te konvencije z mednarodnim sodelovanjem ob upoštevanju negativnih vplivov organiziranega kriminala na družbo na splošno, predvsem pa na trajno uravnotežen razvoj.
2. Države pogodbenice si v mogočem obsegu in z medsebojnim usklajevanjem kakor tudi z usklajevanjem z mednarodnimi in regionalnimi organizacijami prizadevajo za:
(a) poglobitev sodelovanja z državami v razvoju na različnih ravneh, da bi okrepile sposobnost slednjih pri preprečevanju kriminala in v boju proti mednarodnemu organiziranemu kriminalu;
(b) okrepitev finančne in materialne pomoči državam v razvoju, da bi se učinkovito borile proti mednarodnemu organiziranemu kriminalu in bi uspešno izvajale to konvencijo;
(c) dajanje strokovne pomoči državam v razvoju in državam, katerih gospodarstva so v prehodu, da bi jim pomagale pri izvajanju te konvencije. Zato si države pogodbenice prizadevajo, da primerno in redno nakazujejo prostovoljne prispevke na posebej za to določen račun pri Združenih narodih. Države pogodbenice lahko tudi posebej preučijo možnost, da v skladu s svojim notranjim pravom in določbami te konvencije na omenjeni račun prispevajo del denarja, premoženjske koristi, pridobljene s kaznivim dejanjem, ali premoženja, odvzetega v skladu z določbami te konvencije;
(d) spodbujanje in prepričevanje drugih držav in finančnih ustanov, odvisno od primera, da se jim pridružijo v prizadevanjih v skladu s tem členom, posebno še z zagotavljanjem večjega števila programov usposabljanja in sodobne opreme državam v razvoju, da bi jim pomagale pri doseganju ciljev te konvencije.
3. Ti ukrepi kar najmanj posegajo v obstoječe obveznosti mednarodne pomoči ali druge dogovore o finančnem sodelovanju na dvostranski, regionalni ali mednarodni ravni.
4. Države pogodbenice lahko sklenejo dvo- ali večstranske sporazume ali dogovore o materialni in logistični pomoči ob upoštevanju finančnih dogovorov za učinkovitejše mednarodno sodelovanje po tej konvenciji in preprečevanje, odkrivanje in nadzorovanje mednarodnega organiziranega kriminala.
31. člen
Preprečevanje
1. Države pogodbenice si prizadevajo razvijati in vrednotiti svoje projekte in vzpostavljati in razvijati najučinkovitejše delovanje in usmeritve za preprečevanje mednarodnega organiziranega kriminala.
2. Države pogodbenice si prizadevajo, da skladno s temeljnimi načeli svojega notranjega prava z ustreznimi zakonodajnimi, upravnimi ali drugimi ukrepi zmanjšajo sedanje ali prihodnje možnosti organiziranih kriminalnih združb, da s premoženjsko koristjo, pridobljeno s kaznivimi dejanji, delujejo na zakonitih trgih. Ti ukrepi naj se osredotočijo na:
(a) krepitev sodelovanja med organi kazenskega pregona ali tožilci in ustreznimi zasebnimi subjekti, tudi gospodarskimi;
(b) spodbujanje razvoja in standardov za zaščito integritete javnih in ustreznih zasebnih subjektov ter kodeksov ravnanja za ustrezne poklice, predvsem odvetnike, notarje, davčne svetovalce in računovodje;
(c) preprečevanje, da bi organizirane kriminalne združbe zlorabljale razpise, ki jih vodijo javni organi, subvencije in licence, ki jih podeljujejo javni organi;
(d) preprečevanje, da bi organizirane kriminalne združbe zlorabljale pravne osebe; ti ukrepi lahko vključujejo:
(i) vzpostavitev javnih evidenc pravnih in fizičnih oseb, ki sodelujejo pri ustanavljanju, vodenju in financiranju pravnih oseb;
(ii) uvedbo možnosti, da se za razumno obdobje obsojenim za kazniva dejanja po tej konvenciji s sodnim nalogom ali drugim ustreznim sredstvom prepove opravljanje vodstvenih nalog v pravnih osebah, ustanovljenih v njihovi pristojnosti;
(iii) vzpostavitev državnih evidenc oseb, ki jim je prepovedano opravljati vodstvene naloge v pravnih osebah;
(iv) izmenjavo podatkov iz evidenc iz točk i in iii pododstavka d tega odstavka s pristojnimi organi drugih držav.
3. Države pogodbenice si prizadevajo, da se osebe, obsojene za kazniva dejanja po tej konvenciji, ponovno vključijo v družbo.
4. Države pogodbenice si prizadevajo, da v rednih časovnih presledkih preučijo veljavne pravne instrumente in upravno prakso, da odkrijejo pomanjkljivosti, ki bi lahko omogočile, da jih zlorabljajo organizirane kriminalne združbe.
5. Države pogodbenice si prizadevajo za ozaveščanje javnosti o obstoju, vzrokih in nevarnostih mednarodnega organiziranega kriminala. Če je to primerno, se lahko informacije dajejo po medijih in vključujejo ukrepe za večje sodelovanje javnosti pri preprečevanju mednarodnega organiziranega kriminala in boju proti njemu.
6. Vsaka država pogodbenica generalnega sekretarja Združenih narodov obvesti o imenu in naslovu organa ali organov, ki lahko pomagajo drugim državam pogodbenicam pri pripravi ukrepov za preprečevanje mednarodnega organiziranega kriminala.
7. Države pogodbenice, če je to potrebno, sodelujejo med seboj in z ustreznimi mednarodnimi in regionalnimi organizacijami pri pospeševanju in pripravi ukrepov iz tega člena. To vključuje tudi sodelovanje v mednarodnih projektih za preprečevanje mednarodnega organiziranega kriminala na primer z vplivom na tiste dejavnike, zaradi katerih so marginalne skupine v družbi dovzetnejše za delovanje mednarodnega organiziranega kriminala.
32. člen
Konferenca pogodbenic konvencije
1. Konferenca pogodbenic konvencije je ustanovljena za izboljšanje sposobnosti držav pogodbenic v boju proti mednarodnemu organiziranemu kriminalu in pospeševanje ter spremljanje izvajanja te konvencije.
2. Generalni sekretar Združenih narodov skliče konferenco pogodbenic najpozneje eno leto po začetku veljavnosti te konvencije. Konferenca pogodbenic sprejme poslovnik in pravila za dejavnosti iz tretjega in četrtega odstavka tega člena (skupaj s pravili o plačevanju stroškov, ki nastanejo pri izvajanju teh dejavnosti).
3. Na konferenci se pogodbenice sporazumejo o mehanizmih za doseganje ciljev iz prvega odstavka tega člena, ki vključujejo:
(a) spodbujanje dejavnosti držav pogodbenic po 29., 30. in 31. členu te konvencije, vključno s spodbujanjem dajanja prostovoljnih prispevkov;
(b) spodbujanje izmenjave informacij med državami pogodbenicami o vzorcih in trendih mednarodnega organiziranega kriminala in uspešni praksi v boju proti njemu;
(c) sodelovanje z ustreznimi mednarodnimi in regionalnimi organizacijami in nevladnimi organizacijami;
(d) občasen pregled izvajanja te konvencije;
(e) oblikovanje priporočil za izboljšanje konvencije in njenega izvajanja.
4. Za uresničitev pododstavkov d in e tretjega odstavka tega člena se konferenca pogodbenic ustrezno seznani z ukrepi, ki so jih izvedle države pogodbenice pri izvajanju te konvencije, ter o težavah, s katerimi so se pri tem srečale, in sicer na podlagi informacij držav pogodbenic in dodatnih spremljevalnih mehanizmov, ki jih lahko določi konferenca pogodbenic.
5. Vsaka država pogodbenica konferenci pogodbenic na njeno zahtevi priskrbi informacije o svojih programih, načrtih in praksi kakor tudi o zakonodajnih in upravnih ukrepih za izvajanje te konvencije.
33. člen
Sekretariat
1. Generalni sekretar Združenih narodov zagotovi potrebne storitve sekretariata za konferenco pogodbenic.
2. Sekretariat:
(a) pomaga konferenci pogodbenic pri izvajanju dejavnosti iz 32. člena te konvencije, sklepa dogovore in zagotovi potrebne storitve za zasedanja konference pogodbenic;
(b) na zahtevo pomaga državam pogodbenicam pri zagotavljanju informacij konferenci pogodbenic, kot to predvideva peti odstavek 32. člena te konvencije;
(c) zagotovi potrebno usklajevanje s sekretariati ustreznih mednarodnih in regionalnih organizacij.
34. člen
Izvajanje konvencije
1. Vsaka država pogodbenica sprejme potrebne ukrepe, vključno z zakonodajnimi in upravnimi, da v skladu s temeljnimi načeli svojega notranjega prava zagotovi izpolnjevanje svojih obveznosti po tej konvenciji.
2. Kazniva dejanja, določena v skladu s 5., 6., 8. in 23. členom te konvencije, se določijo v notranjem pravu vsake države pogodbenice ne glede na mednarodno naravo ali vpletenost organizirane kriminalne združbe, kot je opisana v prvem odstavku 3. člena te konvencije, razen kadar bi bila po 5. členu te konvencije zahtevana vpletenost organizirane kriminalne združbe.
3. Država pogodbenica lahko sprejme podrobnejše ali strožje ukrepe za preprečevanje in zatiranje mednarodnega organiziranega kriminala od ukrepov, kot so predvideni s to konvencijo.
35. člen
Reševanje sporov
1. Države pogodbenice si prizadevajo reševati spore zaradi razlage ali uporabe te konvencije s pogajanji.
2. Spor med dvema ali več državami pogodbenicami zaradi razlage ali uporabe te konvencije, ki ga v razumnem času ni mogoče rešiti s pogajanji, se na predlog ene države pogodbenice predloži v arbitražo. Če se države pogodbenice v šestih mesecih po predlogu za arbitražo ne morejo dogovoriti o organizaciji arbitraže, lahko vsaka država pogodbenica predloži spor Meddržavnemu sodišču v skladu z njegovim statutom.
3. Država pogodbenica lahko ob podpisu, ratifikaciji, sprejetju ali odobritvi te konvencije ali pristopu k njej izjavi, da se ne šteje za zavezano po drugem odstavku tega člena. Drugi odstavek tega člena drugih držav v odnosu do države, ki je dala tak pridržek, ne zavezuje.
4. Država pogodbenica, ki je dala pridržek v skladu s tretjim odstavkom tega člena, ga lahko kadar koli umakne z uradnim obvestilom generalnemu sekretarju Združenih narodov.
36. člen
Podpis, ratifikacija, sprejetje, odobritev in pristop
1. Ta konvencija je vsem državam na voljo za podpis od 12. do 15. decembra 2000 v Palermu, Italija, in nato do 12. decembra 2002 na sedežu Združenih narodov v New Yorku.
2. Ta konvencija je na voljo za podpis tudi regionalnim organizacijam za gospodarsko sodelovanje, če je vsaj ena država članica te organizacije podpisala to konvencijo v skladu s prvim odstavkom tega člena.
3. To konvencijo je treba ratificirati, sprejeti ali odobriti. Listine o ratifikaciji, sprejetju ali odobritvi se deponirajo pri generalnem sekretarju Združenih narodov. Regionalna organizacija za gospodarsko sodelovanje lahko deponira svojo listino o ratifikaciji, sprejetju ali odobritvi, če je tako storila vsaj ena njena država članica. V listini o ratifikaciji, sprejetju ali odobritvi ta organizacija izjavi, kakšen je obseg njenih pristojnosti za zadeve, ki jih ureja ta konvencija. Ta organizacija obvesti depozitarja tudi o vsaki pomembni spremembi obsega njenih pristojnosti.
4. K tej konvenciji lahko pristopi katera koli država ali regionalna organizacija za gospodarsko sodelovanje, katere vsaj ena država članica je pogodbenica te konvencije. Listine o pristopu se deponirajo pri generalnem sekretarju Združenih narodov. Regionalna organizacija za gospodarsko sodelovanje ob pristopu izjavi, kakšen je obseg njenih pristojnosti glede zadev, ki jih ureja ta konvencija. Ta organizacija obvesti depozitarja tudi o vsaki pomembni spremembi glede obsega svojih pristojnosti.
37. člen
Razmerje do protokolov
1. Ta konvencija se lahko dopolni z enim ali več protokoli.
2. Da bi postala članica protokola, mora biti država ali regionalna gospodarska organizacija tudi članica te konvencije.
3. Protokol ne zavezuje države pogodbenice te konvencije, če ne postane njegova pogodbenica v skladu z njegovimi določbami.
4. Vsak protokol k tej konvenciji se razlaga skupaj s to konvencijo, pri čemer je treba upoštevati namen protokola.
38. člen
Začetek veljavnosti
1. Ta konvencija začne veljati devetdeseti dan po datumu deponiranja štiridesete listine o ratifikaciji, sprejetju, odobritvi ali pristopu. Po tem odstavku se listine, ki jih deponirajo regionalne organizacije za gospodarsko sodelovanje, ne štejejo za dodatne k tistim, ki so jih deponirale države članice te organizacije.
2. Za državo ali regionalno organizacijo za gospodarsko sodelovanje, ki ratificira, sprejme, odobri to konvencijo ali k njej pristopi po deponiranju štiridesete listine, začne ta konvencija veljati trideseti dan po datumu deponiranja ustrezne listine te države ali organizacije.
39. člen
Spremembe
1. Po petih letih po začetku veljavnosti te konvencije lahko država pogodbenica predlaga spremembo in jo vloži pri generalnem sekretarju Združenih narodov, ki predlagano spremembo pošlje državam pogodbenicam in konferenci pogodbenic konvencije v razpravo in odločanje o predlogu. Konferenca pogodbenic stori vse, da doseže soglasje o vsaki spremembi. Če so izčrpana vsa prizadevanja za soglasje in ni bil dosežen sporazum, je za sprejetje spremembe na koncu potrebna dvetretjinska večina držav pogodbenic, ki so navzoče in glasujejo na konferenci pogodbenic.
2. Regionalne organizacije za gospodarsko sodelovanje v zadevah iz svojih pristojnosti uresničujejo svojo glasovalno pravico po tem členu s številom glasov, ki je enako številu njihovih držav članic, ki so pogodbenice te konvencije. Take organizacije ne smejo uresničevati svoje glasovalne pravice, če njihove države članice uresničujejo svoje in obratno.
3. Države pogodbenice morajo ratificirati, sprejeti ali odobriti spremembo, sprejeto v skladu s prvim odstavkom tega člena.
4. Sprememba, sprejeta v skladu s prvim odstavkom tega člena, začne za državo pogodbenico veljati devetdeset dni po datumu deponiranja listine o ratifikaciji, sprejetju ali odobritvi pri generalnem sekretarju Združenih narodov.
5. Ko sprememba začne veljati, je obvezujoča za tiste države pogodbenice, ki so izrazile soglasje, da jih zavezuje. Druge države pogodbenice pa še naprej zavezujejo določbe te konvencije in vse prejšnje spremembe, ki so jih ratificirale, sprejele ali odobrile.
40. člen
Odpoved
1. Država pogodbenica lahko odpove to konvencijo s pisnim uradnim obvestilom generalnemu sekretarju Združenih narodov. Odpoved začne veljati eno leto po tem, ko je generalni sekretar prejel uradno obvestilo.
2. Regionalna organizacija za gospodarsko sodelovanje preneha biti pogodbenica te konvencije, ko jo odpovejo vse njene države članice.
3. Posledica odpovedi te konvencije po prvem odstavku tega člena je tudi odpoved vseh protokolov h konvenciji.
41. člen
Depozitar in jeziki
1. Depozitar te konvencije je generalni sekretar Združenih narodov.
2. Izvirnik te konvencije, katerega besedila v angleškem, arabskem, francoskem, kitajskem, ruskem in španskem jeziku so enako verodostojna, se deponira pri generalnem sekretarju Združenih narodov.
V POTRDITEV NAVEDENEGA so podpisani pooblaščenci, ki so jih za to pravilno pooblastile njihove vlade, podpisali to konvencijo.
3. člen
Za izvajanje konvencije skrbi Ministrstvo za pravosodje.
4. člen
Ob predložitvi listine o ratifikaciji konvencije Republika Slovenija poda pristojnim naslovnikom naslednji izjavi, ki se v slovenskem jeziku glasita:
K 16. členu konvencije:
"Republika Slovenija na podlagi pododstavka (a) petega odstavka 16. člena konvencije izjavlja, da šteje to konvencijo kot pravno podlago za sodelovanje pri izročitvah z drugimi pogodbenicami te konvencije. Če med Republiko Slovenijo in drugo državo pogodbenico te konvencije ne obstaja mednarodna pogodba ali drugačen dogovor, ki bi urejal izročitev, bo Republika Slovenija zahtevala dokumentacijo za izročitev skladno z njeno notranjo zakonodajo."
K 18. členu konvencije:
"Republika Slovenija na podlagi trinajstega odstavka 18. člena konvencije izjavlja, da je osrednji organ za izvajanje konvencije Ministrstvo za pravosodje Republike Slovenije.
Republika Slovenija na podlagi štirinajstega odstavka 18. člena konvencije izjavlja, da naj bodo zaprosila in priloge, naslovljene na pristojni osrednji organ Republike Slovenije, sestavljene v slovenskem jeziku ali naj jim bo priložen prevod v slovenskem jeziku. Če prevoda v slovenski jezik ni mogoče zagotoviti, naj bodo zaprosila in priloge sestavljene v angleškem jeziku ali naj jim bo priložen prevod v angleškem jeziku."
5. člen
Ta zakon začne veljati naslednji dan po objavi v Uradnem listu Republike Slovenije – Mednarodne pogodbe.
Št. 212-05/04-35/1
Ljubljana, dne 9. aprila 2004
EPA 1203-III
Predsednik
Državnega zbora
Republike Slovenije
Borut Pahor l. r.