Uradni list

Številka 32
Uradni list RS, št. 32/2004 z dne 2. 4. 2004
Uradni list

Uradni list RS, št. 32/2004 z dne 2. 4. 2004

Kazalo

27. Zakon o ratifikaciji Protokola o zmanjševanju zakisljevanja, evtrofikacije in prizemnega ozona h Konvenciji iz leta 1979 o onesnaževanju zraka na velike razdalje preko meja (MPZZE), stran 3601.

Na podlagi druge alinee prvega odstavka 107. člena in prvega odstavka 91. člena Ustave Republike Slovenije izdajam
U K A Z
O RAZGLASITVI ZAKONA O RATIFIKACIJI PROTOKOLA O ZMANJŠEVANJU ZAKISLJEVANJA, EVTROFIKACIJE IN PRIZEMNEGA OZONA H KONVENCIJI IZ LETA 1979 O ONESNAŽEVANJU ZRAKA NA VELIKE RAZDALJE PREKO MEJA (MPZZE)
Razglašam Zakon o ratifikaciji Protokola o zmanjševanju zakisljevanja, evtrofikacije in prizemnega ozona h Konvenciji iz leta 1979 o onesnaževanju zraka na velike razdalje preko meja (MPZZE), ki ga je sprejel Državni zbor Republike Slovenije na seji 27. februarja 2004.
Št. 001-22-18/04
Ljubljana, dne 8. marca 2004
dr. Janez Drnovšek l. r.
Predsednik
Republike Slovenije
Z A K O N
O RATIFIKACIJI PROTOKOLA O ZMANJŠEVANJU ZAKISLJEVANJA, EVTROFIKACIJE IN PRIZEMNEGA OZONA H KONVENCIJI IZ LETA 1979 O ONESNAŽEVANJU ZRAKA NA VELIKE RAZDALJE PREKO MEJA (MPZZE)
1. člen
Ratificira se Protokol o zmanjševanju zakisljevanja, evtrofikacije in prizemnega ozona h Konvenciji iz leta 1979 o onesnaževanju zraka na velike razdalje preko meja, sprejet 30. novembra 1999 v Göteborgu.
2. člen
Besedilo protokola se v izvirniku v angleškem jeziku in v prevodu v slovenskem jeziku glasi:
P R O T O C O L
TO THE 1979 CONVENTION ON LONG-RANGE TRANSBOUNDARY AIR POLLUTION TO ABATE ACIDIFICATION, EUTROPHICATION AND GROUND-LEVEL OZONE
The Parties,
Determined to implement the Convention on Long-range Transboundary Air Pollution,
Aware that nitrogen oxides, sulphur, volatile organic compounds and reduced nitrogen compounds have been associated with adverse effects on human health and the environment,
Concerned that critical loads of acidification, critical loads of nutrient nitrogen and critical levels of ozone for human health and vegetation are still exceeded in many areas of the United Nations Economic Commission for Europe’s region,
Concerned also that emitted nitrogen oxides, sulphur and volatile organic compounds, as well as secondary pollutants such as ozone and the reaction products of ammonia, are transported in the atmosphere over long distances and may have adverse transboundary effects,
Recognizing that emissions from Parties within the United Nations Economic Commission for Europe’s region contribute to air pollution on the hemispheric and global scales, and recognizing the potential for transport between continents and the need for further study with regard to that potential,
Recognizing also that Canada and the United States of America are bilaterally negotiating reductions of emissions of nitrogen oxides and volatile organic compounds to address the transboundary ozone effect,
Recognizing furthermore that Canada will undertake further reductions of emissions of sulphur by 2010 through the implementation of the Canada-wide Acid Rain Strategy for Post-2000, and that the United States is committed to the implementation of a nitrogen oxides reduction programme in the eastern United States and to the reduction in emissions necessary to meet its national ambient air quality standards for particulate matter,
Resolved to apply a multi-effect, multi-pollutant approach to preventing or minimizing the exceedances of critical loads and levels,
Taking into account the emissions from certain existing activities and installations responsible for present air pollution levels and the development of future activities and installations,
Aware that techniques and management practices are available to reduce emissions of these substances,
Resolved to take measures to anticipate, prevent or minimize emissions of these substances, taking into account the application of the precautionary approach as set forth in principle 15 of the Rio Declaration on Environment and Development,
Reaffirming that States have, in accordance with the Charter of the United Nations and the principles of international law, the sovereign right to exploit their own resources pursuant to their own environmental and developmental policies, and the responsibility to ensure that activities within their jurisdiction or control do not cause damage to the environment of other States or of areas beyond the limits of national jurisdiction,
Conscious of the need for a cost-effective regional approach to combating air pollution that takes account of the variations in effects and abatement costs between countries,
Noting the important contribution of the private and non-governmental sectors to knowledge of the effects associated with these substances and available abatement techniques, and their role in assisting in the reduction of emissions to the atmosphere,
Bearing in mind that measures taken to reduce emissions of sulphur, nitrogen oxides, ammonia and volatile organic compounds should not constitute a means of arbitrary or unjustifiable discrimination or a disguised restriction on international competition and trade,
Taking into consideration best available scientific and technical knowledge and data on emissions, atmospheric processes and effects on human health and the environment of these substances, as well as on abatement costs, and acknowledging the need to improve this knowledge and to continue scientific and technical cooperation to further understanding of these issues,
Noting that under the Protocol concerning the Control of Emissions of Nitrogen Oxides or their Transboundary Fluxes, adopted at Sofia on 31 October 1988, and the Protocol concerning the Control of Emissions of Volatile Organic Compounds or their Transboundary Fluxes, adopted at Geneva on 18 November 1991, there is already provision to control emissions of nitrogen oxides and volatile organic compounds, and that the technical annexes to both those Protocols already contain technical guidance for reducing these emissions,
Noting also that under the Protocol on Further Reduction of Sulphur Emissions, adopted at Oslo on 14 June 1994, there is already provision to reduce sulphur emissions in order to contribute to the abatement of acid deposition by diminishing the exceedances of critical sulphur depositions, which have been derived from critical loads of acidity according to the contribution of oxidized sulphur compounds to the total acid deposition in 1990,
Noting furthermore that this Protocol is the first agreement under the Convention to deal specifically with reduced nitrogen compounds,
Bearing in mind that reducing the emissions of these substances may provide additional benefits for the control of other pollutants, including in particular transboundary secondary particulate aerosols, which contribute to human health effects associated with exposure to airborne particulates,
Bearing in mind also the need to avoid, in so far as possible, taking measures for the achievement of the objectives of this Protocol that aggravate other health and environment-related problems,
Noting that measures taken to reduce the emissions of nitrogen oxides and ammonia should involve consideration of the full biogeochemical nitrogen cycle and, so far as possible, not increase emissions of reactive nitrogen including nitrous oxide which could aggravate other nitrogen-related problems,
Aware that methane and carbon monoxide emitted by human activities contribute, in the presence of nitrogen oxides and volatile organic compounds, to the formation of tropospheric ozone, and
Aware also of the commitments that Parties have assumed under the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change,
Have agreed as follows:
Article 1
DEFINITIONS
For the purposes of the present Protocol,
1. »Convention« means the Convention on Long-range Transboundary Air Pollution, adopted at Geneva on 13 November 1979;
2. »EMEP« means the Cooperative Programme for Monitoring and Evaluation of Long-range Transmission of Air Pollutants in Europe;
3. »Executive Body« means the Executive Body for the Convention constituted under article 10, paragraph 1, of the Convention;
4. »Commission« means the United Nations Economic Commission for Europe;
5. »Parties« means, unless the context otherwise requires, the Parties to the present Protocol;
6. »Geographical scope of EMEP« means the area defined in article 1, paragraph 4, of the Protocol to the 1979 Convention on Long-range Transboundary Air Pollution on Long-term Financing of the Cooperative Programme for Monitoring and Evaluation of the Long-range Transmission of Air Pollutants in Europe (EMEP), adopted at Geneva on 28 September 1984;
7. »Emission« means the release of a substance from a point or diffuse source into the atmosphere;
8. »Nitrogen oxides« means nitric oxide and nitrogen dioxide, expressed as nitrogen dioxide (NO(2));
9. »Reduced nitrogen compounds« means ammonia and its reaction products;
10. »Sulphur« means all sulphur compounds, expressed as sulphur dioxide (SO(2));
11. »Volatile organic compounds«, or »VOCs«, means, unless otherwise specified, all organic compounds of an anthropogenic nature, other than methane, that are capable of producing photochemical oxidants by reaction with nitrogen oxides in the presence of sunlight;
12. »Critical load« means a quantitative estimate of an exposure to one or more pollutants below which significant harmful effects on specified sensitive elements of the environment do not occur, according to present knowledge;
13. »Critical levels« means concentrations of pollutants in the atmosphere above which direct adverse effects on receptors, such as human beings, plants, ecosystems or materials, may occur, according to present knowledge;
14. »Pollutant emissions management area", or »PEMA«, means an area designated in annex III under the conditions laid down in article 3, paragraph 9;
15. »Stationary source« means any fixed building, structure, facility, installation or equipment that emits or may emit sulphur, nitrogen oxides, volatile organic compounds or ammonia directly or indirectly into the atmosphere;
16. »New stationary source« means any stationary source of which the construction or substantial modification is commenced after the expiry of one year from the date of entry into force of the present Protocol. It shall be a matter for the competent national authorities to decide whether a modification is substantial or not, taking into account such factors as the environmental benefits of the modification.
Article 2
OBJECTIVE
The objective of the present Protocol is to control and reduce emissions of sulphur, nitrogen oxides, ammonia and volatile organic compounds that are caused by anthropogenic activities and are likely to cause adverse effects on human health, natural ecosystems, materials and crops, due to acidification, eutrophication or ground-level ozone as a result of long-range transboundary atmospheric transport, and to ensure, as far as possible, that in the long term and in a stepwise approach, taking into account advances in scientific knowledge, atmospheric depositions or concentrations do not exceed:
(a) For Parties within the geographical scope of EMEP and Canada, the critical loads of acidity, as described in annex I;
(b) For Parties within the geographical scope of EMEP, the critical loads of nutrient nitrogen, as described in annex I; and
(c) For ozone:
(i) For Parties within the geographical scope of EMEP, the critical levels of ozone, as given in annex I;
(ii) For Canada, the Canada-wide Standard for ozone; and
(iii) For the United States of America, the National Ambient Air Quality Standard for ozone.
Article 3
BASIC OBLIGATIONS
1. Each Party having an emission ceiling in any table in annex II shall reduce and maintain the reduction in its annual emissions in accordance with that ceiling and the timescales specified in that annex. Each Party shall, as a minimum, control its annual emissions of polluting compounds in accordance with the obligations in annex II.
2. Each Party shall apply the limit values specified in annexes IV, V and VI to each new stationary source within a stationary source category as identified in those annexes, no later than the timescales specified in annex VII. As an alternative, a Party may apply different emission reduction strategies that achieve equivalent overall emission levels for all source categories together.
3. Each Party shall, in so far as it is technically and economically feasible and taking into consideration the costs and advantages, apply the limit values specified in annexes IV, V and VI to each existing stationary source within a stationary source category as identified in those annexes, no later than the timescales specified in annex VII. As an alternative, a Party may apply different emission reduction strategies that achieve equivalent overall emission levels for all source categories together or, for Parties outside the geographical scope of EMEP, that are necessary to achieve national or regional goals for acidification abatement and to meet national air quality standards.
4. Limit values for new and existing boilers and process heaters with a rated thermal input exceeding 50 MW(th) and new heavy-duty vehicles shall be evaluated by the Parties at a session of the Executive Body with a view to amending annexes IV, V and VIII no later than two years after the date of entry into force of the present Protocol.
5. Each Party shall apply the limit values for the fuels and new mobile sources identified in annex VIII, no later than the timescales specified in annex VII.
6. Each Party should apply best available techniques to mobile sources and to each new or existing stationary source, taking into account guidance documents I to V adopted by the Executive Body at its seventeenth session (decision 1999/1) and any amendments thereto.
7. Each Party shall take appropriate measures based, inter alia, on scientific and economic criteria to reduce emissions of volatile organic compounds associated with the use of products not included in annex VI or VIII. The Parties shall, no later than at the second session of the Executive Body after the entry into force of the present Protocol, consider with a view to adopting an annex on products, including criteria for the selection of such products, limit values for the volatile organic compound content of products not included in annex VI or VIII, as well as timescales for the application of the limit values.
8. Each Party shall, subject to paragraph 10:
(a) Apply, as a minimum, the ammonia control measures specified in annex IX; and
(b) Apply, where it considers it appropriate, best available techniques for preventing and reducing ammonia emissions, as listed in guidance document V adopted by the Executive Body at its seventeenth session (decision 1999/1) and any amendments thereto.
9. Paragraph 10 shall apply to any Party:
(a) Whose total land area is greater than 2 million square kilometres;
(b) Whose annual emissions of sulphur, nitrogen oxides, ammonia and/or volatile organic compounds contributing to acidification, eutrophication or ozone formation in areas under the jurisdiction of one or more other Parties originate predominantly from within an area under its jurisdiction that is listed as a PEMA in annex III, and which has presented documentation in accordance with subparagraph (c) to this effect;
(c) Which has submitted upon signature, ratification, acceptance or approval of, or accession to, the present Protocol a description of the geographical scope of one or more PEMAs for one or more pollutants, with supporting documentation, for inclusion in annex III; and
(d) Which has specified upon signature, ratification, acceptance or approval of, or accession to, the present Protocol its intention to act in accordance with this paragraph.
10. A Party to which this paragraph applies shall:
(a) If within the geographical scope of EMEP, be required to comply with the provisions of this article and annex II only within the relevant PEMA for each pollutant for which a PEMA within its jurisdiction is included in annex III; or
(b) If not within the geographical scope of EMEP, be required to comply with the provisions of paragraphs 1, 2, 3, 5, 6 and 7 and annex II, only within the relevant PEMA for each pollutant (nitrogen oxides, sulphur and/or volatile organic compounds) for which a PEMA within its jurisdiction is included in annex III, and shall not be required to comply with paragraph 8 anywhere within its jurisdiction.
11. Canada and the United States of America shall, upon their ratification, acceptance or approval of, or accession to, the present Protocol, submit to the Executive Body their respective emission reduction commitments with respect to sulphur, nitrogen oxides and volatile organic compounds for automatic incorporation into annex II.
12. The Parties shall, subject to the outcome of the first review provided for under article 10, paragraph 2, and no later than one year after completion of that review, commence negotiations on further obligations to reduce emissions.
Article 4
EXCHANGE OF INFORMATION AND TECHNOLOGY
1. Each Party shall, in a manner consistent with its laws, regulations and practices and in accordance with its obligations in the present Protocol, create favourable conditions to facilitate the exchange of information, technologies and techniques, with the aim of reducing emissions of sulphur, nitrogen oxides, ammonia and volatile organic compounds by promoting inter alia:
(a) The development and updating of databases on best available techniques, including those that increase energy efficiency, low-emission burners and good environmental practice in agriculture;
(b) The exchange of information and experience in the development of less polluting transport systems;
(c) Direct industrial contacts and cooperation, including joint ventures; and
(d) The provision of technical assistance.
2. In promoting the activities specified in paragraph 1, each Party shall create favourable conditions for the facilitation of contacts and cooperation among appropriate organizations and individuals in the private and public sectors that are capable of providing technology, design and engineering services, equipment or finance.
Article 5
PUBLIC AWARENESS
1. Each Party shall, in a manner consistent with its laws, regulations and practices, promote the provision of information to the general public, including information on:
(a) National annual emissions of sulphur, nitrogen oxides, ammonia and volatile organic compounds and progress towards compliance with the national emission ceilings or other obligations referred to in article 3;
(b) Depositions and concentrations of the relevant pollutants and, where applicable, these depositions and concentrations in relation to critical loads and levels referred to in article 2;
(c) Levels of tropospheric ozone; and
(d) Strategies and measures applied or to be applied to reduce air pollution problems dealt with in the present Protocol and set out in article 6.
2. Furthermore, each Party may make information widely available to the public with a view to minimizing emissions, including information on:
(a) Less polluting fuels, renewable energy and energy efficiency, including their use in transport;
(b) Volatile organic compounds in products, including labelling;
(c) Management options for wastes containing volatile organic compounds that are generated by the public;
(d) Good agricultural practices to reduce emissions of ammonia;
(e) Health and environmental effects associated with the pollutants covered by the present Protocol; and
(f) Steps which individuals and industries may take to help reduce emissions of the pollutants covered by the present Protocol.
Article 6
STRATEGIES, POLICIES, PROGRAMMES, MEASURES AND INFORMATION
1. Each Party shall, as necessary and on the basis of sound scientific and economic criteria, in order to facilitate the implementation of its obligations under article 3:
(a) Adopt supporting strategies, policies and programmes without undue delay after the present Protocol enters into force for it;
(b) Apply measures to control and reduce its emissions of sulphur, nitrogen oxides, ammonia and volatile organic compounds;
(c) Apply measures to encourage the increase of energy efficiency and the use of renewable energy;
(d) Apply measures to decrease the use of polluting fuels;
(e) Develop and introduce less polluting transport systems and promote traffic management systems to reduce overall emissions from road traffic;
(f) Apply measures to encourage the development and introduction of low-polluting processes and products, taking into account guidance documents I to V adopted by the Executive Body at its seventeenth session (decision 1999/1) and any amendments thereto;
(g) Encourage the implementation of management programmes to reduce emissions, including voluntary programmes, and the use of economic instruments, taking into account guidance document VI adopted by the Executive Body at its seventeenth session (decision 1999/1) and any amendments thereto;
(h) Implement and further elaborate policies and measures in accordance with its national circumstances, such as the progressive reduction or phasing-out of market imperfections, fiscal incentives, tax and duty exemptions and subsidies in all sectors that emit sulphur, nitrogen oxides, ammonia and volatile organic compounds which run counter to the objective of the Protocol, and apply market instruments; and
(i) Apply measures, where cost-effective, to reduce emissions from waste products containing volatile organic compounds.
2. Each Party shall collect and maintain information on:
(a) Actual levels of emissions of sulphur, nitrogen compounds and volatile organic compounds, and of ambient concentrations and depositions of these compounds and ozone, taking into account, for those Parties within the geographical scope of EMEP, the work plan of EMEP; and
(b) The effects of ambient concentrations and of the deposition of sulphur, nitrogen compounds, volatile organic compounds and ozone on human health, terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems and materials.
3. Any Party may take more stringent measures than those required by the present Protocol.
Article 7
REPORTING
1. Subject to its laws and regulations and in accordance with its obligations under the present Protocol:
(a) Each Party shall report, through the Executive Secretary of the Commission, to the Executive Body, on a periodic basis as determined by the Parties at a session of the Executive Body, information on the measures that it has taken to implement the present Protocol. Moreover:
(i) Where a Party applies different emission reduction strategies under article 3, paragraphs 2 and 3, it shall document the strategies applied and its compliance with the requirements of those paragraphs;
(ii) Where a Party judges certain limit values, as specified in accordance with article 3, paragraph 3, not to be technically and economically feasible, taking into consideration the costs and advantages, it shall report and justify this;
(b) Each Party within the geographical scope of EMEP shall report, through the Executive Secretary of the Commission, to EMEP, on a periodic basis to be determined by the Steering Body of EMEP and approved by the Parties at a session of the Executive Body, the following information:
(i) Levels of emissions of sulphur, nitrogen oxides, ammonia and volatile organic compounds using, as a minimum, the methodologies and the temporal and spatial resolution specified by the Steering Body of EMEP;
(ii) Levels of emissions of each substance in the reference year (1990) using the same methodologies and temporal and spatial resolution;
(iii) Data on projected emissions and current reduction plans; and
(iv) Where it deems it appropriate, any exceptional circumstances justifying emissions that are temporarily higher than the ceilings established for it for one or more pollutants; and
(c) Parties in areas outside the geographical scope of EMEP shall make available information similar to that specified in subparagraph (b), if requested to do so by the Executive Body.
2. The information to be reported in accordance with paragraph 1 (a) shall be in conformity with a decision regarding format and content to be adopted by the Parties at a session of the Executive Body. The terms of this decision shall be reviewed as necessary to identify any additional elements regarding the format or the content of the information that is to be included in the reports.
3. In good time before each annual session of the Executive Body, EMEP shall provide information on:
(a) Ambient concentrations and depositions of sulphur and nitrogen compounds as well as, where available, ambient concentrations of volatile organic compounds and ozone; and
(b) Calculations of sulphur and oxidized and reduced nitrogen budgets and relevant information on the long-range transport of ozone and its precursors.
Parties in areas outside the geographical scope of EMEP shall make available similar information if requested to do so by the Executive Body.
4. The Executive Body shall, in accordance with article 10, paragraph 2 (b), of the Convention, arrange for the preparation of information on the effects of depositions of sulphur and nitrogen compounds and concentrations of ozone.
5. The Parties shall, at sessions of the Executive Body, arrange for the preparation, at regular intervals, of revised information on calculated and internationally optimized allocations of emission reductions for the States within the geographical scope of EMEP, using integrated assessment models, including atmospheric transport models, with a view to reducing further, for the purposes of article 3, paragraph 1, the difference between actual depositions of sulphur and nitrogen compounds and critical load values as well as the difference between actual ozone concentrations and the critical levels of ozone specified in annex I, or such alternative assessment methods as approved by the Parties at a session of the Executive Body.
Article 8
RESEARCH, DEVELOPMENT AND MONITORING
The Parties shall encourage research, development, monitoring and cooperation related to:
(a) The international harmonization of methods for the calculation and assessment of the adverse effects associated with the substances addressed by the present Protocol for use in establishing critical loads and critical levels and, as appropriate, the elaboration of procedures for such harmonization;
(b) The improvement of emission databases, in particular those on ammonia and volatile organic compounds;
(c) The improvement of monitoring techniques and systems and of the modelling of transport, concentrations and depositions of sulphur, nitrogen compounds and volatile organic compounds, as well as of the formation of ozone and secondary particulate matter;
(d) The improvement of the scientific understanding of the long-term fate of emissions and their impact on the hemispheric background concentrations of sulphur, nitrogen, volatile organic compounds, ozone and particulate matter, focusing, in particular, on the chemistry of the free troposphere and the potential for intercontinental flow of pollutants;
(e) The further elaboration of an overall strategy to reduce the adverse effects of acidification, eutrophication and photochemical pollution, including synergisms and combined effects;
(f) Strategies for the further reduction of emissions of sulphur, nitrogen oxides, ammonia and volatile organic compounds based on critical loads and critical levels as well as on technical developments, and the improvement of integrated assessment modelling to calculate internationally optimized allocations of emission reductions taking into account the need to avoid excessive costs for any Party. Special emphasis should be given to emissions from agriculture and transport;
(g) The identification of trends over time and the scientific understanding of the wider effects of sulphur, nitrogen and volatile organic compounds and photochemical pollution on human health, including their contribution to concentrations of particulate matter, the environment, in particular acidification and eutrophication, and materials, especially historic and cultural monuments, taking into account the relationship between sulphur oxides, nitrogen oxides, ammonia, volatile organic compounds and tropospheric ozone;
(h) Emission abatement technologies, and technologies and techniques to improve energy efficiency, energy conservation and the use of renewable energy;
(i) The efficacy of ammonia control techniques for farms and their impact on local and regional deposition;
(j) The management of transport demand and the development and promotion of less polluting modes of transport;
(k) The quantification and, where possible, economic evaluation of benefits for the environment and human health resulting from the reduction of emissions of sulphur, nitrogen oxides, ammonia and volatile organic compounds; and
(l) The development of tools for making the methods and results of this work widely applicable and available.
Article 9
COMPLIANCE
Compliance by each Party with its obligations under the present Protocol shall be reviewed regularly. The Implementation Committee established by decision 1997/2 of the Executive Body at its fifteenth session shall carry out such reviews and report to the Parties at a session of the Executive Body in accordance with the terms of the annex to that decision, including any amendments thereto.
Article 10
REVIEWS BY THE PARTIES AT SESSIONS OF THE EXECUTIVE BODY
1. The Parties shall, at sessions of the Executive Body, pursuant to article 10, paragraph 2 (a), of the Convention, review the information supplied by the Parties, EMEP and subsidiary bodies of the Executive Body, the data on the effects of concentrations and depositions of sulphur and nitrogen compounds and of photochemical pollution as well as the reports of the Implementation Committee referred to in article 9 above.
2. (a) The Parties shall, at sessions of the Executive Body, keep under review the obligations set out in the present Protocol, including:
(i) Their obligations in relation to their calculated and internationally optimized allocations of emission reductions referred to in article 7, paragraph 5, above; and
(ii) The adequacy of the obligations and the progress made towards the achievement of the objective of the present Protocol;
(b) Reviews shall take into account the best available scientific information on the effects of acidification, eutrophication and photochemical pollution, including assessments of all relevant health effects, critical levels and loads, the development and refinement of integrated assessment models, technological developments, changing economic conditions, progress made on the databases on emissions and abatement techniques, especially related to ammonia and volatile organic compounds, and the fulfilment of the obligations on emission levels;
(c) The procedures, methods and timing for such reviews shall be specified by the Parties at a session of the Executive Body. The first such review shall commence no later than one year after the present Protocol enters into force.
Article 11
SETTLEMENT OF DISPUTES
1. In the event of a dispute between any two or more Parties concerning the interpretation or application of the present Protocol, the parties concerned shall seek a settlement of the dispute through negotiation or any other peaceful means of their own choice. The parties to the dispute shall inform the Executive Body of their dispute.
2. When ratifying, accepting, approving or acceding to the present Protocol, or at any time thereafter, a Party which is not a regional economic integration organization may declare in a written instrument submitted to the Depositary that, in respect of any dispute concerning the interpretation or application of the Protocol, it recognizes one or both of the following means of dispute settlement as compulsory ipso facto and without special agreement, in relation to any Party accepting the same obligation:
(a) Submission of the dispute to the International Court of Justice;
(b) Arbitration in accordance with procedures to be adopted by the Parties at a session of the Executive Body, as soon as practicable, in an annex on arbitration.
A Party which is a regional economic integration organization may make a declaration with like effect in relation to arbitration in accordance with the procedures referred to in subparagraph (b).
3. A declaration made under paragraph 2 shall remain in force until it expires in accordance with its terms or until three months after written notice of its revocation has been deposited with the Depositary.
4. A new declaration, a notice of revocation or the expiry of a declaration shall not in any way affect proceedings pending before the International Court of Justice or the arbitral tribunal, unless the parties to the dispute agree otherwise.
5. Except in a case where the parties to a dispute have accepted the same means of dispute settlement under paragraph 2, if after twelve months following notification by one party to another that a dispute exists between them, the parties concerned have not been able to settle their dispute through the means mentioned in paragraph 1, the dispute shall be submitted, at the request of any of the parties to the dispute, to conciliation.
6. For the purpose of paragraph 5, a conciliation commission shall be created. The commission shall be composed of an equal number of members appointed by each party concerned or, where parties in conciliation share the same interest, by the group sharing that interest, and a chairperson chosen jointly by the members so appointed. The commission shall render a recommendatory award, which the parties to the dispute shall consider in good faith.
Article 12
ANNEXES
The annexes to the present Protocol shall form an integral part of the Protocol.
Article 13
AMENDMENTS AND ADJUSTMENTS
1. Any Party may propose amendments to the present Protocol. Any Party to the Convention may propose an adjustment to annex II to the present Protocol to add to it its name, together with emission levels, emission ceilings and percentage emission reductions.
2. Proposed amendments and adjustments shall be submitted in writing to the Executive Secretary of the Commission, who shall communicate them to all Parties. The Parties shall discuss the proposed amendments and adjustments at the next session of the Executive Body, provided that those proposals have been circulated by the Executive Secretary to the Parties at least ninety days in advance.
3. Amendments to the present Protocol, including amendments to annexes II to IX, shall be adopted by consensus of the Parties present at a session of the Executive Body, and shall enter into force for the Parties which have accepted them on the ninetieth day after the date on which two thirds of the Parties have deposited with the Depositary their instruments of acceptance thereof. Amendments shall enter into force for any other Party on the ninetieth day after the date on which that Party has deposited its instrument of acceptance thereof.
4. Amendments to the annexes to the present Protocol, other than to the annexes referred to in paragraph 3, shall be adopted by consensus of the Parties present at a session of the Executive Body. On the expiry of ninety days from the date of its communication to all Parties by the Executive Secretary of the Commission, an amendment to any such annex shall become effective for those Parties which have not submitted to the Depositary a notification in accordance with the provisions of paragraph 5, provided that at least sixteen Parties have not submitted such a notification.
5. Any Party that is unable to approve an amendment to an annex, other than to an annex referred to in paragraph 3, shall so notify the Depositary in writing within ninety days from the date of the communication of its adoption. The Depositary shall without delay notify all Parties of any such notification received. A Party may at any time substitute an acceptance for its previous notification and, upon deposit of an instrument of acceptance with the Depositary, the amendment to such an annex shall become effective for that Party.
6. Adjustments to annex II shall be adopted by consensus of the Parties present at a session of the Executive Body and shall become effective for all Parties to the present Protocol on the ninetieth day following the date on which the Executive Secretary of the Commission notifies those Parties in writing of the adoption of the adjustment.
Article 14
SIGNATURE
1. The present Protocol shall be open for signature at Gothenburg (Sweden) on 30 November and 1 December 1999, then at United Nations Headquarters in New York until 30 May 2000, by States members of the Commission as well as States having consultative status with the Commission, pursuant to paragraph 8 of Economic and Social Council resolution 36 (IV) of 28 March 1947, and by regional economic integration organizations, constituted by sovereign States members of the Commission, which have competence in respect of the negotiation, conclusion and application of international agreements in matters covered by the Protocol, provided that the States and organizations concerned are Parties to the Convention and are listed in annex II.
2. In matters within their competence, such regional economic integration organizations shall, on their own behalf, exercise the rights and fulfil the responsibilities which the present Protocol attributes to their member States. In such cases, the member States of these organizations shall not be entitled to exercise such rights individually.
Article 15
RATIFICATION, ACCEPTANCE, APPROVAL AND ACCESSION
1. The present Protocol shall be subject to ratification, acceptance or approval by Signatories.
2. The present Protocol shall be open for accession as from 31 May 2000 by the States and organizations that meet the requirements of article 14, paragraph 1.
3. The instruments of ratification, acceptance, approval or accession shall be deposited with the Depositary.
Article 16
DEPOSITARY
The Secretary-General of the United Nations shall be the Depositary.
Article 17
ENTRY INTO FORCE
1. The present Protocol shall enter into force on the ninetieth day following the date on which the sixteenth instrument of ratification, acceptance, approval or accession has been deposited with the Depositary.
2. For each State and organization that meets the requirements of article 14, paragraph 1, which ratifies, accepts or approves the present Protocol or accedes thereto after the deposit of the sixteenth instrument of ratification, acceptance, approval or accession, the Protocol shall enter into force on the ninetieth day following the date of deposit by such Party of its instrument of ratification, acceptance, approval or accession.
Article 18
WITHDRAWAL
At any time after five years from the date on which the present Protocol has come into force with respect to a Party, that Party may withdraw from it by giving written notification to the Depositary. Any such withdrawal shall take effect on the ninetieth day following the date of its receipt by the Depositary, or on such later date as may be specified in the notification of the withdrawal.
Article 19
AUTHENTIC TEXTS
The original of the present Protocol, of which the English, French and Russian texts are equally authentic, shall be deposited with the Secretary-General of the United Nations.
 
IN WITNESS WHEREOF the undersigned, being duly authorized thereto, have signed the present Protocol.
 
DONE at Gothenburg (Sweden), this thirtieth day of November one thousand nine hundred and ninety-nine.
P R O T O K O L
O ZMANJŠEVANJU ZAKISLJEVANJA, EVTROFIKACIJE IN PRIZEMNEGA OZONA H KONVENCIJI IZ LETA 1979 O ONESNAŽEVANJU ZRAKA NA VELIKE RAZDALJE PREKO MEJA
Pogodbenice, ki
so odločene izvajati Konvencijo o onesnaževanju zraka na velike razdalje preko meja,
se zavedajo, da dušikovi oksidi, žveplo, hlapne organske spojine in reducirane dušikove spojine škodljivo vplivajo na zdravje ljudi in okolje,
so zaskrbljene nad tem, da so kritične obremenitve zakisljevanja, kritične obremenitve hranljivega dušika in kritične ravni ozona za človeško zdravje in vegetacijo še vedno presežene na mnogih območjih Ekonomske komisije Združenih narodov za Evropo,
so zaskrbljene tudi nad tem, da se izpuščeni dušikovi oksidi, žveplo in hlapne organske spojine kakor tudi sekundarna onesnaževala, kot so ozon in reakcijski produkti amonijaka, prenašajo v ozračju na velike razdalje in lahko imajo škodljive čezmejne učinke,
priznavajo, da pogodbenice Ekonomske komisije Združenih narodov za Evropo z emisijami prispevajo k onesnaževanju zraka v hemisferi in na svetovni ravni ter priznavajo možnosti prenosa med celinami in potrebo po nadaljnjem preučevanju teh možnosti,
priznavajo tudi, da se Kanada in Združene države Amerike dvostransko pogajajo o zmanjšanju emisij dušikovih oksidov in hlapnih organskih spojin, da bi reševale vprašanja čezmejnih učinkov ozona,
nadalje priznavajo, da bo Kanada z uresničitvijo Kanadske strategije za zmanjšanje kislega dežja za obdobje po 2000 še dodatno zmanjšala emisije žvepla do leta 2010 ter da so Združene države odločene izvesti program zmanjšanja dušikovih oksidov na vzhodu Združenih držav in zmanjšati emisije, kar je potrebno za doseganje državnih standardov kakovosti zunanjega zraka glede trdnih delcev,
so odločene uporabiti pristop, ki upošteva več učinkov in več onesnaževal hkrati, da bi preprečile ali čim bolj zmanjšale prekoračitve kritičnih obremenitev in ravni,
upoštevajo emisije iz določenih obstoječih dejavnosti in naprav, ki vplivajo na sedanje ravni onesnaženosti zraka, in razvoj nadaljnjih dejavnosti in naprav,
se zavedajo, da so na voljo tehnologije in postopki ravnanja za zmanjšanje emisij teh snovi,
so odločene, da sprejmejo ukrepe, da bi predvidele, preprečile ali čim bolj zmanjšale emisije teh snovi ob upoštevanju previdnostnega pristopa, kot je zapisan v 15. načelu Deklaracije o okolju in razvoju, sprejete v Riu,
ponovno potrjujejo, da imajo države v skladu z Ustanovno listino Združenih narodov in načeli mednarodnega prava suvereno pravico do izkoriščanja lastnih virov v skladu s svojim okoljskimi in razvojnimi politikami, ter obveznost zagotoviti, da dejavnosti v okviru njihove državne jurisdikcije ali nadzora ne povzročajo škode okolju drugih držav ali območij zunaj meja državne jurisdikcije,
se zavedajo potrebe po stroškovno učinkovitem regionalnem pristopu k preprečevanju onesnaženosti zraka, ki upošteva razlike med državami med učinki in stroški zmanjševanja onesnaževanja,
ugotavljajo pomemben prispevek zasebnega in nevladnega sektorja k spoznavanju učinkov v zvezi s temi snovmi in razpoložljivih tehnologij za njihovo zmanjšanje ter njuno vlogo pri zmanjševanju emisij v ozračje,
se zavedajo, da ukrepi za zmanjšanje emisij žvepla, dušikovih oksidov, amonijaka in hlapnih organskih spojin ne smejo biti sredstvo za samovoljno ali neupravičeno diskriminacijo ali prikrito omejevanje mednarodne konkurence in trgovine,
upoštevajo najboljše razpoložljivo znanstveno in tehnično znanje ter podatke o emisijah, procesih v ozračju in učinkih omenjenih snovi na človeško zdravje in okolje ter stroških njihovega zmanjšanja in priznavajo potrebo po izboljšanju tega znanja ter nadaljevanju znanstvenega in tehničnega sodelovanja za nadaljnje razumevanje teh vprašanj,
upoštevajo, da je v Protokolu o nadzoru nad emisijami dušikovih oksidov ali njihovih čezmejnih tokov, ki je bil sprejet 31. oktobra 1988 v Sofiji, in v Protokolu o nadzoru nad emisijami hlapnih organskih spojin ali njihovih čezmejnih tokov, ki je bil sprejet 18. novembra 1991 v Ženevi, že predvideno omejevanje emisij dušikovih oksidov in hlapnih organskih spojin in da strokovne priloge k tema dvema protokoloma že vsebujejo tehnična navodila za zmanjšanje teh emisij,
upoštevajo tudi, da je v Protokolu o nadaljnjem zmanjševanju emisij žvepla, sprejetem 14. junija 1994 v Oslu, že predvideno zmanjševanje emisij žvepla, da bi prispevalo k zmanjšanju kislih usedlin z zmanjšanjem preseganja kritičnih usedlin žvepla, ki so izvedene iz kritične obremenitve kislosti glede na prispevek oksidiranih žveplovih spojin k celotni kisli usedlini v letu 1990,
nadalje ugotavljajo, da je ta protokol prvi sporazum po tej konvenciji ki se izrecno ukvarja z reduciranimi dušikovimi spojinami,
se zavedajo, da lahko zmanjšanje emisij teh snovi dodatno koristi pri nadziranju drugih onesnaževal, še zlasti sekundarnih trdnih delcev, ki potujejo čez meje in vplivajo na zdravje ljudi zaradi izpostavljenosti lebdečim trdnim delcem,
se zavedajo tudi, da se je treba čim bolj izogniti ukrepom za doseganje ciljev tega protokola, ki bi poslabšali druge zdravstvene in okoljske težave,
upoštevajo, da bi ukrepi, sprejeti za zmanjšanje emisij dušikovih oksidov in amonijaka, morali upoštevati celotni biogeokemijski dušikov cikel, in kolikor je mogoče, ne povečevati emisij reaktivnega dušika, vključno z dušikovim oksidom, ki lahko zaostri druge težave, povezane z dušikom,
se zavedajo, da metan in ogljikov monoksid, ki nastajata zaradi človekovih dejavnosti, v prisotnosti dušikovih oksidov in hlapnih organskih spojin prispevata k nastajanju troposferskega ozona, in
se zavedajo obveznosti, ki so jih pogodbenice prevzele po Okvirni konvenciji Združenih narodov o spremembi podnebja,
so se dogovorile:
1. člen
POMEN IZRAZOV
V tem protokolu:
1. "konvencija" pomeni Konvencijo o onesnaževanju zraka na velike razdalje preko meja, sprejeto v Ženevi 13. novembra 1979;
2. "EMEP" pomeni program sodelovanja za spremljanje in oceno onesnaževanja zraka na velike razdalje v Evropi;
3. "izvršni organ" pomeni izvršni organ konvencije, ustanovljen v skladu s prvim odstavkom 10. člena konvencije;
4. "komisija" pomeni Ekonomsko komisijo Združenih narodov za Evropo;
5. "pogodbenice" pomeni pogodbenice tega protokola, če pomen ne zahteva drugače;
6. "zemljepisno območje EMEP" pomeni območje, opredeljeno v četrtem odstavku 1. člena Protokola h Konvenciji o onesnaževanju zraka na velike razdalje preko meja iz leta 1979 o dolgoročnem financiranju programa sodelovanja za spremljanje in oceno onesnaževanja zraka na velike razdalje v Evropi (EMEP), sprejetega 28. septembra 1984 v Ženevi;
7. "emisija" pomeni izpuščanje snovi v ozračje iz točkovnih ali razpršenih virov;
8. "dušikovi oksidi" pomeni dušikov oksid in dušikov dioksid, izražena kot dušikov dioksid (NO(2));
9. "reducirane dušikove spojine" pomeni amonijak in njegove reakcijske produkte;
10. "žveplo" pomeni vse žveplove spojine, izražene kot žveplov dioksid (SO(2));
11. "hlapne organske spojine" ali "HOS" pomeni, razen če ni drugače določeno, vse organske spojine človekovega izvora, razen metana, ki lahko ob reagiranju z dušikovimi oksidi ob prisotnosti sončne svetlobe proizvedejo fotokemične oksidante;
12. "kritična obremenitev" pomeni količinsko oceno izpostavljenosti enemu ali več onesnaževalom, pod katero po do zdaj znanih podatkih ni večjih škodljivih posledic za določene občutljive elemente okolja;
13. "kritične ravni" pomeni koncentracije onesnaževal v ozračju, nad katerimi po do zdaj znanih podatkih lahko pride do neposrednih škodljivih posledic za sprejemnike, kot so ljudje, rastline, ekosistemi ali material;
14. "območje upravljanja emisij onesnaževal" ali "PEMA" pomeni območje, določeno v prilogi III pod pogoji iz devetega odstavka 3. člena;
15. "nepremični vir" pomeni vsako stavbo, zgradbo, obrat, napravo ali opremo, ki je nepremična in neposredno ali posredno izpušča ali bi lahko izpuščala v ozračje žveplo, dušikove okside, hlapne organske spojine ali amonijak;
16. "nov nepremični vir" pomeni vsak nepremični vir, katerega gradnja ali bistvena sprememba se je začela po poteku enega leta od datuma začetka veljavnosti tega protokola. O tem, ali je sprememba bistvena, odločijo pristojni državni organi ob upoštevanju dejavnikov, kot so okoljske koristi spremembe.
2. člen
CILJ
Cilj tega protokola je nadzorovati in zmanjševati emisije žvepla, dušikovih oksidov, amonijaka in hlapnih organskih spojin, ki jih povzročajo človekove dejavnosti in lahko zaradi zakisljevanja, evtrofikacije in prizemnega ozona, ki so posledica čezmejnega prenosa po ozračju na velike razdalje, škodljivo vplivajo na zdravje ljudi, naravne ekosisteme, material in pridelke; obenem naj bi ta protokol, kolikor je mogoče, zagotavljal, da atmosferske usedline ali koncentracije dolgoročno in postopoma, upoštevajoč napredek na področju znanosti, ne presegajo:
(a) za pogodbenice, ki spadajo v zemljepisno območje EMEP, in Kanado, kritičnih obremenitev kislosti, kot so opisane v prilogi I;
(b) za pogodbenice, ki spadajo v zemljepisno območje EMEP, kritičnih obremenitev hranljivega dušika, kot so opisane v prilogi I, ter
(c) glede ozona:
(i) za pogodbenice iz zemljepisnega območja EMEP kritičnih ravni ozona, navedenih v prilogi I;
(ii) za Kanado kanadskega standarda za ozon in
(iii) za Združene države Amerike nacionalnega standarda kakovosti zunanjega zraka za ozon.
3. člen
TEMELJNE OBVEZNOSTI
1. Vsaka pogodbenica, katere zgornja meja emisije je v kateri od razpredelnic iz priloge II, zmanjša in vzdržuje znižanje letnih emisij v skladu z omenjeno zgornjo mejo in časovnimi roki, določenimi v tej prilogi. Najmanj, kar se zahteva, je, da vsaka pogodbenica nadzoruje letne emisije onesnaževal v skladu z obveznostmi iz priloge II.
2. Vsaka pogodbenica za vsak nov nepremični vir iz kategorije nepremičnih virov, kot so opredeljeni v prilogah IV, V in VI, uveljavi mejne vrednosti, določene v omenjenih prilogah, in to najpozneje v rokih iz priloge VII. Druga možnost je, da pogodbenica uporabi drugačne strategije za zmanjšanje emisij, ki skupaj dosegajo enakovredne emisijske ravni za vse kategorije virov skupaj.
3. Vsaka pogodbenica, če je to tehnično in ekonomsko izvedljivo ter ob upoštevanju stroškov in prednosti, za vsak obstoječi nepremični vir iz kategorije nepremičnih virov, kot so opredeljeni v prilogah IV, V in VI, uveljavi mejne vrednosti, določene v omenjenih prilogah, in to najpozneje v rokih iz priloge VII. Druga možnost je, da pogodbenica uporabi drugačne strategije za zmanjšanje emisij, ki skupaj dosegajo enakovredne emisijske ravni za vse kategorije virov skupaj, pogodbenice zunaj zemljepisnega območja EMEP pa strategije, potrebne za doseganje nacionalnih ali regionalnih ciljev pri zmanjševanju zakisljevanja in doseganju nacionalnih standardov kakovosti zraka.
4. Mejne vrednosti za nove in že obstoječe kurilne naprave, katerih nazivna vhodna toplotna moč presega vrednost 50 MW(t), ter za nova težka tovorna vozila pogodbenice ovrednotijo na zasedanju izvršnega organa najpozneje v dveh letih po datumu začetka veljavnosti tega protokola, da se po potrebi spremenijo priloge IV, V in VII.
5. Vsaka pogodbenica mora uveljaviti mejne vrednosti za goriva in nove premične vire, navedene v prilogi VIII, najpozneje v rokih, določenih v prilogi VII.
6. Vsaka pogodbenica bi morala uporabljati najboljše razpoložljive tehnologije za premične vire in vsak nov ali že obstoječi nepremični vir, pri čemer bi morala upoštevati dokumente z navodili I do V, ki jih je sprejel izvršni organ na sedemnajstem zasedanju (sklep 1999/1), z vsemi njihovimi spremembami.
7. Vsaka pogodbenica sprejme ustrezne ukrepe za zmanjšanje emisij hlapnih organskih spojin, povezanih z uporabo proizvodov, ki niso vključeni v prilogo VI ali VIII, med drugim na podlagi znanstvenih in ekonomskih meril. Pogodbenice najpozneje na drugem zasedanju izvršnega organa po začetku veljavnosti tega protokola preučijo mejne vrednosti hlapnih organskih spojin v proizvodih, ki niso vključeni v prilogo VI ali VIII, ter časovne roke za uveljavitev mejnih vrednosti, da se po potrebi sprejme priloga o proizvodih, vključno z merili za izbiro takih proizvodov.
8. Vsaka pogodbenica v skladu z desetim odstavkom:
(a) uporablja najmanj ukrepe za nadzorovanje amonijaka, navedene v prilogi IX, in
(b) kadar se ji zdi primerno, uporablja najboljše razpoložljive tehnologije za preprečevanje in zmanjševanje emisij amonijaka, navedene v dokumentu z navodili V, ki ga je sprejel izvršni organ na svojem sedemnajstem zasedanju (sklep 1999/1), z vsemi njegovimi spremembami.
9. Deseti odstavek se nanaša na vsako pogodbenico:
(a) katere skupna površina presega 2 milijona kvadratnih kilometrov;
(b) katere letne emisije žvepla, dušikovih oksidov, amonijaka in/ali hlapnih organskih spojin, ki prispevajo k zakisljevanju, evtrofikaciji ali nastajanju ozona na območjih, ki so pod jurisdikcijo ene ali več drugih pogodbenic, izvirajo v glavnem z območja pod njeno jurisdikcijo, ki je v prilogi III označeno kot PEMA, in je v ta namen predložila dokumentacijo v skladu s pododstavkom (c);
(c) ki je ob podpisu, ratifikaciji, sprejetju ali odobritvi tega protokola ali pristopu k njemu predložila opis zemljepisnega območja enega ali več območij PEMA za enega ali več onesnaževal skupaj z dokazno dokumentacijo, zato da se vključi v prilogo III, in
(d) ki je ob podpisu, ratifikaciji, sprejetju ali odobritvi tega protokola ali pristopu k njemu izrazila svoj namen, da bo ravnala v skladu s tem odstavkom.
10. Pogodbenica, na katero se nanaša ta odstavek:
(a) se mora podrejati določbam tega člena in priloge II samo v okviru ustreznega območja PEMA za vsako onesnaževalo, za katero je v okviru njene jurisdikcije območja PEMA vključen v prilogo III, če spada v zemljepisno območje EMEP, ali
(b) se mora podrejati določbam prvega, drugega, tretjega, petega, šestega in sedmega odstavka ter priloge II samo v okviru ustreznega območja PEMA za vsako onesnaževalo (dušikovi oksidi, žveplo in/ali hlapne organske spojine), za katero je v okviru njene jurisdikcije območja PEMA vključen v prilogo III, ter se ne zahteva ravnanje skladno z osmim odstavkom kjer koli pod njeno jurisdikcijo, če ne spada v zemljepisno območje EMEP.
11. Kanada in Združene države Amerike ob ratifikaciji, sprejetju ali odobritvi tega protokola ali pristopu k njemu predložijo izvršnemu organu vsaka svojo zavezo za zmanjšanje emisij žvepla, dušikovih oksidov in hlapnih organskih spojin za samodejno vključitev v prilogo II.
12. Pogodbenice se ob upoštevanju izida prvega pregleda, predvidenega v drugem odstavku 10. člena, začnejo pogajati o nadaljnjih obveznostih za zmanjšanje emisij najpozneje eno leto po opravljenem pregledu.
4. člen
IZMENJAVA INFORMACIJ IN TEHNOLOGIJE
1. Vsaka pogodbenica skladno s svojimi zakoni, predpisi in prakso ter obveznostmi iz tega protokola ustvari ugodne razmere za lažjo izmenjavo informacij, tehnologij in tehnik, da bi zmanjšala emisije žvepla, dušikovih oksidov, amonijaka in hlapnih organskih spojin, in sicer tako, da med drugim spodbuja:
(a) razvoj in posodabljanje zbirke podatkov o najboljših razpoložljivih tehnologijah, vključno s tistimi, ki povečujejo energetsko učinkovitost, uporabo gorilnikov z nizko emisijo in okolju prijazne postopke v kmetijstvu;
(b) izmenjavo informacij in izkušenj pri razvoju prevoznih sistemov, ki manj onesnažujejo okolje;
(c) neposredne stike in sodelovanje v gospodarstvu, vključno s skupnimi naložbami, in
(d) zagotavljanje strokovne pomoči.
2. Pri spodbujanju dejavnosti, navedenih v prvem odstavku, vsaka pogodbenica ustvari ugodne razmere za lažje stike in sodelovanje med ustreznimi organizacijami in posamezniki v zasebnem in javnem sektorju, ki lahko ponudijo storitve s področja tehnologije, projektiranja in inženiringa ter opremo ali finančna sredstva.
5. člen
OZAVEŠČANJE JAVNOSTI
1. Vsaka pogodbenica skladno s svojimi zakoni, predpisi in prakso spodbuja širjenje informacij v javnosti, vključno s podatki o:
(a) nacionalnih letnih emisijah žvepla, dušikovih oksidov, amonijaka in hlapnih organskih spojin ter napredku pri izpolnjevanju obveznosti glede nacionalnih zgornjih mej emisij ali drugih obveznosti iz 3. člena;
(b) usedlinah in koncentracijah posameznih onesnaževal, in kadar je to izvedljivo, tudi podatke o usedlinah in koncentracijah glede na kritične obremenitve in ravni, navedene v 2. členu;
(c) ravneh ozona v troposferi in
(d) strategijah in ukrepih, ki jih že ali jih bo uporabljala za zmanjševanje problemov onesnaževanja zraka, ki jih obravnava ta protokol in so navedeni v 6. členu.
2. Poleg tega lahko vsaka pogodbenica omogoči širši javnosti dostop do informacij z namenom zmanjševanja emisij, vključno s podatki o:
(a) gorivih, ki manj onesnažujejo, obnovljivih virih energije in energetski učinkovitosti, vključno z njihovo uporabo v prometu;
(b) hlapnih organskih spojinah v proizvodih, vključno z označevanjem;
(c) možnostih ravnanja z odpadki, ki vsebujejo hlapne organske spojine, ki jih ustvarjajo ljudje;
(d) dobri kmetijski praksi, ki zmanjšuje emisije amonijaka;
(e) učinkih na zdravje ljudi in okolje, ki so povezani z onesnaževali iz tega protokola, in
(f) ukrepih, s katerimi lahko posamezniki in gospodarstvo pripomorejo k zmanjševanju emisij onesnaževal iz tega protokola.
6. člen
STRATEGIJE, POLITIKE, PROGRAMI, UKREPI IN INFORMACIJE
1. Vsaka pogodbenica po potrebi in na podlagi zanesljivih znanstvenih in ekonomskih meril za lažje izpolnjevanje obveznosti iz 3. člena:
(a) sprejme podporne strategije, politike in programe brez neprimernega zavlačevanja, ko ta protokol začne veljati zanjo;
(b) uporablja ukrepe za nadzorovanje in zmanjševanje emisij žvepla, dušikovih oksidov, amonijaka in hlapnih organskih spojin;
(c) uporablja ukrepe za spodbujanje večje energetske učinkovitosti in rabo obnovljivih virov energije;
(d) uporablja ukrepe za zmanjšanje uporabe goriv, ki onesnažujejo;
(e) razvija in uvaja prevozne sisteme, ki manj onesnažujejo, in širi sisteme za upravljanje prometa, ki zmanjšujejo emisije v cestnem prometu;
(f) uporablja ukrepe za spodbujanje razvoja in uvedbo okolju prijaznejših postopkov in proizvodov, upoštevajoč dokumente z navodili od I do V, ki jih je sprejel izvršni organ na svojem sedemnajstem zasedanju (sklep 1999/1), z vsemi njihovimi spremembami;
(g) spodbuja izvajanje operativnih programov za zmanjševanje emisij, vključno s prostovoljnimi programi, in uporabo ekonomskih instrumentov, upoštevajoč dokument z navodili VI, ki ga je sprejel izvršni organ na svojem sedemnajstem zasedanju (sklep 1999/1), z vsemi njegovimi spremembami;
(h) v skladu z razmerami v svoji državi izvaja in nadalje pripravlja politike in ukrepe, kot so postopno zmanjševanje ali odprava tržnih pomanjkljivosti, davčne spodbude, oprostitev plačila davkov in carinskih dajatev ter subvencije v vseh sektorjih, v katerih nastajajo emisije žvepla, dušikovih oksidov, amonijaka in hlapnih organskih spojin, ki so v nasprotju s cilji protokola, in uporablja tržne instrumente ter
(i) izvaja ukrepe za zmanjševanje emisij iz odpadnih proizvodov, ki vsebujejo hlapne organske spojine, kadar so stroškovno učinkoviti.
2. Vsaka pogodbenica zbira in hrani podatke o:
(a) dejanskih ravneh emisij žvepla, dušikovih spojin in hlapnih organskih spojin ter koncentracijah v zunanjem zraku in usedlinah teh spojin ter ozona in pri tem upošteva delovni načrt EMEP, če gre za pogodbenico z zemljepisnega območja EMEP, in
(b) učinkih koncentracij v zunanjem zraku in usedlin žvepla, dušikovih spojin, hlapnih organskih spojin ter ozona na zdravje ljudi, kopenske in vodne ekosisteme ter material.
3. Vsaka pogodbenica lahko sprejme strožje ukrepe, kot jih zahteva ta protokol.
7. člen
POROČANJE
1. V skladu s svojimi zakoni in predpisi ter obveznostmi iz tega protokola:
(a) vsaka pogodbenica redno, kot to določijo pogodbenice na zasedanju izvršnega organa, poroča prek izvršnega sekretarja komisije izvršnemu organu o ukrepih, ki jih je sprejela za izvajanje tega protokola. Nadalje:
(i) če pogodbenica uporablja strategije za zmanjševanje emisij, ki so drugačne od tistih iz drugega in tretjega odstavka 3. člena, dokumentira uporabljene strategije in njihovo usklajenost z zahtevami iz teh odstavkov;
(ii) če pogodbenica presodi, da posamezne mejne vrednosti, določene v skladu s tretjim odstavkom 3. člena, glede na stroške in prednosti tehnično in ekonomsko niso izvedljive, to sporoči in utemelji;
(b) vsaka pogodbenica z zemljepisnega območja EMEP redno sporoča EMEP prek izvršnega sekretarja komisije, kot to določi upravni organ EMEP in odobrijo pogodbenice na zasedanju izvršnega organa, podatke o:
(i) ravneh emisij žvepla, dušikovih oksidov, amonijaka in hlapnih organskih spojin in pri tem uporablja najmanj metodologije ter časovno in prostorsko ločljivost, ki jih določi upravni organ EMEP;
(ii) ravneh emisij za vsako snov v referenčnem letu (1990) z uporabo enakih metodologij ter enake časovne in prostorske ločljivosti;
(iii) projekcijah emisij in tekočih načrtih zmanjševanja in
(iv) katerih koli izjemnih razmerah, ki upravičujejo emisije, ki začasno presegajo njene zgornje meje za enega ali več onesnaževal, kadar meni, da je to primerno, in
(c) pogodbenice zunaj zemljepisnega območja EMEP na zahtevo izvršnega organa dajo na razpolago podatke, podobne tistim, ki so navedeni v pododstavku (b).
2. Podatki, ki jih je treba sporočati skladno s pododstavkom (a) prvega odstavka, morajo biti v skladu z odločitvijo, ki jo sprejmejo pogodbenice na zasedanju izvršnega organa, glede oblike in vsebine. Določbe te odločitve se po potrebi pregledajo, da se odkrijejo dodatni elementi glede oblike ali vsebine podatkov, ki jih je treba vključiti v poročila.
3. EMEP pred vsakim letnim zasedanjem izvršnega organa pravočasno zagotovi podatke o:
(a) koncentracijah v zunanjem zraku ter usedlinah žvepla in dušikovih spojin, in če so na voljo, tudi o koncentracijah hlapnih organskih spojin in ozona v zunanjem zraku in
(b) izračunih evidenc žvepla, oksidiranega in reduciranega dušika ter ustrezne podatke o prenosu ozona na velike razdalje in njegovih predhodnikih.
Pogodbenice zunaj zemljepisnega območja EMEP dajo na zahtevo izvršnega organa na razpolago podobne podatke.
4. Izvršni organ v skladu s pododstavkom (b) drugega odstavka 10. člena konvencije poskrbi za pripravo podatkov o vplivih usedlin žvepla in dušikovih spojin ter koncentracij ozona.
5. Pogodbenice poskrbijo, da se na zasedanjih izvršnega organa v rednih presledkih pripravijo revidirani podatki o izračunih in mednarodno doseženih optimalnih razporeditvah zmanjšanja emisij za države z zemljepisnega območja EMEP s pomočjo integriranih modelov za vrednotenje, vključno z modeli prenosa po ozračju, da se še nadalje za namene prvega odstavka 3. člena zmanjšata razlika med dejanskimi usedlinami žvepla in dušikovih spojin in vrednostmi kritičnih obremenitev ter tudi razlika med dejanskimi koncentracijami in kritičnimi ravnmi ozona iz priloge I ali z uporabo kakšnih drugih metod vrednotenja, ki jih odobrijo pogodbenice na zasedanju izvršnega organa.
8. člen
RAZISKAVE, RAZVOJ IN SPREMLJANJE STANJA
Pogodbenice spodbujajo raziskave, razvoj, spremljanje stanja in sodelovanje v zvezi:
(a) z mednarodnim usklajevanjem metod izračunavanja in vrednotenja škodljivih učinkov, povezanih s snovmi, obravnavanimi v tem protokolu, za uporabo pri določitvi kritičnih obremenitev in kritičnih ravni, ter če je ustrezno, z izpopolnitvijo postopkov za tako uskladitev;
(b) izboljšanjem zbirk podatkov o emisijah, zlasti o amonijaku in hlapnih organskih spojinah;
(c) izboljšanjem tehnologij in sistemov za spremljanje stanja in modeliranja prenosa, koncentracij in usedlin žvepla, dušikovih spojin in hlapnih organskih spojin ter tudi nastajanja ozona in sekundarnih trdnih delcev;
(d) boljšim znanstvenim razumevanjem dolgoročne usode emisij in njihovih učinkov na koncentracije ozadja za žveplo, dušik, hlapne organske spojine, ozon in trdne delce na obeh poloblah s poudarkom zlasti na kemiji proste troposfere in možnostih medcelinskega prenosa onesnaževal;
(e) nadaljnjo pripravo splošne strategije za zmanjšanje škodljivih učinkov zakisljevanja, evtrofikacije in fotokemičnega onesnaževanja, vključno s sinergijami in sestavljenimi učinki;
(f) strategijami za nadaljnje zmanjševanje emisij žvepla, dušikovih oksidov, amonijaka in hlapnih organskih spojin na podlagi kritičnih obremenitev, kritičnih ravni in tehničnega razvoja ter napredka pri integriranem modeliranju za izračun mednarodno doseženih optimalnih razporeditev zmanjšanja ob upoštevanju, da se vsaka pogodbenica izogne pretiranim stroškom. Posebno pozornost bi bilo treba nameniti emisijam iz kmetijstva in prometa;
(g) prepoznavanjem časovnih trendov in znanstvenim razumevanjem širših učinkov žvepla, dušika in hlapnih organskih spojin ter fotokemičnega onesnaževanja, vključno z njihovim prispevkom h koncentracijam trdnih delcev, na zdravje ljudi, okolje, zlasti zakisljevanja in evtrofikacije, ter na material, zlasti zgodovinske in kulturne spomenike, z upoštevanjem razmerja med žveplovimi oksidi, dušikovimi oksidi, amonijakom, hlapnimi organskimi spojinami in ozonom v troposferi;
(h) tehnologijami za zmanjševanje emisij ter tehnologijami in tehnikami za boljšo energetsko učinkovitost, ohranjanje energije in uporabo obnovljivih virov energije;
(i) učinkovitostjo tehnologij za nadzor nad amonijakom za kmetije in njihovim vplivom na lokalne in regionalne usedline;
(j) upravljanjem prevoznih potreb ter razvojem in spodbujanjem načinov prevoza, ki manj onesnažujejo;
(k) količinsko opredelitvijo, in kadar je to mogoče, ekonomskim ovrednotenjem koristi za okolje in zdravje ljudi, ki so posledica zmanjšanja emisij žvepla, dušikovih oksidov, amonijaka in hlapnih organskih spojin, in
(l) razvojem orodij, s katerimi bi bili metode in rezultati tega dela široko uporabni in dostopni.
9. člen
IZPOLNJEVANJE OBVEZNOSTI
Izpolnjevanje obveznosti vsake pogodbenice po tem protokolu je treba redno pregledovati. Te preglede opravlja izvedbeni odbor, ki ga je ustanovil izvršni organ na svojem petnajstem zasedanju s sklepom 1997/2, ter poroča pogodbenicam na zasedanju izvršnega organa v skladu z določbami iz priloge k omenjenemu sklepu, vključno z vsemi njegovimi spremembami.
10. člen
PREGLEDI POGODBENIC NA ZASEDANJIH IZVRŠNEGA ORGANA
1. Pogodbenice na zasedanjih izvršnega organa v skladu s pododstavkom (a) drugega odstavka 10. člena konvencije pregledajo informacije, ki jih predložijo pogodbenice, EMEP in pomožna telesa izvršnega organa, podatke o učinkih koncentracij in usedlin žvepla in dušikovih spojin ter o posledicah fotokemičnega onesnaževanja in tudi poročila izvedbenega odbora iz 9. člena.
2.(a) Pogodbenice na zasedanjih izvršnega organa pregledujejo izpolnjevanje obveznosti iz tega protokola, vključno:
(i) s svojimi obveznostmi v zvezi s svojimi izračunanimi in mednarodno doseženimi optimalnimi razporeditvami zmanjševanja emisij iz petega odstavka 7. člena in
(ii) primernostjo obveznosti in napredkom pri doseganju cilja tega protokola.
(b) Pri pregledih se upoštevajo najboljši razpoložljivi znanstveni podatki o učinkih zakisljevanja, evtrofikacije in fotokemičnega onesnaževanja, vključno z ovrednotenjem vseh učinkov na zdravje, kritičnimi ravnmi in obremenitvami, razvojem in izpopolnitvijo integriranih modelov za vrednotenje, tehnološkim razvojem, spreminjajočimi se gospodarskimi razmerami, napredkom na področju zbirk podatkov o emisijah in tehnologijah za njihovo zmanjševanje, zlasti v zvezi z amonijakom in hlapnimi organskimi spojinami, ter izpolnjevanjem obveznosti glede emisijskih ravni.
(c) Postopke, metode in časovni razpored takih pregledov določijo pogodbenice na zasedanju izvršnega organa. Prvi tak pregled se začne najpozneje eno leto po začetku veljavnosti tega protokola.
11. člen
REŠEVANJE SPOROV
1. Pri sporu med dvema ali več pogodbenicami v zvezi z razlago ali uporabo tega protokola si pogodbenice prizadevajo spor rešiti s pogajanji ali na kateri koli drug miren način po svoji izbiri. Stranke v sporu obvestijo izvršni organ o sporu.
2. Ob ratifikaciji, sprejetju, odobritvi tega protokola ali pristopu k njemu ali kadar koli po tem lahko pogodbenica, ki ni organizacija za regionalno gospodarsko povezovanje, v pisnem dokumentu, ki ga predloži depozitarju, izjavi, da ob katerem koli sporu v zvezi z razlago ali uporabo protokola s katero koli pogodbenico, ki sprejme enako obveznost, priznava enega ali oba od naslednjih načinov reševanja sporov kot dejansko obvezna in brez posebnega sporazuma:
(a) predložitev spora Meddržavnemu sodišču;
(b) arbitražo v skladu s postopki iz priloge o arbitraži, ki jih sprejmejo pogodbenice, takoj ko je to izvedljivo, na zasedanju izvršnega organa.
Pogodbenica, ki je organizacija za regionalno gospodarsko povezovanje, lahko da izjavo z enakim učinkom v zvezi z arbitražo v skladu s postopki iz pododstavka (b) tega člena.
3. Izjava, dana po drugem odstavku tega člena, velja, dokler ne poteče v skladu z njenimi določili ali dokler ne minejo trije meseci od deponiranja pisnega obvestila o njenem preklicu pri depozitarju.
4. Nova izjava, obvestilo o preklicu ali prenehanje veljavnosti v nobenem primeru ne vpliva na že začete postopke pri Meddržavnem sodišču ali razsodišču, razen če se stranki v sporu ne dogovorita drugače.
5. Če dvanajst mesecev po tem, ko je ena stranka uradno obvestila drugo, da sta v sporu, vpletenima strankama ni uspelo rešiti spora na katerega od načinov iz prvega odstavka tega člena, se spor na zahtevo katere koli vpletene stranke rešuje s spravo, kar pa ne velja, če sta stranki v sporu sprejeli enak način reševanja sporov skladno z drugim odstavkom tega člena.
6. Za namene petega odstavka tega člena se ustanovi spravna komisija. Vsaka vpletena stranka ali skupina strank, če imajo stranke v postopku sprave enak interes, imenuje v komisijo isto število članov, tako imenovani člani pa skupno izberejo predsedujočega. Komisija sprejme priporočilo, ki ga stranke v sporu upoštevajo v dobri veri.
12. člen
PRILOGE
Priloge tega protokola so njegov sestavni del.
13. člen
SPREMEMBE IN PRILAGODITVE
1. Vsaka pogodbenica lahko predlaga spremembe tega protokola. Katera koli pogodbenica konvencije lahko predlaga prilagoditev priloge II tega protokola, tako da se ji doda njeno ime skupaj z emisijskimi ravnmi, zgornjimi mejami emisij in odstotnim zmanjševanjem emisij.
2. Predlagane spremembe in prilagoditve se v pisni obliki predložijo izvršnemu sekretarju komisije, ki jih sporoči vsem pogodbenicam. Pogodbenice razpravljajo o predlaganih spremembah in prilagoditvah na naslednjem zasedanju izvršnega organa, če je izvršni sekretar pogodbenicam poslal predloge vsaj devetdeset dni pred zasedanjem.
3. Pogodbenice, prisotne na zasedanju izvršnega organa, sprejmejo spremembe tega protokola vključno s spremembami prilog II do IX s konsenzom in začnejo veljati za pogodbenice, ki so jih sprejele, devetdeseti dan po tem, ko sta dve tretjini pogodbenic deponirali svoje listine o njihovem sprejetju pri depozitarju. Za vsako drugo pogodbenico začnejo spremembe veljati devetdeseti dan po datumu, ko ta pogodbenica deponira svojo listino o njihovem sprejetju.
4. Spremembe prilog tega protokola, razen prilog iz tretjega odstavka, se sprejmejo s konsenzom pogodbenic, ki so prisotne na zasedanju izvršnega organa. Po poteku devetdesetih dni po datumu, ko izvršni sekretar komisije o spremembi obvesti vse pogodbenice, začne sprememba katere koli priloge veljati za pogodbenice, ki depozitarju ne pošljejo obvestila v skladu z določbami petega odstavka tega člena, če najmanj šestnajst pogodbenic ni poslalo takega obvestila.
5. Vsaka pogodbenica, ki ne more odobriti spremembe priloge, razen spremembe priloge iz tretjega odstavka, o tem pisno uradno obvesti depozitarja v devetdesetih dneh po datumu obvestila o njenem sprejemu. Depozitar o vsakem takem prejetem uradnem obvestilu nemudoma obvesti vse pogodbenice. Pogodbenica lahko kadar koli nadomesti svoje predhodno uradno obvestilo s sprejetjem, sprememba take priloge pa za to pogodbenico začne veljati po deponiranju listine o sprejetju pri depozitarju.
6. Pogodbenice, prisotne na zasedanju izvršnega organa, sprejmejo prilagoditve priloge II s konsenzom in začnejo veljati za vse pogodbenice tega protokola devetdeseti dan po datumu, ko izvršni sekretar komisije uradno pisno obvesti te pogodbenice o sprejemu prilagoditve.
14. člen
PODPIS
1. Ta protokol je na voljo za podpis v Göteborgu (Švedska) 30. novembra in 1. decembra 1999, nato pa na sedežu Združenih narodov v New Yorku do 30. maja 2000 državam članicam komisije in tudi državam, ki imajo pri komisiji posvetovalni status, v skladu z osmim odstavkom resolucije 36 (IV) Ekonomskega in socialnega sveta z dne 28. marca 1947, in organizacijam za regionalno gospodarsko povezovanje, ki so jih ustanovile suverene države članice komisije in so pristojne za pogajanje, sklepanje in izvajanje mednarodnih sporazumov o zadevah iz protokola, če so te države in organizacije pogodbenice konvencije in navedene v prilogi II.
2. Take organizacije za regionalno gospodarsko povezovanje pri zadevah v svoji pristojnosti v svojem imenu uresničujejo pravice in izpolnjujejo obveznosti, ki jih ta protokol nalaga njihovim državam članicam. V takih primerih države članice teh organizacij ne smejo uresničevati teh pravic posamezno.
15. člen
RATIFIKACIJA, SPREJETJE, ODOBRITEV IN PRISTOP
1. Podpisnice ratificirajo, sprejmejo ali odobrijo ta protokol.
2. Od 31. maja 2000 lahko države in organizacije, ki izpolnjujejo zahteve iz prvega odstavka 14. člena, pristopijo k temu protokolu.
3. Listine o ratifikaciji, sprejetju, odobritvi ali pristopu se deponirajo pri depozitarju.
16. člen
DEPOZITAR
Depozitar je generalni sekretar Združenih narodov.
17. člen
ZAČETEK VELJAVNOSTI
1. Ta protokol začne veljati devetdeseti dan po datumu deponiranja šestnajste listine o ratifikaciji, sprejetju, odobritvi ali pristopu pri depozitarju.
2. Za vsako državo in organizacijo, ki izpolnjuje zahteve iz prvega odstavka 14. člena in ratificira, sprejme ali odobri ta protokol ali k njemu pristopi po deponiranju šestnajste listine o ratifikaciji, sprejetju, odobritvi ali pristopu, začne protokol veljati devetdeseti dan po datumu, ko ta pogodbenica deponira svojo listino o ratifikaciji, sprejetju, odobritvi ali pristopu.
18. člen
ODPOVED
Kadar koli po petih letih po datumu začetka veljavnosti tega protokola za posamezno pogodbenico ga lahko ta odpove s pisnim uradnim obvestilom depozitarju. Odpoved začne veljati devetdeseti dan po datumu, ko depozitar prejme uradno obvestilo o odpovedi, ali pozneje, če je tako določeno v uradnem obvestilu o odpovedi.
19. člen
VERODOSTOJNA BESEDILA
Izvirnik tega protokola, katerega besedila v angleškem, francoskem in ruskem jeziku so enako verodostojna, se deponira pri generalnem sekretarju Združenih narodov.
 
V POTRDITEV TEGA so podpisani, ki so bili za to pravilno pooblaščeni, podpisali ta protokol.
 
SESTAVLJENO v Göteborgu (Švedska) tridesetega novembra tisoč devetsto devetindevetdeset.
3. člen
Za izvajanje protokola skrbijo Ministrstvo za okolje, prostor in energijo, Ministrstvo za kmetijstvo, gozdarstvo in prehrano, Ministrstvo za gospodarstvo ter Ministrstvo za promet.
4. člen
Ta zakon začne veljati petnajsti dan po objavi v Uradnem listu Republike Slovenije – Mednarodne pogodbe.
Št. 801-08/03-8/1
Ljubljana, dne 27. februarja 2004
EPA 1091-III
Predsednik
Državnega zbora
Republike Slovenije
Borut Pahor l. r.