Uradni list

Številka 48
Uradni list RS, št. 48/2006 z dne 11. 5. 2006
Uradni list

Uradni list RS, št. 48/2006 z dne 11. 5. 2006

Kazalo

51. Zakon o ratifikaciji Sporazuma o uporabi določb Konvencije Združenih narodov o pomorskem mednarodnem pravu z dne 10. decembra 1982 glede ohranjanja in upravljanja čezconskih staležev rib in izrazito selivskih staležev rib (MKOČSR), stran 765.

Na podlagi druge alinee prvega odstavka 107. člena in prvega odstavka 91. člena Ustave Republike Slovenije izdajam
U K A Z
O RAZGLASITVI ZAKONA O RATIFIKACIJI SPORAZUMA O UPORABI DOLOČB KONVENCIJE ZDRUŽENIH NARODOV O POMORSKEM MEDNARODNEM PRAVU Z DNE 10. DECEMBRA 1982 GLEDE OHRANJANJA IN UPRAVLJANJA ČEZCONSKIH STALEŽEV RIB IN IZRAZITO SELIVSKIH STALEŽEV RIB (MKOČSR)
Razglašam Zakon o ratifikaciji Sporazuma o uporabi določb Konvencije Združenih narodov o pomorskem mednarodnem pravu z dne 10. decembra 1982 glede ohranjanja in upravljanja čezconskih staležev rib in izrazito selivskih staležev rib (MKOČSR), ki ga je sprejel Državni zbor Republike Slovenije na seji 4. aprila 2006.
Št. 001-22-56/06
Ljubljana, dne 12. aprila 2006
dr. Janez Drnovšek l.r.
Predsednik
Republike Slovenije
Z A K O N
O RATIFIKACIJI SPORAZUMA O UPORABI DOLOČB KONVENCIJE ZDRUŽENIH NARODOV O POMORSKEM MEDNARODNEM PRAVU Z DNE 10. DECEMBRA 1982 GLEDE OHRANJANJA IN UPRAVLJANJA ČEZCONSKIH STALEŽEV RIB IN IZRAZITO SELIVSKIH STALEŽEV RIB (MKOČSR)
1. člen
Ratificira se Sporazum o uporabi določb Konvencije Združenih narodov o pomorskem mednarodnem pravu z dne 10. decembra 1982 glede ohranjanja in upravljanja čezconskih staležev rib in izrazito selivskih staležev rib, sprejet 4. avgusta 1995 v New Yorku.
2. člen
Besedilo sporazuma se v izvirniku v angleškem jeziku in v prevodu v slovenskem jeziku glasi:
A G R E E M E N T
on the implementation of the provisions of the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea of 10 December 1982 relating to the conservation and management of straddling fish stocks and highly migratory fish stocks
THE STATES PARTIES TO THIS AGREEMENT,
RECALLING the relevant provisions of the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea of 10 December 1982,
DETERMINED to ensure the long-term conservation and sustainable use of straddling fish stocks and highly migratory fish stocks,
RESOLVED to improve cooperation between States to that end,
CALLING for more effective enforcement by flag States, port States and coastal States of the conservation and management measures adopted for such stocks,
SEEKING to address in particular the problems identified in Chapter 17, programme area C, of Agenda 21 adopted by the United Nations Conference on Environment and Development, namely, that the management of high seas fisheries is inadequate in many areas and that some resources are over-utilised; noting that there are problems of unregulated fishing, over-capitalisation, excessive fleet size, vessel reflagging to escape controls, insufficiently selective gear, unreliable databases and lack of sufficient cooperation between States,
COMMITTING themselves to responsible fisheries,
CONSCIOUS of the need to avoid adverse impacts on the marine environment, preserve biodiversity, maintain the integrity of marine ecosystems and minimise the risk of long-term or irreversible effects of fishing operations,
RECOGNISING the need for specific assistance, including financial, scientific and technological assistance, in order that developing States can participate effectively in the conservation, management and sustainable use of straddling fish stocks and highly migratory fish stocks,
CONVINCED that an agreement for the implementation of the relevant provisions of the Convention would best serve these purposes and contribute to the maintenance of international peace and security,
AFFIRMING that matters not regulated by the Convention or by this Agreement continue to be governed by the rules and principles of general international law,
HAVE AGREED AS FOLLOWS:
PART I
GENERAL PROVISIONS
Article 1
Use of terms and scope
1. For the purposes of this Agreement:
(a) ‘Convention’ means the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea of 10 December 1982;
(b) ‘conservation and management measures’ means measures to conserve and manage one or more species of living marine resources that are adopted and applied consistent with the relevant rules of international law as reflected in the Convention and this Agreement;
(c) ‘fish’ includes molluscs and crustaceans except those belonging to sedentary species as defined in Article 77 of the Convention; and
(d) ‘arrangement’ means a cooperative mechanism established in accordance with the Convention and this Agreement by two or more States for the purpose, inter alia, of establishing conservation and management measures in a subregion or region for one or more straddling fish stocks or highly migratory fish stocks.
2. (a) ‘States Parties’ means States which have consented to be bound by this Agreement and for which the Agreement is in force.
(b) This Agreement applies mutatis mutandis:
(i) to any entity referred to in Article 305(1)(c), (d) and (e), of the Convention and
(ii) subject to Article 47, to any entity referred to as an ‘international organisation’ in Annex IX, Article 1, of the Convention which becomes a Party to this Agreement, and to that extent ‘States Parties’ refers to those entities.
3. This Agreement applies mutatis mutandis to other fishing entities whose vessels fish on the high seas.
Article 2
Objective
The objective of this Agreement is to ensure the longterm conservation and sustainable use of straddling fish stocks and highly migratory fish stocks through effective implementation of the relevant provisions of the Convention.
Article 3
Application
1. Unless otherwise provided, this Agreement applies to the conservation and management of straddling fish stocks and highly migratory fish stocks beyond areas under national jurisdiction, except that Articles 6 and 7 apply also to the conservation and management of such stocks within areas under national jurisdiction, subject to the different legal regimes that apply within areas under national jurisdiction and in areas beyond national jurisdiction as provided for in the Convention.
2. In the exercise of its sovereign rights for the purpose of exploring and exploiting, conserving and managing straddling fish stocks and highly migratory fish stocks within areas under national jurisdiction, the coastal State shall apply mutatis mutandis the general principles enumerated in Article 5.
3. States shall give due consideration to the respective capacities of developing States to apply Articles 5, 6 and 7 within areas under national jurisdiction and their need for assistance as provided for in this Agreement. To this end, Part VII applies mutatis mutandis in respect of areas under national jurisdiction.
Article 4
Relationship between this Agreement and the Convention
Nothing in this Agreement shall prejudice the rights, jurisdiction and duties of States under the Convention. This Agreement shall be interpreted and applied in the context of and in a manner consistent with the Convention.
PART II
CONSERVATION AND
MANAGEMENT OF STRADDLING FISH STOCKS AND HIGHLY MIGRATORY FISH STOCKS
Article 5
General principles
In order to conserve and manage straddling fish stocks and highly migratory fish stocks, coastal States and States fishing on the high seas shall, in giving effect to their duty to cooperate in accordance with the Convention:
(a) adopt measures to ensure long-term sustainability of straddling fish stocks and highly migratory fish stocks and promote the objective of their optimum utilisation;
(b) ensure that such measures are based on the best scientific evidence available and are designed to maintain or restore stocks at levels capable of producing maximum sustainable yield, as qualified by relevant environmental and economic factors, including the special requirements of developing States, and taking into account fishing patterns, the interdependence of stocks and any generally recommended international minimum standards, whether subregional, regional or global;
(c) apply the precautionary approach in accordance with Article 6;
(d) assess the impacts of fishing, other human activities and environmental factors on target stocks and species belonging to the same ecosystem or associated with or dependent on the target stocks;
(e) adopt, where necessary, conservation and management measures for species belonging to the same ecosystem or associated with or dependent on the target stocks, with a view to maintaining or restoring populations of such species above levels at which their reproduction may become seriously threatened;
(f) minimise pollution, waste, discards, catch by lost or abandoned gear, catch of non-target species, both fish and non-fish species, (hereinafter referred to as ‘nontarget species’) and impacts on associated or dependent species, in particular endangered species, through measures including, to the extent practicable, the development and use of selective, environmentally safe and cost-effective fishing gear and techniques;
(g) protect biodiversity in the marine environment;
(h) take measures to prevent or eliminate overfishing and excess fishing capacity and to ensure that levels of fishing effort do not exceed those commensurate with the sustainable use of fishery resources;
(i) take into account the interests of artisanal and subsistence fishers;
(j) collect and share, in a timely manner, complete and accurate data concerning fishng activities on, inter alia, vessel position, catch of target and non-target species and fishing effort, as set out in Annex I, as well as information from national and international research programmes;
(k) promote and conduct scientific research and develop appropriate technologies in support of fishery conservation and management, and
(l) implement and enforce conservation and management measures through effective monitoring, control and surveillance.
Article 6
Application of the precautionary approach
1. States shall apply the precautionary approach widely to conservation, management and exploitation of straddling fish stocks and highly migratory fish stocks in order to protect the living marine resources and preserve the marine environment.
2. States shall be more cautions when information is uncertain, unreliable or inadequate. The absence of adequate scientific information shall not be used as a reason for postponing or failing to take conservation and management measures.
3. In implementing the precautionary approach, States shall:
(a) improve decision-making for fishery resource conservation and management by obtaining and sharing the best scientific information available and implementing improved techniques for dealing with risk and uncertainty;
(b) apply the guidelines set out in Annex II and determine, on the basis of the best scientific information available, stock-specific reference points and the action to be taken if they are exceeded;
(c) take into account, inter alia, uncertainties relating to the size and productivity of the stocks, reference points, stock condition in relation to such reference points, levels and distribution of fishing mortality and the impact of fishing activities on non-target and associated or dependent species, as well as existing and predicted oceanic, environmental and socioeconomic conditions, and
(d) develop data-collection and research programmes to assess the impact of fishing on non-target and associated or dependent species and their environment, and adopt plans which are necessary to ensure the conservation of such species and to protect habitats of special concern.
4. State shall take measures to ensure that, when reference points are approached, they will not be exceeded. In the event that they are exceeded, States shall, without delay, take the action determined under paragraph 3(b) to restore the stocks.
5. Where the status of target stocks or non-target or associated or dependent species is of concern, States shall subject such stocks and species to enhanced monitoring in order to review their status and the efficacy of conservation and management measures. They shall revise those measures regularly in the light of new information.
6. For new or exploratory fisheries, States shall adopt as soon as possible cautious conservation and management measures, including, inter alia, catch limits and effort limits. Such measures shall remain in force until there are sufficient data to allow assessment of the impact of the fisheries on the long-term sustainability of the stocks, whereupon conservation and management measures based on that assessment shall be implemented. The latter measures shall, if appropriate, allow for the gradual development of the fisheries.
7. If a natural phenomenon has a significant adverse impact on the status of straddling fish stocks or highly migratory fish stocks, States shall adopt conservation and management measures on an emergency basis to ensure that fishing activity does not exacerbate such adverse impact. States shall also adopt such measures on an emergency basis where fishing activity presents a serious threat to the sustainability of such stocks. Measures taken on an emergency basis shall be temporary and shall be based on the best scientific evidence available.
Article 7
Compatibility of conservation and management measures
1. Without prejudice to the sovereign rights of coastal States for the purpose of exploring and exploiting, conserving and managing the living marine resources within areas under national jurisdiction as provided for in the Convention, and the right of all States for their nationals to engage in fishing on the high seas in accordance with the Convention:
(a) with respect to straddling fish stocks, the relevant coastal States and the States whose nationals fish for such stocks in the adjacent high seas area shall seek, either directly or through the appropriate mechanisms for cooperation provided for in Part III, to agree upon the measures necessary for the conservation of these stocks in the adjacent high seas area;
(b) with respect to highly migratory fish stocks, the relevant coastal States and other States whose nationals fish for such stocks in the region shall cooperate, either directly or through the appropriate mechanisms for cooperation provided for in Part III, with a view to ensuring conservation and promoting the objective of optimum utilisation of such stocks throughout the region, both within and beyond the areas under national jurisdiction.
2. Conservation and management measures established for the high seas and those adopted for areas under national jurisdiction shall be compatible in order to ensure conservation and management of the straddling fish stocks and highly migratory fish stocks in their entirety. To this end, coastal States and States fishing on the high seas have a duty to cooperate for the purpose of achieving compatible measures in respect of such stocks. In determining compatible conservation and management measures, States shall:
(a) take into account the conservation and management measures adopted and applied in accordance with Article 61 of the Convention in respect of the same stocks by coastal States within areas under national jurisdiction and ensure that measures established in respect of such stocks for the high seas do not undermine the effectiveness of such measures;
(b) take into account previously agreed measures established and applied for the high seas in accordance with the Convention in respect of the same stocks by relevant coastal States and States fishing on the high seas;
(c) take into account previously agreed measures established and applied in accordance with the Convention in respect of the same stocks by a subregional or regional fisheries management organisation or arrangement;
(d) take into account the biological unity and other biological characteristics of the stocks and the relationships between the distribution of the stocks, the fisheries and the geographical particularities of the region concerned, including the extent to which the stocks occur and are fished in areas under national jurisdiction;
(e) take into account the respective dependence of the coastal States and the States fishing on the high seas on the stocks concerned, and
(f) ensure that such measures do not result in harmful impact on the living marine resources as a whole.
3. In giving effect to their duty to cooperate, States shall make every effort to agree on compatible conservation and management measures within a reasonable period of time.
4. If no agreement can be reached within a reasonable period of time, any of the States concerned may invoke the procedures for the settlement of disputes provided for in Part VIII.
5. Pending agreement on compatible conservation and management measures, the States concerned, in a spirit of understanding and cooperation, shall make every effort to enter into provisional arrangements of a practical nature. In the event that they are unable to agree on such arrangements, any of the States concerned may, for the purpose of obtaining provisional measures, submit the dispute to a court or tribunal in accordance with the procedures for the settlement of disputes provided for in Part VIII.
6. Provisional arrangements or measures entered into or prescribed pursuant to paragraph 5 shall take into account the provisions of this Part, shall have due regard to the rights and obligations of all States concerned, shall not jeopardize or hamper the reaching of final agreement on compatible conservation and management measures and shall be without prejudice to the final outcome of any dispute settlement procedure.
7. Coastal States shall regularly inform States fishing on the high seas in the subregion or region, either directly or through appropriate subregional or regional fisheries management organisations or arrangements, or through other appropriate means, of the measures they have adopted for straddling fish stocks and highly migratory fish stocks within areas under their national jurisdiction.
8. States fishing on the high seas shall regularly inform other interested States, either directly or through appropriate subregional or regional fisheries management organisations or arrangements, or through other appropriate means, of the measures they have adopted for regulating the activities of vessels flying their flag which fish for such stocks on the high seas.
PART III
MECHANISMS FOR INTERNATIONAL COOPERATION CONCERNING STRADDLING FISH STOCKS AND HIGHLY MIGRATORY FISH STOCKS
Article 8
Cooperation for conservation and management
1. Coastal States and States fishing on the high seas shall, in accordance with the Convention, pursue cooperation in relation to straddling fish stocks and highly migratory fish stocks either directly or through appropriate subregional or regional fisheries management organisations or arrangements, taking into account the specific characteristics of the subregion or region, to ensure effective conservation and management of such stocks.
2. States shall enter into consultations in good faith and without delay, particularly where there is evidence that the straddling fish stocks and highly migratory fish stocks concerned may be under threat of overexploitation or where a new fishery is being developed for such stocks. To this end, consultations may be initiated at the request of any interested State with a view to establishing appropriate arrangements to ensure conservation and management of the stocks. Pending agreement on such arrangements, States shall observe the provisions of this Agreement and shall act in good faith and with due regard to the rights, interests and duties of other States.
3. Where a subregional or regional fisheries management organisation or arrangement has the competence to establish conservation and management measures for particular straddling fish stocks or highly migratory fish stocks, States fishing for the stocks on the high seas and relevant coastal States shall give effect to their duty to cooperate by becoming members of such organisation or participants in such arrangement, or by agreeing to apply the conservation and management measures established by such organisation or arrangement. States having a real interest in the fisheries concerned may become members of such organisation or participants in such arrangement. The terms of participation in such organisation or arrangement shall not preclude such States from membership or participation; nor shall they be applied in a manner which discriminates against any State or group of States having a real interest in the fisheries concerned.
4. Only those States which are members of such an organisation or participants in such an arrangement, or which agree to apply the conservation and management measures established by such organisation or arrangement, shall have access to the fishery resources to which those measures apply.
5. Where there is no subregional or regional fisheries management organisation or arrangement to establish conservation and management measures for a particular straddling fish stock or highly migratory fish stock, relevant coastal States and States fishing on the high seas for such stock in the subregion or region shall cooperate to establish such an organisation or enter into other appropriate arrangements to ensure conservation and management of such stock and shall participate in the work of the organisation or arrangement.
6. Any State intending to propose that action be taken by an intergovernmental organisation having competence with respect to living resources should, where such action would have a significant effect on conservation and management measures already established by a competent subregional or regional fisheries management organisation or arrangement, consult through that organisation or arrangement with its members or participants. To the extent practicable, such consultation should take place prior to the submission of the proposal to the intergovernmental organisation.
Article 9
Subregional and regional fisheries management organisations and arrangements
1. In establishing subregional or regional fisheriesmanagement organisations or in entering into subregional or regional fisheries management arrangements for straddling fish stocks and highly migratory fish stocks, States shall agree, inter alia, on:
(a) the stocks to which conservation and management measures apply, taking into account the biological characteristics of the stocks concerned and the nature of the fisheries involved;
(b) the area of application, taking into account Article 7(1), and the characteristics of the subregion or region, including socioeconomic, geographical and environmental factors;
(c) the relationship between the work of the new organisation or arrangement and the role, objectives and operations of any relevant existing fisheries management organisations or arrangements, and
(d) the mechanisms by which the organisation or arrangement will obtain scientific advice and review the status of the stocks, including, where appropriate, the establishment of a scientific advisory body.
2. States cooperating in the formation of a subregional or regional fisheries management organisation or arrangement shall inform other States which they are aware have a real interest in the work of the proposed organisation or arrangement of such cooperation.
Article 10
Functions of subregional and regional fisheries management organisations and arrangements
In fulfilling their obligation to cooperate through subregional or regional fisheries management organisations or arrangements, States shall:
(a) agree on and comply with conservation and management measures to ensure the long-term sustainability of straddling fish stocks and highly migratory fish stocks;
(b) agree, as appropriate, on participatory rights such as allocations of allowable catch or levels of fishing effort;
(c) adopt and apply any generally recommended international minimum standards for the responsible conduct of fishing operations;
(d) obtain and evaluate scientific advice, review the status of the stocks and assess the impact of fishing on nontarget and associated or dependent species;
(e) agree on standards for collection, reporting, verification and exchange of data on fisheries for the stocks;
(f) compile and disseminate accurate and complete statistical data, as described in Annex I, to ensure that the best scientific evidence is available, while maintaining confidentiality where appropriate;
(g) promote and conduct scientific assessments of the stocks and relevant research and disseminate the results thereof;
(h) establish appropriate cooperative mechanisms for effective monitoring, control, surveillance and enforcement;
(i) agree on means by which the fishing interests of new members of the organisation or new participants in the arrangement will be accommodated;
(j) agree on decision-making procedures which facilitate the adoption of conservation and management measures in a timely and effective manner;
(k) promote the peaceful settlement of disputes in accordance with Part VIII;
(l) ensure the full cooperation of their relevant national agencies and industries in implementing the recommendations and decisions of the organisation or arrangement, and
(m) give due publicity to the conservation and management measures established by the organisation or arrangement.
Article 11
New members or participants
In determining the nature and extent of participatory rights for new members of a subregional or regional fisheries management organisation, or for new participants in a subregional or regional fisheries management arrangement, States shall take into account, inter alia:
(a) the status of the straddling fish stocks and highly migratory fish stocks and the existing level of fishing effort in the fishery;
(b) the respective interests, fishing patterns and fishing practices of new and existing members or participants;
(c) the respective contributions of new and existing members or participants to conservation and management of the stocks, to the collection and provision of accurate data and to the conduct of scientific research on the stocks;
(d) the needs of coastal fishing communities which are dependent mainly on fishing for the stocks;
(e) the needs of coastal States whose economies are overwhelmingly dependent on the exploitation of living marine resources, and
(f) the interests of developing States from the subregion or region in whose areas of national jurisdiction the stocks also occur.
Article 12
Transparency in activities of subregional and regional fisheries management organisations and arrangements
1. States shall provide for transparency in the decision-making process and other activities of subregional and regional fisheries management organisations and arrangements.
2. Representatives from other intergovernmental organisations and representatives from non-governmental organisations concerned with straddling fish stocks and highly migratory fish stocks shall be afforded the opportunity to take part in meetings of subregional and regional fisheries management organisations and arrangements as observers or otherwise, as appropriate, in accordance with the procedures of the organisation or arrangement concerned. Such procedures shall not be unduly restrictive in this respect. Such intergovernmental organisations and non-governmental organisations shall have timely access to the records and reports of such organisations and arrangements, subject to the procedural rules on access to them.
Article 13
Strengthening of existing organisations and arrangements
States shall cooperate to strengten existing subregional and regional fisheries management organisations and arrangements in order to improve their effectiveness in establishing and implementing conservation and management measures for straddling fish stocks and highly migratory fish stocks.
Article 14
Collection and provision of information and cooperation in scientific research
1. States shall ensure that fishing vessels flying their flag provide such information as may be necessary in order to fulfil their obligations under this Agreement. To this end, States shall in accordance with Annex I:
(a) collect and exchange scientific, technical and statistical data with respect to fisheries for straddling fish stocks and highly migratory fish stocks;
(b) ensure that data are collected in sufficient detail to facilitate effective stock assessment and are provided in a timely manner to fulfil the requirements of subregional or regional fisheries management organisations or arrangements, and
(c) take appropriate measures to verify the accuracy of such data.
2. States shall cooperate, either directly or through subregional or regional fisheries management organisations or arrangements:
(a) to agree on the specification of data and the format in which they are to be provided to such organisations or arrangements, taking into account the nature of the stocks and the fisheries for those stocks, and
(b) to develop and share analytical techniques and stock assessment methodologies to improve measures for the conservation and management of straddling fish stocks and highly migratory fish stocks.
3. Consistent with Part XIII of the Convention, States shall cooperate, either directly or through competent international organisations, to strengthen scientific research capacity in the field of fisheries and promote scientific research related to the conservation and management of straddling fish stocks and highly migratory fish stocks for the benefit of all. To this end, a State or the competent international organisation conducting such research beyond areas under national jurisdiction shall actively promote the publication and dissemination to any interested States of the results of that research and information relating to its objectives and methods and, to the extent practicable, shall facilitate the participation of scientists from those States in such research.
Article 15
Enclosed and semi-enclosed seas
In implementing this Agreement in an enclosed or semienclosed sea, States shall take into account the natural characteristics of that sea and shall also act in a manner consistent with Part IX of the Convention and other relevant provisions thereof.
Article 16
Areas of high seas surrounded entirely by an area under the national jurisdiction of a single State
1. States fishing for straddling fish stocks and highly migratory fish stocks in an area of the high seas surrounded entirely by an area under the national jurisdiction of a single State and the latter State shall cooperate to establish conservation and management measures in respect of those stocks in the high seas area. Having regard to the natural characteristics of the area, States shall pay special attention to the establishment of compatible conservation and management measures for such stocks pursuant to Article 7. Measures taken in respect of the high seas shall take into account the rights, duties and interests of the coastal State under the Convention, shall be based on the best scientific evidence available and shall also take into account any conservation and management measures adopted and applied in respect of the same stocks in accordance with Article 61 of the Convention by the coastal State in the area under national jurisdiction. States shall also agree on measures for monitoring, control, surveillance and enforcement to ensure compliance with the conservation and management measures in respect of the high seas.
2. Pursuant to Article 8, States shall act in good faith and make every effort to agree without delay on conservation and management measures to be applied in the carrying out of fishing operations in the area referred to in paragraph 1. If, within a reasonable period of time, the fishing States concerned and the coastal State are unable to agree on such measures, they shall, having regard to paragraph 1, apply Article 7(4)(5) and (6) relating to provisional arrangements or measures. Pending the establishment of such provisional arrangements or measures, the States concerned shall take measures in respect of vessels flying their flag in order that they not engage in fisheries which could undermine the stocks concerned.
PART IV
NON-MEMBERS AND NON-PARTICIPANTS
Article 17
Non-members of organisations and non-participants in arrangements
1. A State which is not a member of a subregional or regional fisheries management organisation or is not a participant in a subregional or regional fisheries management arrangement, and which does not otherwise agree to apply the conservation and management measures established by such organisation or arrangment, is not discharged from the obligation to cooperate, in accordance with the Convention and this Agreement, in the conservation and management of the relevant straddling fish stocks and highly migratory fish stocks.
2. Such State shall not authorise vessels flying its flag to engage in fishing operations for the straddling fish stocks or highly migratory fish stocks which are subject to the conservation and management measures established by such organisation or arrangement.
3. States which are members of a subregional or regional fisheries management organisation or participants in a subregional or regional fisheries management arrangement shall, individually or jointly, request the fishing entities referred to in Article 1(3) which have fishing vessels in the relevant area to cooperate fully with such organisation or arrangement in implementing the conservation and management measures it has established, with a view to having such measures applied de facto as extensively as possible to fishing activities in the relevant area. Such fishing entities shall enjoy benefits from participation in the fishery commensurate with their commitment to comply with conservation and management measures in respect of the stocks.
4. States which are members of such organisation or participants in such arrangement shall exchange information with respect to the activities of fishing vessels flying the flags of States which are neither members of the organisation nor participants in the arrangement and which are engaged in fishing operations for the relevant stocks. They shall take measures consistent with this Agreement and international law to deter activities of such vessels which undermine the effectiveness of subregional or regional conservation and management measures.
PART V
DUTIES OF THE FLAG STATE
Article 18
Duties of the flag State
1. A State whose vessels fish on the high seas shall take such measures as may be necessary to ensure that vessels flying its flag comply with subregional and regional conservation and management measures and that such vessels do not engage in any activity which undermines the effectiveness of such measures.
2. A State shall authorise the use of vessels flying its flag for fishing on the high seas only where it is able to exercise effectively its responsiblities in respect of such vessels under the Convention and this Agreement.
3. Measures to be taken by a State in respect of vessels flying its flag shall include:
(a) control of such vessles on the high seas by mens of fishing licences, authorisations or permits, in accordance with any applicable procedures agreed at the subregional, regional or global level;
(b) establishment of regulations:
(i) to apply terms and conditions to the licence, authorisation or permit sufficient to fulfil any subregional, regional or global obligations of the flag State,
(ii) to prohibit fishing on the high seas by vessels which are not duly licensed or authorised to fish, or fishing on the high seas by vessels otherwise than in accordance with the terms and conditions of a licence, authorisation or permit,
(iii) to require vessels fishing on the high seas to carry the licence, authorisation or permit on board at all times and to produce it on demand for inspection by a duly authorised person,
(iv) to ensure that vessels flying its flag do not conduct unauthorised fishing within areas under the national jurisdiction of other States;
(c) establishment of a national record of fishing vessels authorised to fish on the high seas and provision of access to the information contained in that record on request by directly interested States, taking into account any national laws of the flag State regarding the release of such information;
(d) requirements for marking of fishing vessels and fishing gear for identification in accordance with uniform and internationally recognisable vessel and gear marking systems, such as the Food and Agriculture Organisation of the United Nations Standard Specifications for the Marking and Identification of Fishing Vessels;
(e) requirements for recording and timely reporting of vessel position, catch of target and non-target species, fishing effort and other relevant fisheries data in accordance with subregional, regional and global standards for collection of such data;
(f) requirements for verifying the catch of target and non-target species through such means as observer programmes, inspection schemes, unloading reports, supervision of transhipment and monitoring of landed catches and market statistics;
(g) monitoring, control and surveillance of such vessels, their fishing operations and related activities by, inter alia:
(i) the implementation of national inspection schemes and subregional and regional schemes for cooperation in enforcement pursuant to Articles 21 and 22, including requirements for such vessels to permit access by duly authorised inspectors from other States,
(ii) the implementation of national observer programmes and subregional and regional observer programmes in which the flag State is a participant, including requirements for such vessels to permit access by observers from other States to carry out the functions agreed under the programmes,
(iii) the development and implementation of vessel monitoring systems, including, as appropriate, satellite transmitter systems, in accordance with any national programmes and those which have been subregionally, regionally or globally agreed among the States concerned;
(h) regulation of transhipment on the high seas to ensure that the effectiveness of conservation and management measures is not undermined;
(i) regulation of fishing activities to ensure compliance with subregional, regional or global measures, including those aimed at minimising catches of non-target species.
4. Where there is a subregionally, regionally or globally agreed system of monitoring, control and surveillance in effect, States shall ensure that the measures they impose on vessels flying their flag are compatible with that system.
PART VI
COMPLIANCE AND ENFORCEMENT
Article 19
Compliance and enforcement by the flag State
1. A State shall ensure compliance by vessels flying its flag with subregional and regional conservation and management measures for straddling fish stocks and highly migratory fish stocks. To this end, that State shall:
(a) enforce such measures irrespective of where violations occur;
(b) investigate immediately and fully any alleged violation of subregional or regional conservation and management measures, which may include the physical inspection of the vessels concerned, and report promptly to the State alleging the violation and the relevant subregional or regional organisation or arrangements on the progress and outcome of the investigation;
(c) require any vessel flying its flag to give information to the investigating authority regarding vessel position, catches, fishing gear, fishing operations and related activities in the area of an alleged violation;
(d) if satisfied that sufficient evidence is available in respect of an alleged violation, refer the case to its authorities with a view to instituting proceedings without delay in accordance with its laws and, where appropriate, detain the vessel concerned;
(e) ensure that, where it has been established, in accordance with its laws, a vessel has been involved in the commission of a serious violation of such measures, the vessel does not engage in fishing operations on the high seas until such time as all outstanding sanctions imposed by the flag State in respect of the violation have been complied with.
2. All investigations and judicial proceedings shall be carried out expeditiously. Sanctions applicable in respect of violations shall be adequate in severity to be effective in securing compliance and to discourage violations wherever they occur and shall deprive offenders of the benefits accruing from their illegal activities. Measures applicable in respect of masters and other officers of fishing vessels shall include provisions which may permit, inter alia, refusal, withdrawal or suspension of authorisations to serve as masters or officers on such vessels.
Article 20
International cooperation in enforcement
1. States shall cooperate, either directly or through subregional or regional fisheries management organisations or arrangements, to ensure compliance with and enforcement of subregional and regional conservation and management measures for straddling fish stocks and highly migratory fish stocks.
2. A flag State conducting an investigation of an alleged violation of conservation and management measures for straddling fish stocks or highly migratory fish stocks may request the assistance of any other State whose cooperation may be useful in the conduct of that investigation. All States shall endeavour to meet reasonable requests made by a flag State in connection with such investigations.
3. A flag State may undertake such investigations directly, in cooperation with other interested States or through the relevant subregional or regional fisheries management organisation or arrangement. Information on the progress and outcome of the investigations shall be provided to all States having an interest in, or affected by, the alleged violation.
4. States shall assist each other in identifying vessels reported to have engaged in activities undermining the effectiveness of subregional, regional or global conservation and management measures.
5. States shall, to the extent permitted by national laws and regulations, establish arrangements for making available to prosecuting authorities in other States evidence relating to alleged violations of such measures.
6. Where there are reasonable grounds for believing that a vessel on the high seas has been engaged in unauthorised fishing within an area under the jurisdiction of a coastal State, the flag State of that vessel, at the request of the coastal State concerned, shall immediately and fully investigate the matter. The flag State shall cooperate with the coastal State in taking appropriate enforcement action in such cases and may authorise the relevant authorities of the coastal State to board and inspect the vessel on the high seas. This paragraph is without prejudice to Article 111 of the Convention.
7. States Parties which are members of a subregional or regional fisheries management organisation or participants in a subregional or regional fisheries management arrangement may take action in accordance with international law, including through recourse to subregional or regional procedures established for this purpose, to deter vessels which have engaged in activities which undermine the effectiveness of or otherwise violate the conservation and management measures established by that organisation or arrangement from fishing on the high seas in the subregion or region until such time as appropriate action is taken by the flag State.
Article 21
Subregional and regional cooperation in enforcement
1. In any high seas area covered by a subregional or regional fisheries management organisation or arrangement, a State Party which is a member of such organisation or a participant in such arrangement may, through its duly authorised inspectors, board and inspect, in accordance with paragraph 2, fishing vessels flying the flag of another State Party to this Agreement, whether or not such State Party is also a member of the organisation or a participant in the arrangement, for the purpose of ensuring compliance with conservation and management measures for straddling fish stocks and highly migratory fish stocks established by that organisation or arrangement.
2. States shall establish, through subregional or regional fisheries management organisations or arrangements, procedures for boarding and inspection pursuant to paragraph 1, as well as procedures to implement other provisions of this Article. Such procedures shall be consistent with this Article and the basic procedures set out in Article 22 and shall not discriminate against non-members of the organisation or non-participants in the arrangement. Boarding and inspection as well as any subsequent enforcement action shall be conducted in accordance with such procedures. States shall give due publicity to procedures established pursuant to this paragraph.
3. If, within two years of the adoption of this Agreement, any organisation or arrangement has not established such procedures, boarding and inspection pursuant to paragraph 1, as well as any subsequent enforcement action, shall, pending the establishment of such procedures, be conducted in accordance with this Article and the basic procedures set out in Article 22.
4. Prior to taking action under this Article, inspecting States shall, either directly or through the relevant subregional or regional fisheries management organisation or arrangement, inform all States whose vessels fish on the high seas in the subregion or region of the form of identification issued to their duly authorised inspectors. The vessels used for boarding and inspection shall be clearly marked and identifiable as being on government service. At the time of becoming a Party to this Agreement, a State shall designate an appropriate authority to receive notifications pursuant to this Article and shall give due publicity of such designation through the relevant subregional or regional fisheries management organisation or arrangement.
5. Where, following a boarding and inspection, there are clear grounds for believing that a vessel has engaged in any activity contrary to the conservation and management measures referred to in paragraph 1, the inspecting State shall, where appropriate, secure evidence and shall promptly notify the flag State of the alleged violation.
6. The flag State shall respond to the notification referred to in paragraph 5 within three working days of its receipt, or such other period as may be prescribed in procedures established in accordance with paragraph 2, and shall either:
(a) fulfil, without delay, its obligations under Article 19 to investigate and, if evidence so warrants, take enforcement action with respect to the vessel, in which case it shall promptly inform the inspecting State of the results of the investigation and of any enforcement action taken; or
(b) authorise the inspecting State to investigate.
7. Where the flag State authorises the inspecting State to investigate an alleged violation, the inspecting State shall, without delay, communicate the results of that investigation to the flag State. The flag State shall, if evidence so warrants, fulfil its obligations to take enforcement action with respect to the vessel. Alternatively, the flag State may authorise the inspecting State to take such enforcement action as the flag State may specify with respect to the vessel, consistent with the rights and obligations of the flag State under this Agreement.
8. Where, following boarding and inspection, there are clear grounds for believing that a vessel has committed a serious violation, and the flag State has either failed to respond or failed to take action as required under paragraphs 6 or 7, the inspectors may remain on board and secure evidence and may require the master to assist in further investigation including, where appropriate, by bringing the vessel without delay to the nearest appropriate port, or to such other port as may be specified in procedures established in accordance with paragraph 2. The inspecting State shall immediately inform the flag State of the name of the port to which the vessel is to proceed. The inspecting State and the flag State and, as appropriate, the port State shall take all necessary steps to ensure the well-being of the crew regardless of their nationality.
9. The inspecting State shall inform the flag State and the relevant organisation or the participants in the relevant arrangement of the results of any further investigation.
10. The inspecting State shall require its inspectors to observe generally accepted international regulations, procedures and practices relating to the safety of the vessel and the crew, minimise interference with fishing operations and, to the extent practicable, avoid action which would adversely affect the quality of the catch on board. The inspecting State shall ensure that boarding and inspection is not conducted in a manner that would constitute harassment of any fishing vessel.
11. For the purposes of this Article, a serious violation means:
(a) fishing without a valid licence, authorisation or permit issued by the flag State in accordance with Article 18(3)(a);
(b) failing to maintain accurate records of catch and catch-related data, as required by the relevant subregional or regional fisheries management organisation or arrangement, or serious misreporting of catch, contrary to the catch reporting requirements of such organisation or arrangement;
(c) fishing in a closed area, fishing during a closed season or fishing without, or after attainment of, a quota established by the relevant subregional or regional fisheries management organisation or arrangement;
(d) directed fishing for a stock which is subject to a moratorium or for which fishing is prohibited;
(e) using prohibited fishing gear;
(f) falsifying or concealing the markings, identity or registration of a fishing vessel;
(g) concealing, tampering with or disposing of evidence relating to an investigation;
(h) multiple violations which together constitute a serious disregard of conservation and management measures; or
(i) such other violations as may be specified in procedures established by the relevant subregional or regional fisheries management organisation or arrangement.
12. Notwithstanding the other provisions of this Article, the flag State may, at any time, take action to fulfil its obligations under Article 19 with respect to an alleged violation. Where the vessel is under the direction of the inspecting State, the inspecting State shall, at the request of the flag State, release the vessel to the flag State along with full information on the progress and outcome of its investigation.
13. This Article is without prejudice to the right of the flag State to take any measures, including proceedings to impose penalties, according to its laws.
14. This Article applies mutatis mutandis to boarding and inspection by a State Party which is a member of a subregional or regional fisheries management organisation or a participant in a subregional or regional fisheries management arrangement and which has clear grounds for believing that a fishing vessel flying the flag of another State Party has engaged in any activity contrary to relevant conservation and management measures referred to in paragraph 1 in the high seas area covered by such organisation or arrangement, and such vessel has subsequently, during the same fishing trip, entered into an area under the national jurisdiction of the inspecting State.
15. Where a subregional or regional fisheries management organisation or arrangement has established an alternative mechanism which effectively discharges the obligation under this Agreement of its members or participants to ensure compliance with the conservation and management measures established by the organisation or arrangement, members of such organisation or participants in such arrangement may agree to limit the application of paragraph 1 as between themselves in respect of the conservation and management measures which have been established in the relevant high seas area.
16. Action taken by States other than the flag State in respect of vessels having engaged in activities contrary to subregional or regional conservation and management measures shall be proportionate to the seriousness of the violation.
17. Where there are reasonable grounds for suspecting that a fishing vessel on the high seas is without nationality, a State may board and inspect the vessel. Where evidence so warrants, the State may take such action as may be appropriate in accordance with international law.
18. States shall be liable for damage or loss attributable to them arising from action taken pursuant to this Article when such action is unlawful or exceeds that reasonably required in the light of available information to implement the provisions of this Article.
Article 22
Basic procedures for boarding and inspection pursuant to Article 21
1. The inspecting State shall ensure that its duly authorised inspectors:
(a) present credentials to the master of the vessel and produce a copy of the text of the relevant conservation and management measures or rules and regulations in force in the high seas area in question, pursuant to those measures;
(b) initiate notice to the flag State at the time of the boarding and inspection;
(c) do not interfere with the master’s ability to communicate with the authorities of the flag State during the boarding and inspection;
(d) provide a copy of a report on the boarding and inspection to the master and to the authorities of the flag State, noting therein any objection or statement which the master wishes to have included in the report;
(e) promptly leave the vessel following completion of the inspection if they find no evidence of a serious violation; and
(f) avoid the use of force except when and to the degree necessary to ensure the safety of the inspectors and where the inspectors are obstructed in the execution of their duties. The degree of force used shall not exceed that reasonably required in the circumstances.
2. The duly authorised inspectors of an inspecting State shall have the authority to inspect the vessel, its licence, gear, equipment, records, facilities, fish and fish products and any relevant documents necessary to verify compliance with the relevant conservation and management measures.
3. The flag State shall ensure that vessel masters:
(a) accept and facilitate prompt and safe boarding by the inspectors;
(b) cooperate with and assist in the inspection of the vessel conducted pursuant to these procedures;
(c) do not obstruct, intimidate or interfere with the inspectors in the performance of their duties;
(d) allow the inspectors to communicate with the authorities of the flag State and the inspecting State during the boarding and inspection;
(e) provide reasonable facilities, including, where appropriate, food and accommodation, to the inspectors;
(f) facilitate safe disembarkation by the inspectors.
4. In the event that the master of a vessel refuses to accept boarding and inspection in accordance with this Article and Article 21, the flag State shall, except in circumstances where, in accordance with generally accepted international regulations, procedures and practices relating to safety at sea, it is necessary to delay the boarding and inspection, direct the master of the vessel to submit immediately to boarding and inspection and, if the master does not comply with such direction, shall suspend the vessel’s authorisation to fish and order the vessel to return immediately to port. The flag State shall advise the inspecting State of the action it has taken when the circumstances referred to in this paragraph arise.
Article 23
Measures taken by a port State
1. A port State has the right and the duty to take measures, in accordance with international law, to promote the effectiveness of subregional, regional and global conservation and management measures. When taking such measures a port State shall not discriminate in form or in fact against the vessels of any State.
2. A port State may, inter alia, inspect documents, fishing gear and catch on board fishing vessels, when such vessels are voluntarily in its ports or at its offshore terminals.
3. States may adopt regulations empowering the relevant national authorities to prohibit landings and transhipments where it has been established that the catch has been taken in a manner which undermines the effectiveness of subregional, regional or global conservation and management measures on the high seas.
4. Nothing in this Article affects the exercise by States of their sovereignty over ports in their territory in accordance with international law.
PART VII
REQUIREMENTS OF DEVELOPING STATES
Article 24
Recognition of the special requirements of developing States
1. States shall give full recognition to the special requirements of developing States in relation to conservation and management of straddling fish stocks and highly migratory fish stocks and development of fisheries for such stocks. To this end, States shall, either directly or through the United Nations Development Programme, the Food and Agriculture Organisation of the United Nations and other specialised agencies, the Global Environment Facility, the Commission on Sustainable Development and other appropriate international and regional organisations and bodies, provide assistance to developing States.
2. In giving effect to the duty to cooperate in the establishment of conservation and management measures for straddling fish stocks and highly migratory fish stocks, States shall take into account the special requirements of developing States, in particular:
(a) the vulnerability of developing States which are dependent on the exploitation of living marine resources, including for meeting the nutritional requirements of their populations or parts thereof;
(b) the need to avoid adverse impacts on, and ensure access to fisheries by, subsistence, small-scale and artisanal fishers and women fishworkers, as well as indigenous people in developing States, particularly small island developing States;
(c) the need to ensure that such measures do not result in transferring, directly or indirectly, a disproportionate burden of conservation action onto developing States.
Article 25
Forms of cooperation with developing States
1. States shall cooperate, either directly or through subregional, regional or global organisations:
(a) to enhance the ability of developing States, in particular the least-developed among them and small island developing States, to conserve and manage straddling fish stocks and highly migratory fish stocks and to develop their own fisheries for such stocks;
(b) to assist developing States, in particular the leastdeveloped among them and small island developing States, to enable them to participate in high seas fisheries for such stocks, including facilitating access to such fisheries subject to Articles 5 and 11;
(c) to facilitate the participation of developing States in subregional and regional fisheries management organisations and arrangements.
2. Cooperation with developing States for the purposes set out in this Article shall include the provision of financial assistance, assistance relating to human resources development, technical assistance, transfer of technology, including through joint-venture arrangements, and advisory and consultative services.
3. Such assistance shall, inter alia, be directed specifically towards:
(a) improved conservation and management of straddling fish stocks and highly migratory fish stocks through collection, reporting, verification, exchange and analysis of fisheries data and related information;
(b) stock assessment and scientific research;
(c) monitoring, control, surveillance, compliance and enforcement, including training and capacity-building at the local level, development and funding of national and regional observer programmes and access to technology and equipment.
Article 26
Special assistance in the implementation of this Agreement
1. States shall cooperate to establish special funds to assist developing States in the implementation of this Agreement, including assisting developing States to meet the costs involved in any proceedings for the settlement of disputes to which they may be parties.
2. States and international organisations should assist developing States in establishing new subregional or regional fisheries management organisations or arrangements, or in strengthening existing organisations or arrangements, for the conservation and management of straddling fish stocks and highly migratory fish stocks.
PART VIII
PEACEFUL SETTLEMENT OF DISPUTES
Article 27
Obligation to settle disputes by peaceful means
States have the obligation to settle their disputes by negotiation, inquiry, mediation, conciliation, arbitration, judicial settlement, resort to regional agencies or arrangements, or other peaceful means of their own choice.
Article 28
Prevention of disputes
States shall cooperate in order to prevent disputes. To this end, States shall agree on efficient and expeditious decision-making procedures within subregional and regional fisheries management organisations and arrangements and shall strengthen existing decision-making procedures as necessary.
Article 29
Disputes of a technical nature
Where a dispute concerns a matter of a technical nature, the States concerned may refer the dispute to an ad hoc expert panel established by them. The panel shall confer with the States concerned and shall endeavour to resolve the dispute expeditiously without recourse to binding procedures for the settlement of disputes.
Article 30
Procedures for the settlement of disputes
1. The provisions relating to the settlement of disputes set out in Part XV of the Convention apply mutatis mutandis to any dispute between States Parties to this Agreement concerning the interpretation or application of this Agreement, whether or not they are also Parties to the Convention.
2. The provisions relating to the settlement of disputes set out in Part XV of the Convention apply mutatis mutandis to any dispute between States Parties to this Agreement concerning the interpretation or application of a subregional, regional or global fisheries agreement relating to straddling fish stocks or highly migratory fish stocks to which they are parties, including any dispute concerning the conservation and management of such stocks, whether or not they are also Parties to the Convention.
3. Any procedure accepted by a State Party to this Agreement and the Convention pursuant to Article 287 of the Convention shall apply to the settlement of disputes under this Part, unless that State Party, when signing, ratifying or acceding to this Agreement, or at any time thereafter, has accepted another procedure pursuant to Article 287 for the settlement of disputes under this Part.
4. A State Party to this Agreement which is not a Party to the Convention, when signing, ratifying or acceding to this Agreement, or at any time thereafter, shall be free to choose, by means of a written declaration, one or more of the means set out in Article 287(1), of the Convention for the settlement of disputes under this Part. Article 287 shall apply to such a declaration, as well as to any dispute to which such State is a party which is not covered by a declaration in force. For the purposes of conciliation and arbitration in accordance with Annexes V, VII and VIII to the Convention, such State shall be entitled to nominate conciliators, arbitrators and experts to be included in the lists referred to in Annex V, Article 2, Annex VII, Article 2, and Annex VIII, Article 2, for the settlement of disputes under this Part.
5. Any court or tribunal to which a dispute has been submitted under this Part shall apply the relevant provisions of the Convention, of this Agreement and of any relevant subregional, regional or global fisheries agreement, as well as generally accepted standards for the conservation and management of living marine resources and other rules of international law not incompatible with the Convention, with a view to ensuring the conservation of the straddling fish stocks and highly migratory fish stocks concerned.
Article 31
Provisional measures
1. Pending the settlement of a dispute in accordance with this Part, the parties to the dispute shall make every effort to enter into provisional arrangements of a practical nature.
2. Without prejudice to Article 290 of the Convention, the court or tribunal to which the dispute has been submitted under this Part may prescribe any provisional measures which it considers appropriate under the circumstances to preserve the respective rights of the parties to the dispute or to prevent damage to the stocks in question, as well as in the circumstances referred to in Article 7(5), and Article 16(2).
3. A State Party to this Agreement which is not a Party to the Convention may declare that, notwithstanding Article 290(5), of the Convention, the International Tribunal for the Law of the Sea shall not be entitled to prescribe, modify or revoke provisional measures without the agreement of such State.
Article 32
Limitations on applicability of procedures for the settlement of disputes
Article 297(3), of the Convention applies also to this Agreement.
PART IX
NON-PARTIES TO THIS AGREEMENT
Article 33
Non-parties to this Agreement
1. States Parties shall encourage non-parties to this Agreement to become parties thereto and to adopt laws and regulations consistent with its provisions.
2. States Parties shall take measures consistent with this Agreement and international law to deter the activities of vessels flying the flag of non-parties which undermine the effective implementation of this Agreement.
PART X
GOOD FAITH AND ABUSE OF RIGHTS
Article 34
Good faith and abuse of rights
States Parties shall fulfil in good faith the obligations assumed under this Agreement and shall exercise the rights recognised in this Agreement in a manner which would not constitute an abuse of right.
PART XI
RESPONSIBILITY AND LIABILITY
Article 35
Responsibility and liability
States Parties are liable in accordance with international law for damage or loss attributable to them in regard to this Agreement.
PART XII
REVIEW CONFERENCE
Article 36
Review conference
1. Four years after the date of entry into force of this Agreement, the Secretary-General of the United Nations shall convene a conference with a view to assessing the effectiveness of this Agreement in securing the conservation and management of straddling fish stocks and highly migratory fish stocks. The Secretary-General shall invite to the conference all States Parties and those States and entities which are entitled to become Parties to this Agreement as well as those intergovernmental and non-governmental organisations entitled to participate as observers.
2. The Conference shall review and assess the adequacy of the provisions of this Agreement and, if necessary, propose means of strengthening the substance and methods of implementation of those provisions in order better to address any continuing problems in the conservation and management of straddling fish stocks and highly migratory fish stocks.
PART XIII
FINAL PROVISIONS
Article 37
Signature
This Agreement shall be open for signature by all States and the other entities referred to in Article 1(2)(b), and shall remain open for signature at United Nations Headquarters for 12 months from the 4 December 1995.
Article 38
Ratification
This Agreement is subject to ratification by States and the other entities referred to in Article 1(2)(b). The instruments of ratification shall be deposited with the Secretary-General of the United Nations.
Article 39
Accession
This Agreement shall remain open for accession by States and the other entities referred to in Article 1(2)(b). The instruments of accession shall be deposited with the Secretary-General of the United Nations.
Article 40
Entry into force
1. This Agreement shall enter into force 30 days after the date of deposit of the 30th instrument of ratification or accession.
2. For each State or entity which ratifies the Agreement or accedes thereto after the deposit of the 30th instrument of ratification or accession, this Agreement shall enter into force on the 30th day following the deposit of its instrument of ratification or accession.
Article 41
Provisional application
1. This Agreement shall be applied provisionally by a State or entity which consents to its provisional application by so notifying the depositary in writing. Such provisional application shall become effective from the date of receipt of the notification.
2. Provisional application by a State or entity shall terminate on the entry into force of this agreement for that State or entity or on notification by that State or entity to the depositary in writing of its intention to terminate provisional application.
Article 42
Reservations and exceptions
No reservations or exceptions may be made to this Agreement.
Article 43
Declarations and statements
Article 42 does not preclude a State or entity, when signing, ratifying or acceding to this Agreement, from making declarations or statements, however phrased or named, with a view, inter alia, to the harmonisation of its laws and regulations with the provisions of this Agreement, provided that such declarations or statements do not purport to exclude or to modify the legal effect of the provisions of this Agreement in their application to that State or entity.
Article 44
Relation to other agreements
1. This Agreement shall not alter the rights and obligations of States Parties which arise from other agreements compatible with this Agreement and which do not affect the enjoyment by other States Parties of their rights or the performance of their obligations under this Agreement.
2. Two or more States Parties may conclude agreements modifying or suspending the operation of provisions of this Agreement, applicable solely to the relations between them, provided that such agreements do not relate to a provision derogation from which is incompatible with the effective execution of the object and purpose of this Agreement, and provided further that such agreements shall not affect the application of the basic principles embodied herein, and that the provisions of such agreements do not affect the enjoyment by other States Parties of their rights or the performance of their obligations under this Agreement.
3. States Parties intending to conclude an agreement referred to in paragraph 2 shall notify the other States Parties through the depositary of this Agreement of their intention to conclude the agreement and of the modification or suspension for which it provides.
Article 45
Amendment
1. A State Party may, by written communication addressed to the Secretary-General of the United Nations, propose amendments to this Agreement and request the convening of a conference to consider such proposed amendments. The Secretary-General shall circulate such communication to all States Parties. If, within six months from the date of the circulation of the communication, not less than one half of the States Parties reply favourably to the request, the Secretary-General shall convene the conference.
2. The decision-making procedure applicable at the amendment conference convened pursuant to paragraph 1 shall be the same as that applicable at the United Nations Conference on Straddling Fish Stocks and Highly Migratory Fish Stocks, unless otherwise decided by the conference. The conference should make every effort to reach agreement on any amendments by way of consensus and there should be no voting on them until all efforts at consensus have been exhausted.
3. Once adopted, amendments to this agreement shall be open for signature at United Nations Headquarters by States Parties for 12 months from the date of adoption, unless otherwise provided in the amendment itself.
4. Articles 38, 39, 47 and 50 apply to all amendments to this Agreement.
5. Amendments to this Agreement shall enter into force for the States Parties ratifying or acceding to them on the 30th day following the deposit of instruments of ratification or accession by two thirds of the States Parties. Thereafter, for each State Party ratifying or acceding to an amendment after the deposit of the required number of such instruments, the amendment shall enter into force on the 30th day following the deposit of its instrument of ratification or accession.
6. An amendment may provide that a smaller or a larger number of ratifications or accessions shall be required for its entry into force than are required by this Article.
7. A State which becomes a Party to this Agreement after the entry into force of amendments in accordance with paragraph 5 shall, failing an expression of a different intention by that State:
(a) be considered as a Party to this Agreement as so amended;
(b) be considered as a Party to the unamended Agreement in relation to any State Party not bound by the amendment.
Article 46
Denunciation
1. A State Party may, by written notification addressed to the Secretary-General of the United Nations, denounce this Agreement and may indicate its reasons. Failure to indicate reasons shall not affect the validity of the denunciation. The denunciation shall take effect one year after the date of receipt of the notification, unless the notification specifies a later date.
2. The denunciation shall not in any way affect the duty of any State Party to fulfil any obligation embodied in this Agreement to which it would be subject under international law independently of this Agreement.
Article 47
Participation by international organisations
1. In cases where an international organisation referred to in Annex IX, Article 1, of the Convention does not have competence over all the matters governed by this Agreement, Annex IX to the Convention shall apply mutatis mutandis to participation by such international organisation in this Agreement, except that the following provisions of that Annex shall not apply:
(a) Article 2, first sentence;
(b) Article 3(1).
2. In cases where an international organisation referred to in Annex IX, Article 1, of the Convention has competence over all the matters governed by this Agreement, the following provisions shall apply to participation by such international organisation in this Agreement:
(a) at the time of signature or accession, such international organisation shall make a declaration stating:
(i) that it has competence over all the matters governed by this Agreement;
(ii) that, for this reason, its Member States shall not become States Parties, except in respect of their territories for which the international organisation has no responsibility;
(iii) that it accepts the rights and obligations of States under this Agreement;
(b) participation of such an international organisation shall in no case confer any rights under this Agreement on Member States of the international organisation;
(c) in the event of a conflict between the obligations of an international organisation under this Agreement and its obligations under the agreement establishing the international organisation or any acts relating to it, the obligations under this Agreement shall prevail.
Article 48
Annexes
1. The Annexes form an integral part of this Agreement and, unless expressly provided otherwise, a reference to this Agreement or to one of its Parts includes a reference to the Annexes relating thereto.
2. The Annexes may be revised from time to time by States Parties. Such revisions shall be based on scientific and technical considerations. Notwithstanding the provisions of Article 45, if a revision to an Annex is adopted by consensus at a meeting of States Parties, it shall be incorporated in this Agreement and shall take effect from the date of its adoption or from such other date as may be specified in the revision. If a revision to an Annex is not adopted by consensus at such a meeting, the amendment procedures set out in Article 45 shall apply.
Article 49
Depositary
The Secretary-General of the United Nations shall be the depositary of this Agreement and any amendments or revisions thereto.
Article 50
Authentic texts
The Arabic, Chinese, English, French, Russian and Spanish texts of this Agreement are equally authentic. In witness whereof, the undersigned Plenipotentiaries, being duly authorised thereto, have signed this Agreement.
Opened for signature at New York, this fourth day of December, one thousand nine hundred and ninety-five, in a single original, in the Arabic, Chinese, English, French, Russian and Spanish languages.
Annex I
STANDARD REQUIREMENTS FOR THE COLLECTION AND SHARING OF DATA
Article 1
General principles
1. The timely collection, compilation and analysis of data are fundamental to the effective conservation and management of straddling fish stocks and highly migratory fish stocks. To this end, data from fisheries for these stocks on the high seas and those in areas under national jurisdiction are required and should be collected and compiled in such a way as to enable statistically meaningful analysis for the purposes of fishery resource conservation and management. These data include catch and fishing effort statistics and other fishery-related information, such as vessel-related and other data for standardising fishing effort. Data collected should also include information on non-target and associated or dependent species. All data should be verified to ensure accuracy. Confidentiality of non-aggregated data shall be maintained. The dissemination of such data shall be subject to the terms on which they have been provided.
2. Assistance, including training as well as financial and technical assistance, shall be provided to developing States in order to build capacity in the field of conservation and management of living marine resources. Assistance should focus on enhancing capacity to implement data collection and verification, observer programmes, data analysis and research projects supporting stock assessments. The fullest possible involvement of developing State scientists and managers in conservation and management of straddling fish stocks and highly migratory fish stocks should be promoted.
Article 2
Principles of data collection, compilation and exchange
The following general principles should be considered in defining the parameters for collection, compilation and exchange of data from fishing operations for straddling fish stocks and highly migratory fish stocks:
(a) States should ensure that data are collected from vessels flying their flag on fishing activities according to the operational characteristics of each fishing method (e.g., each individual tow for trawl, each set for long-line and purse-seine, each school fished for pole-and-line and each day fished for troll) and in sufficient detail to facilitate effective stock assessment;
(b) States should ensure that fishery data are verified through an appropriate system;
(c) States should compile fishery-related and other supporting scientific data and provide them in an agreed format and in a timely manner to the relevant subregional or regional fisheries management organisation or arrangement where one exists. Otherwise, States should cooperate to exchange data either directly or through such other cooperative mechanisms as may be agreed among them;
(d) States should agree, within the framework of subregional or regional fisheries management organisations or arrangements, or otherwise, on the specification of data and the format in which they are to be provided, in accordance with this Annex and taking into account the nature of the stocks and the fisheries for those stocks in the region. Such organisations or arrangements should request non-members or non-participants to provide data concerning relevant fishing activities by vessels flying their flag;
(e) such organisations or arrangements shall compile data and make them available in a timely manner and in an agreed format to all interested States under the terms and conditions established by the organisation or arrangement; and
(f) scientists of the flag State and from the relevant subregional or regional fisheries management organisation or arrangement should analyse the data separately or jointly, as appropriate.
Article 3
Basic fishery data
1. States shall collect and make available to the relevant subregional or regional fisheries management organisation or arrangement the following types of data in sufficient detail to facilitate effective stock assessment in accordance with agreed procedures:
(a) time series of catch and effort statistics by fishery and fleet;
(b) total catch in number, nominal weight, or both, by species (both target and non-target) as is appropriate to each fishery. (Nominal weight is defined by the Food and Agriculture Organisation of the United Nations as the live-weight equivalent of the landings);
(c) discard statistics, including estimates where necessary, reported as number or nominal weight by species, as is appropriate to each fishery;
(d) effort statistics appropriate to each fishing method;
(e) fishing location, date and time fished and other statistics on fishing operations as appropriate.
2. States shall also collect where appropriate and provide to the relevant subregional or regional fisheries management organisation or arrangement information to support stock assessment, including:
(a) composition of the catch according to length, weight and sex;
(b) other biological information supporting stock assessments, such as information on age, growth, recruitment, distribution and stock identity;
(c) other relevant research, including surveys of abundance, biomass surveys, hydro-acoustic surveys, research on environmental factors affecting stock abundance, and oceanographic and ecological studies.
Article 4
Vessel data and information
1. States should collect the following types of vessel-related data for standardising fleet composition and vessel fishing power and for converting between different measures of effort in the analysis of catch and effort data:
(a) vessel identification, flag and port of registry;
(b) vessel type;
(c) vessel specifications (e.g., material of construction, date built, registered length, gross registered tonnage, power of main engines, hold capacity and catch storage methods);
(d) fishing gear description (e.g., types, gear specifications and quantity).
2. The flag State will collect the following information:
(a) navigation and position fixing aids;
(b) communication equipment and international radio call sign;
(c) crew size.
Article 5
Reporting
A State shall ensure that vessels flying its flag sends to its national fisheries administration and, where agreed, to the relevant subregional or regional fisheries management organisation or arrangement, logbook-data on catch and effort, including data on fishing operations on the high seas, at sufficiently frequent intervals to meet national requirements and regional and international obligations. Such data shall be transmitted, where necessary, by radio, telex, fax or satellite transmission or by other means.
Article 6
Data verification
States or, as appropriate, subregional or regional fisheries management organisations or arrangements should establish mechanisms for verifying fishery data, such as:
(a) position verification through vessel monitoring systems;
(b) scientific observer programmes to monitor catch, effort, catch composition (target and non-target) andother details of fishing operations;
(c) vessel trip, landing and transshipment reports;
(d) port sampling.
Article 7
Data exchange
1. Data collected by flag States must be shared with other flag States and relevant coastal States through appropriate subregional or regional fisheries management organisations or arrangements. Such organisations or arrangements shall compile data and make them available in a timely manner and in an agreed format to all interested States under the terms and conditions established by the organisation or arrangement, while maintaining confidentiality of non-aggregated data, and should, to the extent feasible, develop database systems which provide efficient access to data.
2. At the global level, collection and dissemination of data should be effected through the Food and Agriculture Organisation of the United Nations. Where a subregional or regional fisheries management organisation or arrangement does not exist, that organization may also do the same at the subregional or regional level by arrangement with the States concerned.
Annex II
GUIDELINES FOR THE APPLICATION OF PRECAUTIONARY REFERENCE POINTS IN CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT OF STRADDLING FISH STOCKS AND HIGHLY MIGRATORY FISH STOCKS
1. A precautionary reference point is an estimated value derived through an agreed scientific procedure, which corresponds to the state of the resource and of the fishery, and which can be used as a guide for fisheries management.
2. Two types of precautionary reference points should be used: conservation, or limit, reference points and management, or target, reference points. Limit reference points set boundaries which are intended to constrain harvesting within safe biological limits within which the stocks can produce maximum sustainable yield. Target reference points are intended to meet management objectives.
3. Precautionary reference points should be stock-specific to account, inter alia, for the reproductive capacity, the resilience of each stock and the characteristics of fisheries exploiting the stock, as well as other sources of mortality and major sources of uncertainty.
4. Management strategies shall seek to maintain or restore populations of harvested stocks, and where necessary associated or dependent species, at levels consistent with previously agreed precautionary reference points. Such reference points shall be used to trigger pre-agreed conservation and management action. Management strategies shall include measures which can be implemented when precautionary reference points are approached.
5. Fishery management strategies shall ensure that the risk of exceeding limit reference points is very low. If a stock falls below a limit reference point or is at risk of falling below such a reference point, conservation and management action should be initiated to facilitate stock recovery. Fishery management strategies shall ensure that target reference points are not exceeded on average.
6. When information for determining reference points for a fishery is poor or absent, provisional reference points shall be set. Provisional reference points may be established by analogy to similar and betterknown stocks. In such situations, the fishery shall be subject to enhanced monitoring so as to enable revision of provisional reference points as improved information becomes available.
7. The fishing mortality rate which generates maximum sustainable yield should be regarded as a minimum standard for limit reference points. For stocks which are not overfished, fishery management strategies shall ensure that fishing mortality does not exceed that which corresponds to maximum sustainable yield, and that the biomass does not fall below a predefined threshold. For overfished stocks, the biomass which would produce maximum sustainable yield can serve as a rebuilding target.
S P O R A Z U M
o uporabi določb Konvencije Združenih narodov o pomorskem pravu z dne 10. decembra 1982 glede ohranjanja in upravljanja čezconskih staležev rib in izrazito selivskih staležev rib
DRŽAVE POGODBENICE TEGA SPORAZUMA
OB UPOŠTEVANJU ustreznih določb Konvencije Združenih narodov o pomorskem pravu z dne 10. decembra 1982,
ODLOČENI, da zagotovijo dolgoročno ohranjanje in trajnostno rabo čezconskih staležev rib in izrazito selivskih staležev rib,
TRDNO ODLOČENI, da izboljšajo sodelovanje med državami,
OB UPOŠTEVANJU, da bi države zastave, države pristanišča in obalne države bolj učinkovito izvajale ukrepe ohranjanja in upravljanja, sprejete za takšne staleže,
OB PRIZADEVANJU, da bi se zlasti odzvali na probleme, obravnavane v poglavju 17 programskega območja C Agende 21, ki jo je sprejela Konferenca ZN o okolju in razvoju, in sicer, da je upravljanje ribištva na odprtem morju na veliko območjih nezadostno in da nekatere vire pretirano izkoriščajo; ob ugotavljanju težav neurejenega ribištva, prekomernega izkoriščanja, prevelikih flot, registracije plovil v drugi državi, da bi se izognili nadzoru, ne dovolj selektivnega orodja, nezanesljivih zbirk podatkov in nezadostnega sodelovanja med državami,
ZAVEZANI k odgovornemu ribištvu,
OB ZAVEDANJU potrebe po izogibanju škodljivim vplivom na morsko okolje, po ohranjanju biotske raznovrstnosti, ohranjanju celovitosti morskih ekosistemov in zmanjševanju tveganja, ki ga prinašajo dolgoročni in nepopravljivi učinki ribolova,
OB SPOZNANJU potrebe po posebni pomoči, ki vključuje finančno, znanstveno in tehnološko pomoč, da bi lahko države v razvoju učinkovito sodelovale pri ohranjanju, upravljanju in trajnostni rabi čezconskih staležev rib in izrazito selivskih staležev rib,
V PREPRIČANJU, da bi Sporazum o izvajanju ustreznih določb Konvencije najbolj ustrezal tem namenom in bi prispeval k ohranjanju mednarodnega miru in varnosti,
OB POTRJEVANJU, da so zadeve, ki jih ne ureja Konvencija ali ta sporazum, še naprej urejene s pravili in načeli splošnega mednarodnega prava,
SO SE DOGOVORILE:
DEL I
SPLOŠNE DOLOČBE
Člen 1
Uporaba izrazov in področje uporabe
1. V tem sporazumu:
(a) „Konvencija“ pomeni Konvencijo Združenih narodov o pomorskem pravu z dne 10. decembra 1982;
(b) „ukrepi ohranjanja in upravljanja“ pomenijo ukrepe za ohranjanje in upravljanje ene ali več vrst živih morskih virov, ki se jih sprejme in uporablja v skladu z ustreznimi pravili mednarodnega prava, kakor se odražajo v Konvenciji in tem sporazumu;
(c) „ribe“ vključujejo mehkužce in rake, z izjemo tistih, ki pripadajo neselivskim vrstam, kakor so opredeljene v členu 77 Konvencije; in
(d) „dogovor“ pomeni mehanizem sodelovanja, ki sta ga dve ali več držav izoblikovali v skladu s Konvencijo in tem dogovorom zaradi, med drugim, izoblikovanja ukrepov ohranjanja in upravljanja v podobmočju ali območju za enega ali več čezconskih staležev rib ali izrazito selivskih staležev rib.
2. (a) „Države pogodbenice“ so države, ki so privolile, da jih zavezuje ta sporazum, in na ozemlju katerih sporazum velja.
(b) Ta sporazum se s potrebnimi spremembami uporablja:
(i) za vse subjekte iz člena 305(1)(c), (d) in (e) Konvencije in
(ii) v skladu s členom 47 za vsak subjekt, ki se ga v členu 1 Priloge IX h Konvenciji navaja kot „mednarodno organizacijo“, ki postane stranka tega sporazuma, tako da se za navedeni namen „države pogodbenice“ nanašajo na te subjekte.
3. Ta sporazum se s potrebnimi spremembami uporablja za druge ribiške subjekte, katerih plovila lovijo na odprtem morju.
Člen 2
Cilj
Cilj tega sporazuma je zagotoviti dolgoročno ohranjanje in trajnostno rabo čezconskih staležev rib in izrazito selivskih staležev rib z učinkovitim izvajanjem ustreznih določb Konvencije.
Člen 3
Uporaba
1. Če ni določeno drugače, se ta sporazum uporablja za ohranjanje in upravljanje čezconskih staležev rib in izrazito selivskih staležev rib zunaj območij nacionalne jurisdikcije, le da se člena 6 in 7 uporabljata tudi za ohranjanje in upravljanje takšnih staležev v območjih nacionalne jurisdikcije, podvrženih različnim pravnim režimom, ki se uporabljajo v območjih nacionalne jurisdikcije, in zunaj območij nacionalne jurisdikcije, kakor so določena v Konvenciji.
2. Pri uresničevanju svojih suverenih pravic za namene raziskovanja in izkoriščanja, ohranjanja in upravljanja čezconskih staležev rib in izrazito selivskih staležev rib v območjih nacionalne jurisdikcije obalna država smiselno uporablja splošna načela, našteta v členu 5.
3. Države primerno upoštevajo ustrezne zmožnosti držav v razvoju za uporabo členov 5, 6 in 7 v območjih nacionalne jurisdikcije in njihov potrebo po pomoči, kakor je predvidena v tem sporazumu. V ta namen se del VII smiselno uporablja za območja nacionalne jurisdikcije.
Člen 4
Razmerje med tem sporazumom
in Konvencijo
Nič v tem sporazumu ne posega v pravice, jurisdikcijo in dolžnosti držav podpisnic Konvencije. Ta sporazum se razlaga in uporablja glede na Konvencijo in v skladu z njo.
DEL II
OHRANJANJE IN UPRAVLJANJE
ČEZCONSKIH STALEŽEV RIB IN
IZRAZITO SELIVSKIH STALEŽEV RIB
Člen 5
Splošna načela
Zaradi ohranjanja in upravljanja čezconskih staležev rib in izrazito selivskih staležev rib obalne države in države, ki lovijo na odprtem morju, pri izpolnjevanju dolžnosti sodelovanja v skladu s Konvencijo:
(a) sprejmejo ukrepe za zagotavljanje dolgoročne trajnostnosti čezconskih staležev rib in izrazito selivskih staležev rib ter spodbujajo njihovo največjo možno uporabo;
(b) zagotovijo, da takšni ukrepi temeljijo na najboljših razpoložljivih znanstvenih dokazih in da so bili oblikovani za vzdrževanje ali obnavljanje staležev na ravneh, pri katerih je mogoč največji trajnostni donos, kakor je opredeljen z ustreznimi okoljskimi in gospodarskimi dejavniki, vključno s posebnimi zahtevami držav v razvoju ter ob upoštevanju ribolovnih modelov, soodvisnosti staležev in vseh splošno priporočljivih mednarodnih minimalnih standardov, naj bodo podobmočni, območni ali svetovni;
(c) uporabljajo previdnostni pristop v skladu s členom 6;
(d) ocenijo vpliv ribolova, drugih človekovih dejavnosti in okoljskih dejavnikov na ciljne staleže in vrste, ki so del istega ekosistema ali so povezane s ciljnimi staleži ali odvisne od njih;
(e) sprejmejo, kadar je to potrebno, ukrepe ohranjanja in upravljanja za vrste, ki pripadajo istemu ekosistemu ali so povezane s ciljnimi staleži ali odvisne od njih, zaradi ohranjanja in obnavljanja populacij takšnih vrst nad ravnmi, pri katerih lahko postane njihova reprodukcija resno ogrožena;
(f) zmanjšajo onesnaževanje, odpadke, zavržke, lov z izgubljenim ali opuščenim orodjem, lov neciljnih vrst, kar vključuje ribje in neribje vrste (v nadaljnjem besedilu „neciljne vrste“), ter vpliv na povezane ali odvisne vrste, zlasti ogrožene vrste, z ukrepi, ki vključujejo, kolikor je to mogoče, razvoj in uporabo izbranih, varnih za okolje in stroškovno učinkovitih ribolovnega orodja in tehnik;
(g) varujejo biotsko raznovrstnost v morskem okolju;
(h) sprejmejo ukrepe, s katerimi preprečijo ali odpravijo prelov in prevelike ribolovne zmogljivosti ter zagotovijo, da stopnja ribolovnega napora ne presega sorazmernosti s trajnostno rabo ribolovnih virov;
(i) upoštevajo interese priobalnega in samooskrbnega ribištva;
(j) zbirajo in pravočasno posredujejo popolne in natančne podatke glede ribolovnih aktivnosti, ki med drugim zadevajo položaj plovil, ulov ciljnih in neciljnih vrst in ribolovni napor, kakor je določeno v Prilogi I, ter tudi podatke iz nacionalnih in mednarodnih raziskovalnih programov;
(k) spodbujajo in izvajajo znanstvene raziskave ter razvijajo ustrezne tehnologije za podporo ohranjanja in upravljanja ribištva, in
(l) izvajajo ukrepe ohranjanja in upravljanja z učinkovitim spremljanjem, nadzorom in opazovanjem.
Člen 6
Uporaba previdnostnega pristopa
1. Države pri ohranjanju, upravljanju in izkoriščanju čezconskih staležev rib in izrazito selivskih staležev rib splošno uporabljajo previdnostni pristop za zaščito živih morskih virov in ohranjanja morskega okolja.
2. Države so bolj previdne, če so podatki negotovi, nezanesljivi ali nepopolni. Pomanjkanje primernih znanstvenih podatkov se ne uporabi kot razlog za odlaganje ali nesprejem ukrepov ohranjanja in upravljanja.
3. Države pri izvajanju previdnostnega pristopa:
(a) izboljšajo odločanje za ohranjanje in upravljanje ribolovnih virov s pridobivanjem in skupno uporabo najboljših razpoložljivih znanstvenih podatkov ter uporabo izboljšanih tehnik za spopadanje s tveganjem in negotovostjo;
(b) uporabijo smernice, določene v Prilogi II, in na podlagi najboljših razpoložljivih znanstvenih podatkov določijo referenčne točke, značilne za posamezne staleže, in ukrepe, ki jih je treba izvesti, če se jih preseže;
(c) upoštevajo, med drugim, negotovosti glede velikosti in produktivnosti staležev, referenčne točke, stanje staleža glede na te referenčne točke, obseg in porazdelitev ribolovne smrtnosti ter vpliv ribolovnih aktivnosti na neciljne in povezane ali odvisne vrste, kakor tudi obstoječe in predvidene oceanske, okoljske in socialno-ekonomske razmere, ter
(d) razvijajo programe za zbiranje podatkov in raziskovanje, da bi ocenile vpliv ribištva na neciljne in povezane ali odvisne vrste in njihovo okolje, ter sprejmejo načrte, potrebne za zagotavljanje ohranjanja takšnih vrst in zaščito posebno občutljivih habitatov.
4. Država sprejme ukrepe za zagotavljanje, da referenčne točke v primeru, ko se jim približa, ne bodo presežene. Če pa se jih preseže, države nemudoma ukrepajo, kakor je opredeljeno v odstavku 3(b), da bi obnovile staleže.
5. Kadar je stanje ciljnih staležev ali neciljnih, povezanih in odvisnih vrst zaskrbljujoče, države okrepljeno spremljajo te staleže in vrste, da bi proučile njihovo stanje ter učinkovitost ukrepov ohranjanja in upravljanja. Navedene ukrepe redno pregledujejo ob upoštevanju novih podatkov.
6. Za novo ali raziskovalno ribištvo države članice čim prej sprejmejo previdnostne ukrepe ohranjanja in upravljanja, ki, med drugim, vključujejo omejitve ulova in omejitve napora. Takšni ukrepi veljajo, dokler ni zadostnih podatkov, ki omogočajo presojo vpliva ribištva na dolgoročno trajnost staležev, in šele na podlagi te presoje se izvaja ukrepe ohranjanja in upravljanja. Slednji ukrepi, če je primerno, omogočijo postopen razvoj ribištva.
7. Če določen naravni pojav pomembno škodljivo vpliva na stanje čezconskih staležev rib in izrazito selivskih staležev rib, države sprejmejo nujne ukrepe ohranjanja in upravljanja, s katerimi zagotovijo, da ribolovna aktivnost ne zaostruje tega škodljivega vpliva. Države sprejmejo takšne nujne ukrepe tudi, kadar ribolovna aktivnost resno ogroža trajnost takšnih staležev. Nujni ukrepi so začasni in temeljijo na najboljših razpoložljivih znanstvenih dokazih.
Člen 7
Združljivost ukrepov ohranjanja in
upravljanja
1. Brez vpliva na suverene pravice obalnih držav za namene raziskovanja in izkoriščanja, ohranjanja in upravljanja živih morskih virov v območjih nacionalne jurisdikcije, kakor so določene v Konvenciji, ter pravico vseh držav, da se njihovi državljani ukvarjajo z ribolovom na odprtem morju v skladu s Konvencijo:
(a) si zadevne obalne države in države, katerih državljani lovijo te staleže v sosednjem območju odprtega morja, glede čezconskih staležev rib prizadevajo, bodisi neposredno bodisi prek ustreznih mehanizmov sodelovanja iz dela III, za dogovor glede ukrepov, potrebnih za ohranjanje teh staležev v sosednjem območju odprtega morja;
(b) zadevne obalne države in druge države, katerih državljani lovijo te staleže v območju, glede izrazito selivskih staležev rib sodelujejo, bodisi neposredno bodisi prek ustreznih mehanizmov sodelovanja iz dela III, za zagotavljanje ohranjanja in spodbujanja optimalnega izkoriščanja takšnih staležev v vsem območju, in sicer v območjih nacionalne jurisdikcije in zunaj njih.
2. Ukrepi ohranjanja in upravljanja, ki so bili izoblikovani za odprto morje in sprejeti za območja nacionalne jurisdikcije, so združljivi zaradi zagotovitve ohranjanja in upravljanja čezconskih staležev rib in izrazito selivskih staležev rib v vsej njihovi celovitosti. V ta namen so obalne države in države, ki lovijo na odprtem morju, dolžne sodelovati pri sprejemanju združljivih ukrepov za takšne staleže. Države pri določanju združljivih ukrepov ohranjanja in upravljanja:
(a) upoštevajo ukrepe ohranjanja in upravljanja za te staleže, ki so jih obalne države v skladu s členom 61 Konvencije sprejele in jih uporabljajo v območjih nacionalne jurisdikcije, ter zagotavljajo, da ukrepi, izoblikovani za te staleže na odprtem morju, ne izpodbijajo učinkovitosti takšnih ukrepov;
(b) upoštevajo predhodno dogovorjene ukrepe za iste staleže, ki so jih v skladu s Konvencijo ustrezne obalne države in države, ki lovijo na odprtem morju, izoblikovale in se uporabljajo za odprto morje;
(c) upoštevajo predhodno dogovorjene ukrepe, ki so bili izoblikovani in se uporabljajo v skladu s Konvencijo za te staleže v okviru podobmočne ali območne ribiške upravljavske organizacije ali dogovora;
(d) upoštevajo biotsko enotnost in druge biološke značilnosti staležev ter odnose med porazdelitvijo staležev, ribištvom in geografskimi posebnostmi zadevnega območja, vključno z obsegom pojavljanja in ulova staležev v območjih nacionalne jurisdikcije;
(e) upoštevajo ustrezno odvisnost obalnih držav in držav, ki lovijo na odprtem morju, od zadevnih staležev ter
(f) zagotovijo, da takšni ukrepi ne vplivajo škodljivo na žive morske vire kot celoto.
3. Pri izvrševanju dolžnosti sodelovanja si države vsestransko prizadevajo, da se v primernim obdobju dogovorijo glede združljivih ukrepov ohranjanja in upravljanja.
4. Če v primernem obdobju ni mogoče doseči dogovora, lahko vsaka zadevna država uveljavlja postopke za poravnavo sporov, opredeljene v delu VIII.
5. Do Sporazuma o združljivih ukrepih ohranjanja in upravljanja si zadevne države, v duhu razumevanja in sodelovanja, vsestransko prizadevajo za začasne praktične dogovore. Če se ne morejo dogovoriti, lahko vsaka izmed zadevnih držav članic zaradi zagotovitve začasnih ukrepov predloži spor sodišču v skladu s postopki za poravnavo sporov, opredeljenimi v delu VIII.
6. Začasni dogovori ali ukrepi, sklenjeni ali predpisani v skladu z odstavkom 5, upoštevajo določbe tega dela, dolžno upoštevajo pravice in obveznosti vseh zadevnih držav, ne ogrožajo ali ovirajo sklenitve končnega dogovora glede združljivih ukrepov ohranjanja in upravljanja in ne vplivajo na končni izid katerega koli postopka za poravnavo sporov.
7. Obalne države redno obveščajo države, ki lovijo na odprtem morju v podobomočju ali območju, o ukrepih, ki so jih sprejele za čezconske staleže rib ali izrazito selivske staleže rib za območja njihove nacionalne jurisdikcije, in sicer neposredno ali prek ustreznih podobmočnih ali območnih ribiških upravljavskih organizacij ali dogovorov ali prek drugih primernih sredstev.
8. Države, ki lovijo na odprtem morju, redno obveščajo druge zainteresirane države, bodisi neposredno ali prek primernih podobmočnih ali območnih ribiških upravljavskih organizacij ali dogovorov ali prek drugih primernih sredstev, o ukrepih, ki so jih sprejele za urejanje aktivnosti plovil, ki plujejo pod njihovo zastavo in ki lovijo te staleže na odprtem morju.
DEL III
MEHANIZMI MEDNARODNEGA SODELOVANJA V ZVEZI S ČEZCONSKIMI STALEŽI RIB IN IZRAZITO SELIVSKIMI STALEŽI RIB
Člen 8
Sodelovanje za ohranjanje in upravljanje
1. Obalne države in države, ki lovijo na odprtem morju, v skladu s Konvencijo sodelujejo v zvezi s čezconskimi staleži rib in izrazito selivskimi staleži rib, bodisi neposredno ali prek ustreznih podobmočnih ali območnih ribiških upravljalskih organizacij ali dogovorov, pri čemer upoštevajo posebnosti podobmočja ali območja, s čimer zagotovijo učinkovito ohranjanje in upravljanje takšnih staležev.
2. Države se v dobri veri in nemudoma začnejo posvetovati, zlasti, kadar obstajajo dokazi, da zadevnim čezconskim staležem rib in izrazito selivskim staležem rib grozi prelov ali kjer se za te staleže razvija novo ribištvo. V ta namen se lahko na pobudo katere koli zainteresirane države začnejo posvetovanja za doseganje ustreznih dogovorov za zagotovitev ohranjanja in upravljanja staležev. Do sprejema Sporazuma o teh dogovorih države upoštevajo določbe tega sporazuma ter delujejo v dobri veri in z obveznim upoštevanjem pravic, interesov in dolžnosti drugih držav.
3. Kadar sta podobmočna ali območna ribiška upravljavska organizacija ali dogovor pristojna za izoblikovanje ukrepov ohranjanja in upravljanja za določene čezconske staleže rib ali izrazito selivske staleže rib, države, ki lovijo te staleže na odprtem morju, in ustrezne obalne države izpolnijo svojo dolžnost po sodelovanju z včlanitvijo v takšno organizacijo ali udeležbo v takšnem dogovoru ali s privolitvijo v uporabo ukrepov ohranjanja in upravljanja, izoblikovanih v okviru takšne organizacije ali dogovora. Države, ki imajo dejanski interes za zadevna ribištva, se lahko včlanijo v takšno organizacijo ali lahko sodelujejo pri takšnem dogovoru. Pogoji udeležbe v taki organizaciji ali dogovoru ne preprečujejo tem državam članstva ali udeležbe; ne uporabljajo se niti na način, ki zapostavlja katero koli državo ali skupino držav, ki imajo dejanski interes za zadevno ribištvo.
4. Samo države, ki so članice takšne organizacije ali udeležene pri takem dogovoru ali ki so pripravljene uporabljati ukrepe ohranjanja in upravljanja, izoblikovane v okviru take organizacije ali dogovora, imajo dostop do ribolovnih virov, na katere se nanašajo navedeni ukrepi.
5. Kadar ni podobmočne ali območne upravljavske ribiške organizacije ali dogovora, v okviru katerih bi izoblikovali ukrepe ohranjanja in upravljanja za določen čezconski stalež rib ali izrazito selivski stalež rib, ustrezne obalne države ali države, ki lovijo te staleže na odprtem morju, sodelujejo pri ustanovitvi takšne organizacije ali pri dogovorih, v okviru katerih zagotovijo ohranjanje in upravljanje takšnih staležev, in sodelujejo pri delu organizacije ali pridogovoru.
6. Vsaka država, ki namerava predlagati, da bi ukrepala medvladna organizacija, pristojna za žive vire, naj se v primeru, da bi ti ukrepi pomembno vplivali na ukrepe ohranjanja in upravljanja, ki so bili že izoblikovani v okviru pristojne podobmočne ali območne ribiške upravljavske organizacije ali dogovora, posvetuje s člani ali udeleženci te organizacije ali dogovora. Če je mogoče, naj se takšno posvetovanje izvede pred predložitvijo predloga medvladni organizaciji.
Člen 9
Podobmočne ali območne ribiške upravljavske organizacije ali dogovori
1. Pri ustanavljanju podobmočnih ali območnih ribiških upravljavskih organizacij ali pri podobmočnih ali območnih dogovorih za čezconske staleže rib in izrazito selivske staleže rib se države, med drugim, sporazumejo glede:
(a) staležev, za katere se uporabljajo ukrepi ohranjanja in upravljanja, upoštevajoč biološke značilnosti zadevnih staležev in naravo vpletenih ribištev;
(b) območje uporabe, upoštevajoč člen 7(1), ter značilnosti podobmočja ali območja, vključno s socialno-ekonomskimi, geografskimi in okoljskimi dejavniki;
(c) razmerje med delom nove organizacije ali dogovorom in vlogo, cilji in dejavnostjo vseh ustreznih obstoječih ribiških upravljavskih organizacij ali dogovorov in
(d) mehanizme, s katerimi bodo v okviru organizacije ali dogovora pridobivali znanstvene nasvete in pregledovali stanje staležev, vključno z, kjer je to primerno, ustanovitvijo znanstvenega svetovalnega organa.
2. Države, ki sodelujejo pri oblikovanju podobmočne ali območne ribiške upravljavske organizacije ali dogovora, obveščajo druge države, za katere vedo, da se dejansko zanimajo za delo predlagane organizacije ali dogovora v okviru takšnega sodelovanja.
Člen 10
Naloge podobmočnih ali območnih ribiških upravljavskih organizacij ali dogovorov
Države pri izpolnjevanju svoje obveznosti sodelovanja prek podobmočnih ali območnih upravljavskih ribiških organizacij ali dogovorov:
(a) se sporazumejo in upoštevajo ukrepe ohranjanja in upravljanja, s čimer zagotovijo dolgoročno trajnost čezconskih staležev rib in izrazito selivskih staležev rib;
(b) se sporazumejo, če je to primerno, glede udeleženskih pravic, kakor so porazdelitev dovoljenega ulova ali ravni ribolovnega napora;
(c) sprejmejo in uporabljajo vse splošno priporočljive mednarodne minimalne standarde za odgovoren ribolov;
(d) pridobijo in ovrednotijo znanstvene nasvete, pregledajo stanje staležev ter ocenijo vpliv ribištva na neciljne in povezane ali odvisne vrste;
(e) se sporazumejo glede standardov za zbiranje, poročanje, preverjanje in izmenjavo podatkov o ribištvu staležev;
(f) pripravijo in razširjajo natančne in popolne statistične podatke, kakor je opisano v Prilogi I, s čimer zagotovijo dostopnost do najboljših razpoložljivih znanstvenih dokazov, pri čemer ohranijo zaupnost, kjer je to primerno;
(g) spodbujajo in izvajajo znanstvene presoje staležev in ustrezne raziskave ter razširjajo njihove rezultate;
(h) izoblikujejo ustrezne skupne mehanizme za učinkovito spremljanje, nadzor in izvajanje;
(i) se sporazumejo glede sredstev, s katerimi bodo zadovoljeni ribiški interesi novih članic organizacije ali novih udeležencev v Sporazumu;
(j) se sporazumejo glede postopkov odločanja, ki omogočijo pravočasen in učinkovit sprejem ukrepov ohranjanja in upravljanja;
(k) spodbujajo miroljubno reševanje sporov v skladu z delom VIII;
(l) zagotovijo popolno sodelovanje njihovih ustreznih nacionalnih zastopstev in gospodarskih panog pri uresničevanju priporočil in odločitev organizacije ali dogovora, in
(m) skrbijo za primerno obveščanje javnosti glede ukrepov ohranjanja in upravljanja, ki so bili izoblikovani v okviru organizacije ali dogovora.
Člen 11
Nove članice in udeleženke
Pri določanju vrste in obsega udeleženskih pravic za nove članice podobmočne ali območne ribiške upravljavske organizacije ali za nove udeleženke v podobmočnem ali območnem dogovoru za področje ribištva države med drugim upoštevajo:
(a) stanje čezconskih staležev rib in izrazito selivskih staležev rib ter obstoječo raven ribolovnega napora v ribištvu;
(b) interese, ribolovne modele in ribolovne postopke novih in obstoječih članic ali udeleženk;
(c) prispevke novih in obstoječih članic ali udeleženk k ohranjanju in upravljanju staležev, zbiranju in zagotavljanju točnih podatkov ter izvajanju znanstvenih raziskav staležev;
(d) potrebe obalnih ribolovnih združb, ki so odvisne predvsem od lovljenja teh staležev;
(e) potrebe obalnih držav, katerih gospodarstva temeljijo predvsem na izkoriščanji živih morskih virov, in
(f) interese držav v razvoju iz podobmočja ali območja, na območjih nacionalne jurisdikcije katerih se tudi pojavljajo staleži.
Člen 12
Preglednost dejavnosti podobmočnih ali območnih ribiških upravljavskih organizacij ali dogovorov
1. Države predpišejo preglednost pri procesu odločanja in drugih dejavnostih podobmočnih ali območnih ribiških upravljavskih organizacij ali dogovorov.
2. Predstavnikom drugih medvladnih organizacija in predstavnikom nevladnih organizacij, ki se ukvarjajo s čezconskimi staleži rib in izrazito selivskimi staleži rib, se ponudi možnost udeležbe na sestankih podobmočnih in območnih ribiških upravljavskih organizacij ali dogovorov, kjer lahko sodelujejo kot opazovalci ali drugače, kakor je primerno v skladu s postopki zadevne organizacije ali dogovora. Takšni postopki glede tega niso neupravičeno omejevalni. Te medvladne organizacije in nevladne organizacije imajo pravočasen dostop do spisov in poročil teh organizacij in dogovorov, in sicer v skladu s postopkovnimi pravili glede dostopa do njih.
Člen 13
Krepitev obstoječih organizacij in
dogovorov
Države sodelujejo pri krepitvi obstoječih podobmočnih ali območnih ribiških upravljavskih organizacij ali dogovorov, da bi tako povečale njihovo učinkovitost pri izoblikovanju in izvajanju ukrepov ohranjanja in upravljanja za čezconske staleže rib in izrazito selivske staleže rib.
Člen 14
Zbiranje in zagotavljanje podatkov ter sodelovanje pri znanstvenih raziskavah
1. Države zagotovijo, da plovila po njihovo zastavo posredujejo podatke, ki bi jih lahko potrebovali pri izpolnjevanju obveznosti, izhajajočih iz tega sporazuma. Zato države v skladu s Prilogo I:
(a) zbirajo in si izmenjujejo znanstvene, tehnične in statistične podatke glede ribištva čezconskih staležev rib in izrazito selivskih staležev rib;
(b) zagotovijo, da so zbrani podatki dovolj podrobni za učinkovito oceno staležev ter da so zagotovljeni pravočasno za izpolnjevanje zahtev podobmočnih ali območnih ribiških upravljavskih organizacij ali dogovorov, in
(c) sprejmejo ustrezne ukrepe za preverjanje točnosti teh podatkov.
2. Države sodelujejo, bodisi neposredno bodisi prek podobmočnih ali območnih ribiških upravljavskih organizacij ali dogovorov:
(a) pri dogovarjanju glede opredelitve podatkov in oblike, v kateri jih je treba zagotoviti takšnim organizacijam ali dogovorom, upoštevajoč naravo staležev in ribištev teh staležev, in
(b) pri razvijanju in skupni uporabi analitskih metod in metodologij ocenjevanja staležev, s čimer bi izboljšali ukrepe ohranjanja in upravljanja čezconskih staležev rib in izrazito selivskih staležev rib.
3. V skladu z delom XIII Konvencije države sodelujejo, bodisi neposredno bodisi prek pristojnih mednarodnih organizacij, pri krepitvi znanstvenoraziskovalnih zmogljivosti na področju ribištva in spodbujajo znanstvene raziskave, povezane z ohranjanjem in upravljanjem čezconskih staležev in izrazito selivskih staležev rib v skupno korist. Zato država ali pristojna mednarodna organizacija, ki izvaja takšno raziskavo zunaj območij nacionalne jurisdikcije, dejavno spodbuja objavo in razširjanje vsem zainteresiranim državam rezultatov navedene raziskave in podatkov glede njenih ciljev in metod ter, kolikor je izvedljivo, omogoča sodelovanje znanstvenikov iz navedenih državah v takšni raziskavi.
Člen 15
Zaprta in polzaprta morja
Pri izvajanju tega sporazuma v zaprtih ali polzaprtih morjih države upoštevajo naravne značilnosti navedenega morja ter delujejo tudi skladno z delom IX Konvencije in drugih ustreznih določb Konvencije.
Člen 16
Območja odprtih morij, ki so popolnoma obkrožena z območjem nacionalne jurisdikcije ene države
1. Države, ki lovijo čezconske staleže rib ali izrazito selivske staleže rib na območju odprtega morja, ki je popolnoma obkroženo z območjem nacionalne jurisdikcije ene države, sodeluje pri izoblikovanju ukrepov ohranjanja in upravljanja za navedene staleže na odprtem morju. Ob upoštevanju naravnih značilnosti območja države v skladu s členom 7 posvetijo posebno pozornost izoblikovanju ustreznih ukrepov ohranjanja in upravljanja za takšne staleže. Ukrepi, sprejeti za odprto morje, upoštevajo pravice, dolžnosti in interese obalnih držav, izhajajočih iz Konvencije, temeljijo na najboljših razpoložljivih znanstvenih dokazih in upoštevajo tudi vse ukrepe ohranjanja in upravljanja, ki so jih obalne države sprejele in jih uporabljajo v območjih nacionalne jurisdikcije za enake staleže v skladu s členom 61 Konvencije. Države se tudi sporazumejo glede ukrepov za spremljanje, nadzor, opazovanje in izvajanje, s čimer zagotovijo skladnost z ukrepi ohranjanja in upravljanja za odprto morje.
2. V skladu s členom 8 države delujejo v dobri veri in si vsestransko prizadevajo, da se nemudoma sporazumejo glede uporabe ukrepov ohranjanja in upravljanja pri izvajanju ribolova v območju iz odstavka 1. Če se zadevne ribiške države in obalna država ne morejo sporazumeti glede takšnih ukrepov v razumnem roku, ob upoštevanju odstavka 1 uporabijo člen 7(4)(5) in (6), ki se nanaša na začasne ureditve ali ukrepe. Do izoblikovanja takšnih začasnih ureditev ali ukrepov zadevne države sprejmejo ukrepe za plovila pod njihovo zastavo, s čimer preprečijo njihovo sodelovanje v ribištvu, ki bi lahko oslabilo zadevne staleže.
DEL IV
NEČLANICE IN NEUDELEŽENKE
Člen 17
Nečlanice organizacij in neudeleženke
v dogovorih
1. Država, ki ni članica podobmočne ali območne ribiške upravljavske organizacije ali ne sodeluje v podobmočnem ali območnem dogovoru za področje ribištva in ki se ni drugače sporazumela za uporabo ukrepov ohranjanja in upravljanja, izoblikovanih v okviru take organizacije ali dogovora, ni razrešena obveznosti sodelovanja v skladu s Konvencijo in tem sporazumom pri ohranjanju in upravljanju ustreznih čezconskih staležev rib in izrazito selivskih staležev rib.
2. Takšna država ne dovoli plovilom, ki plujejo pod njeno zastavo, udeležbe v ribolovu čezconskih staležev rib in izrazito selivskih staležev rib, za katere veljajo ukrepi ohranjanja in upravljanja, izoblikovani v okviru takšne organizacije ali dogovora.
3. Države, ki so članice podobmočne ali območne ribiške upravljavske organizacije ali ki sodelujejo v dogovoru za področje ribištva, posamezno ali skupaj zaprosijo ribiške subjekte iz člena 1(3), ki imajo ribiška plovila v ustreznem območju, da polno sodelujejo s takšno organizacijo ali dogovorom pri izvajanju izoblikovanih ukrepov ohranjanja in upravljanja, pri čemer si prizadevajo za kar najširšo dejansko uporabo teh ukrepov v ribištvu v zadevnem območju. Takšni ribiški subjekti uživajo pravice iz sodelovanja v ribištvu, sorazmerne z njihovo zavezo, da bodo ravnali v skladu z ukrepi ohranjanja in upravljanja za te staleže.
4. Države članice takšne organizacije ali udeleženke v takšnem dogovoru si izmenjujejo podatke glede aktivnosti ribiških plovil pod zastavo držav, ki niso niti članice organizacije niti udeleženke dogovorov in ki lovijo zadevne staleže. Sprejmejo ukrepe, skladne s tem sporazumom in mednarodnim pravom, za preprečevanje aktivnosti plovil, ki slabijo učinkovitost podobmočnih ali območnih ukrepov ohranjanja in upravljanja.
DEL V
DOLŽNOSTI DRŽAVE ZASTAVE
Člen 18
Dolžnosti države zastave
1. Država, katere plovila lovijo na odprtem morju, sprejme ukrepe, s katerimi se po potrebi zagotavlja, da plovila pod njeno zastavo delujejo v skladu s podobmočnimi ali območnimi ukrepi ohranjanja in upravljanja in da ta plovila ne sodelujejo v kakršnikoli aktivnosti, ki slabi učinkovitost takšnih ukrepov.
2. Država dovoli uporabo plovil pod njeno zastavo za ribolov na odprtem morju, le kadar lahko učinkovito izpolnjuje svoje obveznosti glede teh plovil, izhajajočih iz Konvencije in tega sporazuma.
3. Ukrepi, ki jih mora država sprejeti za plovila pod njeno zastavo, vključujejo:
(a) nadzor takšnih plovil na odprtem morju prek dovoljenj za gospodarski ribolov, pooblastil ali posebnih dovoljenje, v skladu z vsemi veljavnimi postopki, dogovorjenimi na podobmočni, območni ali globalni ravni;
(b) oblikovanje pravil:
(i) za določanje pogojev na dovoljenju, pooblastilu ali posebnemu dovoljenju, ki omogočajo izpolnjevanje vseh podobmočnih, območnih ali globalnih obveznosti države zastave,
(ii) za prepoved ribolova na odprtem morju s plovili, ki nimajo ustreznih dovoljenj ali pooblastil za ribolov, ali ribolova na odprtem morju s plovili, ki odstopa od pogojev na dovoljenju, pooblastilu ali posebnem dovoljenju,
(iii) za zahtevo, da morajo plovila, ki lovijo na odprtem morju, vedno imeti na krovu dovoljenje, pooblastilo ali posebno dovoljenje in da ga morajo predložiti na zahtevo inšpektorja ali druge pooblaščene osebe,
(iv) za zagotavljanje, da plovila pod njeno zastavo ne lovijo nedovoljeno v območjih nacionalne jurisdikcije drugih držav;
(c) izdelavo nacionalne evidence ribiških plovil z pooblastilom za ribolov na odprtem morju in zagotavljanje dostopa do podatkov v navedeni evidenci na zahtevo neposredno zainteresiranih držav, upoštevajoč vse zakone države zastave glede objave takšnih informacij;
(d) zahteve po označevanju ribiških plovil in ribolovnega orodja za identifikacijo v skladu z enotnimi in mednarodno priznanimi sistemi za označevanje plovil in orodja, kakor so Standardne specifikacije Organizacije za prehrano in kmetijstvo Združenih narodov za označevanje in identifikacijo ribiških plovil;
(e) zahteve po zapisovanju in pravočasnem poročanju o položaju plovila, ulovu ciljnih in neciljnih vrst, ribolovnem naporu in drugih ustreznih ribiških podatkih v skladu s podobmočnimi, območnimi in globalnimi standardi za zbiranje takšnih podatkov;
(f) zahteve po preverjanju ulova ciljnih in neciljnih vrst s sredstvi, kakor so programi opazovanja, sistemi inšpekcij, poročila o iztovarjanju, nadzor pretovarjanja in spremljanje iztovorjenih ulovov ter tržna statistika;
(g) spremljanje, nadzor in opazovanje takšnih plovil, njihovega ribolova in z njim povezanih aktivnosti, med drugim:
(i) izvajanje nacionalnih sistemov inšpekcij ter podobmočnih in območnih sistemov za sodelovanje pri izvajanju v skladu s členi 21 in 22, vključno z zahtevami za takšna plovila, da dovolijo dostop pravilno pooblaščenim inšpektorjem iz drugih držav,
(ii) izvajanja nacionalnih programov opazovanja ter podobmočnih in območnih programov opazovanja, v katerih sodeluje država zastave, vključno z zahtevami za takšna plovila, da dovolijo dostop opazovalcem iz drugih držav zaradi izvajanja nalog, dogovorjenih v okviru programov,
(iii) razvoja in uporabe sistema za spremljanje plovil, vključno z, če je to primerno, satelitskimi sistemi prenosa, v skladu z vsemi nacionalnimi programi in programi, ki so bili območno ali globalno dogovorjeni med zadevnimi državami;
(h) urejanje pretovarjanja na odprtem morju zaradi zagotavljanja, da učinkovitost ukrepov ohranjanja in upravljanja ni oslabljena;
(i) urejanje ribiške aktivnosti zaradi zagotavljanja skladnosti s podobmočnimi, območnimi in globalnimi ukrepi, vključno s tistimi, ki so namenjeni zmanjšanju ulova neciljnih vrst.
4. Kadar se izvaja podobmočno, območno ali globalno dogovorjeni sistem spremljanja, nadzora in opazovanja, države zagotovijo, da so ukrepi, ki jih nalagajo plovilom pod njihovo zastavo, skladni z navedenim sistemom.
DEL VI
SKLADNOST IN IZVAJANJE
Člen 19
Skladnost in izvajanje s strani države zastave
1. Država zagotovi skladnost plovil po njeno zastavo s podobmočnimi in območnimi ukrepi ohranjanja in upravljanja za čezconske staleže rib ali izrazito selivske staleže rib. V ta namen država:
(a) izvaja takšne ukrepe ne glede na kraj kršitve;
(b) nemudoma in popolnoma razišče vse domnevne kršitve podobmočnih ali območnih ukrepov ohranjanja in upravljanja, kar lahko vključuje fizični pregled zadevnega plovila, ter hitro poroča državi, ki je prijavila kršitev, in ustrezni podobmočni ali območni organizaciji ali dogovoru o napredku in izidu raziskave;
(c) zahteva od vseh plovil pod njeno zastavo, da obveščajo preiskovalni organ o položaju plovila, ulovu, ribolovnem orodju, ribolovu in z njim povezanih delovanjih na območju domnevne kršitve;
(d) če je prepričana, da obstajajo zadostni dokazi glede domnevne kršitve, predloži primer svojim oblastem zaradi takojšnje sprožitve postopka v skladu z njenimi zakoni in, kjer je to primerno, zadrži zadevno plovilo;
(e) zagotovi, da plovilo, za katero je bilo v skladu z njenimi zakoni ugotovljeno, da je bilo vpleteno v resno kršitev takšnih ukrepov, ne sodeluje v ribolovu na odprtem morju, dokler niso izvršene vse kazni, ki jih je država zastave naložila za kršitev.
2. Vse preiskave in sodni procesi se izvedejo kar najhitreje. Kazni, ki se uporabljajo za kršitve, so primerno stroge, da učinkovito zagotovijo skladnost in odvračajo od kršitev, kjerkoli se pojavljajo, in kršiteljem odvzamejo ugodnosti, ki izvirajo iz nezakonite dejavnosti. Ukrepi, ki se uporabljajo za poveljnike in druge častnike na ribolovnem plovilu, vključujejo določbe, ki med drugim omogočajo zavrnitev, odvzem ali začasni odvzem dovoljenja za opravljanje nalog poveljnika ali častnika na takšnih plovilih.
Člen 20
Mednarodno sodelovanje pri izvajanju
1. Države sodelujejo, bodisi neposredno bodisi prek podobmočnih ali območnih ribiških upravljalnih organizacij ali dogovorov, zaradi zagotavljanja skladnosti s podobmočnimi ali območnimi ukrepi ohranjanja in upravljanja ter njihovega izvajanja.
2. Država zastave, ki opravlja preiskavo domnevne kršitve ukrepov ohranjanja in upravljanja za čezconske staleže rib in izrazito selivske staleže rib, lahko zaprosi za pomoč katero koli drugo državo, katere sodelovanje lahko koristi pri opravljanju navedene preiskave. Vse države si prizadevajo izpolniti razumne zahteve države zastave v zvezi s takšnimi raziskavami.
3. Država zastave lahko uvede take preiskave neposredno, v sodelovanju z drugimi zainteresiranimi državami ali prek ustrezne podobmočne ali območne ribiške upravljavske organizacije ali dogovora. Podatke o napredovanju ali izidu preiskav se zagotovi vsem državam, ki jih domnevna kršitev prizadeva ali ki se zanimajo zanjo.
4. Države si medsebojno pomagajo pri identifikaciji plovil, ki naj bi bila po poročanju udeležena v aktivnostih, ki slabijo učinkovitost podobmočnih, območnih ali globalnih ukrepov ohranjanja in upravljanja.
5. Države v obsegu, kolikor jim dovoljujejo nacionalni zakoni in drugi predpisi, oblikujejo ureditev, ki omogoča, da imajo organi kazenskega pregona v drugih državah na voljo dokaze glede domnevnih kršitev takšnih ukrepov.
6. Kadar obstaja razlog za utemeljen sum, da je bilo plovilo na odprtem morju udeleženo v nedovoljenem ribolovu znotraj območja pod jurisdikcijo obalne države, država zastave navedenega plovila na prošnjo zadevne obalne države nemudoma in temeljito razišče zadevo. Država zastave sodeluje z obalno državo pri sprejemu inšpekcijskih ukrepov za take primere in lahko pooblasti ustrezne organe obalne države, da se vkrcajo in pregledajo plovilo na odprtem morju. Ta odstavek ne vpliva na člen 111 Konvencije.
7. Države pogodbenice, ki so članice podobmočne ali območne ribiške upravljalne organizacije ali so udeležene v podobmočnem ali območnem upravljalnem dogovoru za področje ribištva, lahko ukrepajo v skladu z mednarodnim pravom, vključno z zatekanjem k podobmočnim ali območnim postopkom, izoblikovanim za ta namen, da bi odvrnile plovila, udeležena v aktivnostih, ki slabijo učinkovitost ukrepov ohranjanja in upravljanja, izoblikovanih v okviru navedene organizacije ali dogovora, ali jih kršijo kako drugače, od ribolova na odprtem morju v podobmočju ali območju, dokler primerno ne ukrepa država zastave.
Člen 21
Podobmočno in območno sodelovanje pri izvajanju
1. V vseh območjih odprtega morja, ki jih pokriva podobmočna ali območna ribiška upravljavska organizacija ali dogovor, se lahko država pogodbenica, ki je članica takšne organizacije ali udeleženka v takšnem dogovoru, prek svojih pravilno pooblaščenih inšpektorjev vkrca in v skladu z odstavkom 2 pregleda ribiška plovila pod zastavo druge države pogodbenice tega sporazuma, ne glede na to, ali je ta država pogodbenica tudi članica organizacije ali udeleženka pri dogovoru, s čimer se zagotovi skladnost z ukrepi ohranjanja in upravljanja za čezconske staleže rib ali izrazito selivske staleže rib, ki so bili izoblikovani v okviru navedene organizacije ali dogovora.
2. Države prek podobmočnih ali območnih ribiških upravljavskih organizacij ali dogovorov določijo postopke za vkrcanje in preglede v skladu z odstavkom 1 ter postopke za izvajanje drugih določb v tem členu. Takšni postopki so skladni s tem členom in osnovnimi postopki, določenimi v členu 22, in ne zapostavljajo nečlanic organizacije ali neudeleženk v dogovoru. Vkrcanje in pregled ter vsi naknadni inšpekcijski ukrepi se izvedejo v skladu s takšnimi postopki. Države primerno obvestijo javnost o postopkih, določenih v skladu s tem odstavkom.
3. Če v dveh letih po sprejetju tega sporazuma katera koli organizacija ali dogovor ne določi takšnih postopkov, se vkrcanje in pregledi v skladu z odstavkom 1, kakor tudi vsi naknadni inšpekcijski ukrepi, pred sprejetjem takšnih postopkov izvedejo v skladu s tem členom in osnovnimi postopki, določenimi v členu 22.
4. Pred ukrepanjem v skladu s tem členom država, ki izvaja nadzor, bodisi neposredno bodisi prek ustrezne podobmočne ali območne ribiške upravljavske organizacije ali dogovora, obvesti vse države, katerih plovila lovijo na odprtem morju v podobmočju ali območju, o obliki identifikacije, izdane njihovim pravilno pooblaščenim inšpektorjem. Plovila, uporabljena za vkrcanje in preglede, so jasno označena in razpoznavna, da so v službi vlade. Ko država postane pogodbenica tega sporazuma, določi ustrezen organ za prejemanje obvestil v skladu s tem členom in primerno obvesti javnost o taki določitvi prek ustrezne podobmočne ali območne ribiške upravljavske organizacije ali dogovora.
5. Če po vkrcanju in pregledu obstajajo razlogi za upravičen sum, da je bilo plovilo udeleženo v katerikoli aktivnosti, ki je v nasprotju z ukrepi ohranjanja in upravljanja iz člena 1, država inšpekcije, kjer je to primerno, zaščiti dokaze in hitro obvesti državo zastave o domnevni kršitvi.
6. Država zastave se odzove na obvestilo iz člena 5 v treh delovnih dneh po njegovem prejemu, ali v drugem takšnem roku, kakor se ga lahko prepiše s postopki, določenimi v skladu s členom 2, in tudi:
(a) nemudoma izpolni svoje obveznosti iz člena 19, da razišče in, če to potrjujejo dokazi, sprejme inšpekcijske ukrepe v zvezi s plovilom, pri čemer hitro obvesti državo inšpekcije o rezultatih preiskave in vseh sprejetih inšpekcijskih ukrepih; ali
(b) pooblasti državo inšpekcije, da izvede raziskavo.
7. Kadar država zastave pooblasti državo inšpekcije, da razišče domnevno kršitev, država inšpekcije nemudoma sporoči rezultate navedene raziskave državi zastave. Država zastave, če to potrjujejo dokazi, izpolni svojo obveznost uvedbe inšpekcijskih ukrepov za plovilo. Druga možnost je, da lahko država zastave pooblasti državo inšpekcije za sprejem takšnih inšpekcijskih ukrepov, kakor jih lahko država zastave opredeli za plovilo v skladu s pravicami in obveznostmi države zastave, izhajajočimi iz tega sporazuma.
8. Kadar po vkrcanju in pregledu obstajajo razlogi za upravičen sum, da je plovilo izvedlo hujšo kršitev, in se država zastave bodisi ni odzvala ali ni sprejela ukrepov, kakor je zahtevano v odstavkih 6 ali 7, inšpektorji lahko ostanejo na krovu in zaščitijo dokaze ter lahko zahtevajo od poveljnika, da jim pomaga pri nadaljnji preiskavi, v okviru katere lahko, če je to primerno, nemudoma odpeljejo plovilo v najbližje primerno pristanišče ali v katero drugo takšno pristanišče, ki se ga lahko opredeli s postopki, izdelanimi v skladu s členom 2. Država inšpekcije nemudoma obvesti državo zastave o imenu pristanišča, v katerega mora pluti plovilo. Država inšpekcije in država zastave in, če je to primerno, država pristanišča naredijo vse, kar je treba, da zagotovijo dobro počutje posadke, ne glede na nacionalno pripadnost njenih članov.
9. Država inšpekcije obvesti državo zastave in ustrezno organizacijo ali udeležence ustreznega dogovora o rezultatih vseh nadaljnjih raziskav.
10. Država inšpekcije zahteva od svojih inšpektorjev, da upoštevajo splošno priznane mednarodne predpise, postopke in prakse, ki se nanašajo na varnost plovila in posadke, kar najbolj zmanjšajo motenje ribolova in se, kolikor je to izvedljivo, izogibajo ukrepom, ki bi negativno vplivali na kakovost ulova na krovu. Država inšpekcije zagotovi takšno izvedbo vkrcanja in pregleda, da pri tem ne gre za nadlegovanje nobenega ribiškega plovila.
11. Za namene tega člena hujša kršitev pomeni:
(a) ribolov brez veljavnega dovoljenja, pooblastila ali posebnega dovoljenja, ki jih je država zastave izdala v skladu s členom 18(3)(a);
(b) opustitev vodenja točnih evidenc o ulovu in z njim povezanih podatkov, kakor je zahtevano v okviru ustrezne podobmočne ali območne ribiške upravljavske organizacije ali dogovora, ali hujše napačno poročanje o ulovu, ki je v nasprotju z zahtevami takšne organizacije ali dogovora za poročanje o ulovu;
(c) ribolov v zaprtem območju, ribolov v nelovni dobi ali ribolov brez kvote, določene v okviru podobmočne ali območne ribiške upravljavske organizacije ali dogovora, ali po tem, ko je bila dosežena;
(d) ribolov, usmerjen v stalež, za katerega velja moratorij ali za katerega je prepovedan ribolov;
(e) uporabo prepovedanega ribolovnega orodja;
(f) ponarejanje ali prikrivanje označb, identitete ali registracije ribiškega plovila;
(g) prikrivanje, nedovoljeno spreminjanje ali uničenje dokazov, povezanih s preiskavo;
(h) večkratne kršitve, ki skupaj pomenijo hujše neupoštevanje ukrepov ohranjanja in upravljanja; ali
(i) druge takšne kršitve, kakor so lahko opredeljene v postopkih, oblikovanih v okviru podobmočne ali območne ribiške upravljavske organizacije ali dogovora.
12. Ne glede na preostale določbe tega člena lahko država zastave kadarkoli ukrepa, da bi izpolnila svoje obveznosti iz člena 19 v zvezi z domnevno kršitvijo. Kadar plovilo vodi država inšpekcije, država inšpekcije na zahtevo države zastave prepusti plovilo državi zastave, skupaj s popolnimi podatki o poteku in izidu svoje raziskave.
13. Ta člen je brez vpliva na pravico države zastave, da ukrepa, vključno s postopki za izrek kazni v skladu z njeno zakonodajo.
14. Ta člen se s potrebnimi spremembami uporablja za vkrcanje in preglede s strani države pogodbenice, ki je članica območne ali podobmočne ribiške upravljavske organizacije ali udeleženka v podobmočnem ali območnem dogovoru za področje ribištva in ki ima razloge za upravičen sum, da je plovilo, ki pluje pod zastavo druge države pogodbenice, sodelovalo v kakršnikoli aktivnosti, ki je v nasprotju z ustreznimi ukrepi ohranjanja in upravljanja iz člena 1, na odprtem morju, ki ga pokriva takšna organizacija ali dogovor, in da je to plovilo potem, v okviru istega ribiškega potovanja, vstopilo v območje nacionalne jurisdikcije države inšpekcije.
15. Kadar je bil v okviru podobmočne ali območne ribiške upravljavske organizacije ali dogovora izoblikovan alternativni mehanizem, ki učinkovito izpolnjuje obveznosti članic ali udeleženk, izhajajoče iz tega sporazuma, za zagotovitev skladnosti z ukrepi ohranjanja in upravljanja, izdelanimi v okviru te organizacije ali dogovora, se lahko članice takšne organizacije ali udeleženke takšnega dogovora v okviru medsebojnih pravnih razmerij lahko dogovorijo za omejitev uporabe člena 1 za ukrepe ohranjanja in upravljanja, ki so bili izdelani za ustrezno območje odprtega morja.
16. Ukrepi držav, ki niso država zastave, za plovila, udeležena v aktivnostih, ki so v nasprotju s podobmočnimi ali območnimi ukrepi ohranjanja in upravljanja, so sorazmerni z resnostjo kršitve.
17. Kadar obstaja razlog za utemeljen sum, da je ribiško plovilo na odprtem morju brez pripadnosti državi, se lahko država vkrca in pregleda plovilo. V upravičenih primerih država lahko ukrepa v skladu z mednarodnim pravom.
18. Državam se lahko pripiše škoda ali izguba, nastala zaradi ukrepov, sprejetih v skladu s tem členom, če so taki ukrepi nezakoniti ali presegajo razumno zahtevane ukrepe glede na razpoložljive podatke za izvajanje določb tega člena.
Člen 22
Osnovni postopki za vkrcanje in pregled v skladu
s členom 21
1. Država inšpekcije zagotovi, da njeni pravilno pooblaščeni inšpektorji:
(a) poveljniku plovila predložijo poverilnice in priskrbijo kopijo besedila ustreznih ukrepov ohranjanja in upravljanja ali pravil in uredb, ki v skladu z navedenimi ukrepi veljajo na zadevnem odprtem morju;
(b) ob vkrcanju in pregledu pošljejo obvestilo državi zastave;
(c) med vkrcanjem in pregledom ne ovirajo poveljnikove sposobnosti za komunikacijo z organi države zastave;
(d) poveljniku in organom države zastave zagotovijo kopijo poročila o vkrcanju in pregledu, v katerem so zabeležene vse pripombe ali izjave, ki jih poveljnik želi vključiti v poročilo;
(e) plovilo zapustijo takoj po koncu pregleda, če ne najdejo dokaza o hujši kršitvi; in
(f) skušajo preprečiti uporabo sile, razen če se z njo zagotavlja varnost inšpektorjev, in še to le do stopnje, potrebne za ta namen, in če se inšpektorje ovira pri izvajanju njihovih dolžnosti. Stopnja uporabljene sile ne presega razumno zahtevane glede na okoliščine.
2. Pravilno pooblaščeni inšpektorji države inšpekcije so pooblaščeni za pregled plovila, njegovega dovoljenja, orodja, evidenc, objektov in naprav, rib in ribiških proizvodov in vseh ustreznih dokumentov, potrebnih za preverjanje skladnosti z ustreznimi ukrepi ohranjanja in upravljanja.
3. Država zastave zagotovi, da poveljniki plovil:
(a) sprejmejo in omogočijo hitro in varno vkrcanje inšpektorjev;
(b) sodelujejo in pomagajo pri pregledu plovila, izvedenem v skladu s temi postopki;
(c) ne ovirajo, ustrahujejo inšpektorjev in jih ne motijo pri opravljanju dolžnosti;
(d) dovolijo inšpektorjem, da med vkrcanjem in pregledom komunicirajo z organi države zastave in države inšpekcije;
(e) inšpektorjem ustvarijo sprejemljive možnosti, vključno z, kjer je to primerno, hrano in nastanitvijo;
(f) omogočijo varno izkrcanje inšpektorjev.
4. Če poveljnik plovila noče dovoliti vkrcanja in pregleda v skladu s tem členom in členom 21, država zastave, razen če je treba glede na okoliščine v skladu s splošno sprejetimi mednarodnimi uredbami, postopki in praksami, ki se nanašajo na pomorsko varnost, odložiti vkrcanje in pregled, odredi poveljniku plovila, da nemudoma dovoli vkrcanje in pregled, in če poveljnik ne upošteva takšne odredbe, začasno ukine pooblastilo za ribolov in odredi plovilu, naj se nemudoma vrne v pristanišče. Država zastave svetuje državi inšpekcije glede ukrepov, ki jih je sprejela v okoliščinah iz tega odstavka.
Člen 23
Ukrepi države pristanišča
1. Država pristanišča ima pravico in dolžnost sprejeti ukrepe v skladu z mednarodnim pravom, s katerimi spodbuja učinkovitost podobmočnih, območnih in globalnih ukrepov ohranjanja in upravljanja. Pri sprejemanju takšnih ukrepov država pristanišča niti formalno niti dejansko ne zapostavlja plovil nobene države.
2. Država pristanišča lahko med drugim pregleda dokumente, ribolovno orodje in ulov na krovu ribiških plovil, če so takšna plovila prostovoljno v njenih pristaniščih ali obalnih terminalih.
3. Države lahko sprejmejo pravila, ki pooblaščajo ustrezne državne organe, da prepovejo izkrcanja in pretovarjanja, kadar je bilo ugotovljeno, da je bil ulov pridobljen na način, ki slabi učinkovitost podobmočnih, območnih in globalnih ukrepov ohranjanja in upravljanja na odprtem morju.
4. Nič v tem členu ne vpliva na uresničevanje suverenosti držav v pristaniščih na njihovem ozemlju v skladu z mednarodnim pravom.
DEL VII
ZAHTEVE DRŽAV V RAZVOJU
Člen 24
Priznavanje posebnih zahtev držav
v razvoju
1. Države polno priznajo posebne zahteve držav v razvoju glede ohranjanja in upravljanja čezconskih staležev rib ali izrazito selivskih staležev rib ter razvoja ribištva teh staležev. Zato države, bodisi neposredno bodisi prek Programa ZN za razvoj, Organizacije ZN za prehrano in kmetijstvo in drugih specialnih agencij, Globalnega sklada za okolje, Komisije za trajnostni razvoj ter drugih ustreznih mednarodnih in območnih organizacij in teles, pomagajo državam v razvoju.
2. Pri izpolnjevanju dolžnosti sodelovanja pri izoblikovanju ukrepov ohranjanja in upravljanja za čezconske staleže rib ali izrazito selivske staleže rib države upoštevajo posebne zahteve držav v razvoju, zlasti:
(a) ranljivost držav v razvoju, ki so odvisne od izkoriščanja živih morskih virov, vključno z izpolnjevanjem prehranskih zahtev njihovih populacij in njihovih delov;
(b) potrebo po izogibanju negativnim učinkom in zagotavljanje dostopa za male priobalne in priobalne ribiče ter ribičke, kakor tudi domorodce v državah v razvoju, zlasti v majhnih otoških državah v razvoju;
(c) potrebo po zagotavljanju, da takšni ukrepi ne privedejo, bodisi posredno bodisi neposredno, do prenosa nesorazmernega bremena ohranjevalnih ukrepov na države v razvoju.
Člen 25
Oblike sodelovanja z državami v razvoju
1. Države sodelujejo, bodisi posredno bodisi prek podobmočnih, območnih ali globalnih organizacij:
(a) pri izboljšanju sposobnosti držav v razvoju, zlasti najmanj razvitih med njimi in majhnih otoških držav v razvoju, pri ohranjanju in upravljanju čezconskih staležev rib ali izrazito selivskih staležev rib ter pri razvijanju njihovih lastnih ribištev za te staleže;
(b) pri pomoči državam v razvoju, zlasti najmanj razvitim med njimi in majhnim otoškim državam v razvoju, da lahko sodelujejo pri ribištvu teh staležev na odprtem morju, vključno z omogočanjem dostopa do takšnih ribištev iz členov 5 in 11;
(c) pri omogočanju udeležbe držav v razvoju v podobmočnih ali območnih ribiških upravljavskih organizacijah ali dogovorih.
2. Sodelovanje z državami v razvoju za namene, določene v tem členu, vključuje zagotavljanje finančne pomoči, pomoči, povezane z razvojem človeških virov, strokovne pomoči, prenos tehnologije, vključno s skupnimi podjetji, ter svetovanje in posvetovanje.
3. Takšna pomoč je med drugim usmerjena zlasti v:
(a) izboljšano ohranjanje in upravljanje čezconskih staležev rib ali izrazito selivskih staležev rib z zbiranjem, sporočanjem, preverjanjem, izmenjavo in analizo podatkov o ribištvu ter s tem povezanih podatkov;
(b) oceno staležev in znanstvene raziskave;
(c) spremljanje, nadzor, opazovanje, skladnost in izvajanje, vključno z usposabljanjem ter vzpostavitvijo institucij in kadrov na lokalni ravni, razvojem in ustanovitvijo državnih in območnih programov opazovanja ter dostopom do tehnoloških postopkov in opreme.
Člen 26
Posebna pomoč pri izvajanju
tega sporazuma
1. Države sodelujejo pri ustanavljanju posebnih skladov za pomoč državam v razvoju pri izvajanju tega sporazuma, vključno s pomočjo državam v razvoju, da nosijo stroške, izhajajoče iz vseh postopkov za reševanje sporov, v katerih so lahko ena od strank.
2. Države in mednarodne organizacije naj pomagajo državam v razvoju pri ustanavljanju novih podobmočnih ali območnih ribiških upravljavskih organizacij ali dogovorov ali pri krepitvi obstoječih organizacij ali dogovorov za ohranjanje in upravljanje čezconskih staležev rib ali izrazito selivskih staležev rib.
DEL VIII
MIRNO REŠEVANJE SPOROV
Člen 27
Obveznost reševanja sporov z mirnimi sredstvi
Države imajo obveznost poravnavanja medsebojne spore s pogajanji, preiskavo, posredovanji, spravo, arbitražo, sodno poravnavo, zatekanjem k regionalnim agencijam ali dogovorom ali z drugimi miroljubnimi sredstvi po lastni izbiri.
Člen 28
Preprečevanje sporov
Države sodelujejo, da bi tako preprečile spore. Zato se države dogovorijo glede učinkovitih in hitrih postopkov odločanja v okviru podobmočnih ali območnih ribiških upravljavskih organizacij ali dogovorov in po potrebi okrepijo obstoječe postopke odločanja.
Člen 29
Strokovni spori
Kadar spor zadeva strokovno vprašanje, lahko zadevne države predložijo spor priložnostnemu strokovnemu svetu, ki so ga ustanovile. Svet se posvetuje z zadevnimi državami in si prizadeva za hitro rešitev spora brez zatekanja k obvezujočim postopkom za reševanje sporov.
Člen 30
Postopki za reševanje sporov
1. Določbe, ki se nanašajo na reševanje sporov, določene v delu XV Konvencije, se s potrebnimi spremembami uporabljajo za vse spore med državami pogodbenicami tega sporazuma glede razlage ali uporabe tega sporazuma, ne glede na to, ali so tudi pogodbenice Konvencije.
2. Določbe, ki se nanašajo na reševanje sporov, določene v delu XV Konvencije, se s potrebnimi spremembami uporabljajo za vse spore med državami pogodbenicami tega sporazuma glede razlage ali uporabe podobmočnega, območnega ali globalnega ribiškega sporazuma, ki se nanaša na čezconske staleže rib ali izrazito selivske staleže rib, katerega pogodbenice so, vključno z vsemi spori glede ohranjanja in upravljanja takšnih staležev, ne glede na to ali so tudi pogodbenice Konvencije.
3. Vsi postopki, ki jih je država pogodbenica tega sporazuma in Konvencije sprejela v skladu s členom 287 Konvencije, se uporabljajo za reševanje sporov iz tega dela, razen če ni navedena država pogodbenica pri podpisovanju, ratifikaciji tega sporazuma ali pristopanju k njemu, ali kadarkoli kasneje, sprejela drugačnega postopka za reševanje sporov iz tega dela v skladu s členom 287.
4. Država pogodbenica tega sporazuma, ki ni pogodbenica Konvencije, lahko pri podpisovanju, ratifikaciji tega sporazuma ali pristopanju k njemu, ali kadarkoli kasneje, s pisno deklaracijo svobodno izbira eno ali več sredstev za poravnavo sporov iz tega dela, določenih v členu 287(1) Konvencije. Člen 287 se uporablja za takšno deklaracijo, kakor tudi za vse spore, v katerih je ena od strank takšna država in ki jih ne pokriva veljavna deklaracija. Za spravo in arbitražo v skladu s Prilogami V, VII in VIII h Konvenciji je takšna država upravičena do imenovanja spravnih posredovalcev, razsodnikov in strokovnjakov, ki jih mora vključiti na sezname za reševanje sporov iz tega dela iz člena 2 Priloge V, člena 2 Priloge VII in člena 2 Priloge VIII.
5. Vsa sodišča, ki jim je bil predložen spor iz tega dela, uporabljajo ustrezne določbe Konvencije, tega sporazuma in vseh ustreznih podobmočnih, območnih ali globalnih ribiških sporazumov, kakor tudi splošno sprejete standarde za ohranjanje in upravljanje živih morskih virov in druga pravila mednarodnega prava, združljiva s Konvencijo, za zagotavljanje ohranjanja zadevnih čezconskih staležev rib ali izrazito selivskih staležev rib.
Člen 31
Začasni ukrepi
1. Pred poravnavo spora v skladu s tem delom si stranke v sporu vsestransko prizadevajo za uveljavljanje začasnih praktičnih rešitev.
2. Brez vpliva na člen 290 Konvencije lahko sodišče, ki mu je bil predložen spor iz tega dela, predpiše katere koli začasne ukrepe, ki se mu v okoliščinah zdijo primerni za ohranjanje pravic vseh strank v sporu ali preprečevanje škode na zadevnih staležih, kakor tudi v okoliščinah iz člena 7(5) in člena 16(2).
3. Pogodbenica tega sporazuma, ki ni pogodbenica Konvencije, lahko brez vpliva na člen 290(5) Konvencije razglasi, da Mednarodno sodišče za pomorsko pravo ni upravičeno do prepisovanja, spremembe ali preklica začasnih ukrepov brez privolitve takšne države.
Člen 32
Omejitve uporabe postopkov za reševanje
sporov
Člen 297(3) Konvencije se uporablja tudi za ta sporazum.
DEL IX
NEPOGODBENICE TEGA SPORAZUMA
Člen 33
Nepogodbenice tega sporazuma
1. Države pogodbenice spodbujajo nepogodbenice tega sporazuma, da postanejo njegove pogodbenice ter sprejmejo zakone in druge predpise v skladu z njegovimi določbami.
2. Države pogodbenice sprejmejo ukrepe v skladu s tem sporazumom in mednarodnim pravom, da preprečijo aktivnosti plovil pod zastavo nepogodbenic, ki slabijo učinkovito izvajanje tega sporazuma.
DEL X
DOBRA VERA IN ZLORABA PRAVIC
Člen 34
Dobra vera in zloraba pravic
Države pogodbenice v dobri veri izpolnjujejo obveznosti, prevzete s tem sporazumom, in uveljavljajo pravice, priznane s tem sporazumom, tako da pri tem ne gre za zlorabo pravice.
DEL XI
ODGOVORNOST
Člen 35
Odgovornost
Države pogodbenice so v skladu z mednarodnim pravom odgovorne za škodo ali izgubo, ki se jim jo lahko pripiše v zvezi s tem sporazumom.
DEL XII
REVIZIJSKA KONFERENCA
Člen 36
Revizijska konferenca
1. Štiri leta po začetku veljavnosti tega sporazuma generalni sekretar Združenih narodov skliče konferenco za presojo učinkovitosti tega sporazuma pri zagotavljanju ohranjanja in upravljanja čezconskih staležev rib ali izrazito selivskih staležev rib. Generalni sekretar povabi na konferenco vse države pogodbenice ter vse države in subjekte, upravičene do tega, da postanejo pogodbenice tega sporazuma, kakor tudi medvladne in nevladne organizacije, ki so upravičene do sodelovanja kot opazovalke.
2. Na konferenci se pregleda in oceni ustreznost določb tega sporazuma in, če je to potrebno, predlaga sredstva za krepitev vsebine in metod izvajanja navedenih odločb, s čimer se doseže boljše odzivanje na vse stalne probleme pri ohranjanju in upravljanju čezconskih staležev rib ali izrazito selivskih staležev rib.
DEL XIII
KONČNE DOLOČBE
Člen 37
Podpis
Ta sporazum lahko podpišejo vse države in drugi subjekti iz člena 1(2)(b) in je na voljo za podpis na sedežu Združenih narodov 12 mesecev po 4. decembru 1995.
Člen 38
Ratifikacija
Ta sporazum lahko ratificirajo države in drugi subjekti iz člena 1(2)(b). Ratifikacijske listine hrani generalni sekretar Združenih narodov.
Člen 39
Pristop
K temu sporazumu lahko pristopijo države in drugi subjekti iz člena 1(2)(b). Listino o pristopu hrani generalni sekretar Združenih narodov.
Člen 40
Začetek veljavnosti
1. Ta sporazum začne veljati 30 dni po dnevu deponiranja 30. listine o ratifikaciji ali pristopu.
2. Za vsako državo ali subjekt, ki ratificira sporazum ali pristopi k njemu po deponiranju 30. listine o ratifikaciji ali pristopu, začne ta sporazum veljati 30. dan po deponiranju njegove listine o ratifikaciji ali pristopu.
Člen 41
Začasna uporaba
1. Ta sporazum uporablja začasno država ali subjekt, ki privoli v njegovo začasno uporabo tako, da o tem pisno obvesti depozitarja. Takšna začasna uporaba se začne z dnem prejema obvestila.
2. Začasna uporaba s strani države ali subjekta se konča z začetkom veljavnosti tega sporazuma za navedeno državo ali subjekt ali ob pisnem obvestilu depozitarju s strani te države ali subjekta glede namena, da prekine začasno uporabo.
Člen 42
Pridržki in izjeme
Ta sporazum ne priznava nikakršnih zadržkov in izjem.
Člen 43
Izjave
Člen 42 ne preprečuje državi ali subjektu, da pri podpisovanju, ratificiranju Sporazuma ali pristopanju k njemu, da izjave, kakorkoli že so oblikovane ali poimenovane, z namenom, med drugim, usklajevanja svojih zakonov in predpisov z določbami tega sporazuma, če takšne izjave nimajo namena izničenja ali spremembe pravnega učinka določb tega sporazuma pri njihovi uporabi za navedeno državo ali subjekt.
Člen 44
Razmerje do drugih sporazumov
1. Ta sporazum ne spreminja pravic in obveznosti držav pogodbenic, ki izhajajo iz drugih sporazumov, združljivih s tem sporazumom, in ki ne vplivajo na uživanje pravic drugih držav pogodbenic ali izpolnjevanje njihovih dolžnosti, izhajajočih iz tega sporazuma.
2. Dve ali več držav pogodbenic lahko sklene sporazume, ki spreminjajo ali začasno ukinjajo izvajanje določb tega sporazuma in ki se uporabljajo samo za njihove medsebojne odnose, če se takšni sporazumi ne nanašajo na odstopanje od odločb, nezdružljivo z učinkovitim uresničevanjem cilja in namena tega sporazuma, in če takšni sporazumi poleg tega ne vplivajo na uporabo njegovih osnovnih načel in če določbe takšnih sporazumov ne zadevajo uživanja pravic drugih držav pogodbenic ali izpolnjevanja njihovih obveznosti, izhajajočih iz tega sporazuma.
3. Države pogodbenice, ki nameravajo skleniti sporazum iz dostavka 2, obvestijo druge države pogodbenice prek depozitarja tega sporazuma o svojem namenu, da sklenejo sporazum, ter o spremembi ali odložitvi izvajanja, ki ga to prinaša.
Člen 45
Sprememba
1. Država pogodbenica lahko prek pisnega sporočila, naslovljenega na generalnega sekretarja Združenih narodov, predlaga spremembe tega sporazuma in zaprosi za sklic konference, na kateri bi proučili takšne predlagane spremembe. Generalni sekretar razpošlje to sporočilo vsem državam pogodbenicam. Če v šestih mesecih od datuma razpošiljanja sporočila najmanj polovica držav pogodbenic odgovori na prošnjo pozitivno, generalni sekretar skliče konferenco.
2. Postopek odločanja, ki se uporablja na amandmajski konferenci, sklicani v skladu z odstavkom 1, je enak tistemu, ki se uporablja na Konferenci Združenih narodov o čezconskih staležih rib ali izrazito selivskih staležih rib, razen če se na konferenci ne odloči drugače. Na konferenci si je treba vsestransko prizadevati za dogovor glede vseh sprememb s konsenzom in o njih se ne glasuje, dokler niso izčrpani vsi napori glede konsenza.
3. Ko se spremembe enkrat sprejme, so državam pogodbenicam na voljo za podpis na sedežu Združenih narodov še 12 mesecev po datumu sprejetja, razen če ni drugače določeno v sami spremembi.
4. Členi 38, 39, 47 in 50 se uporabljajo za vse spremembe tega sporazuma.
5. Spremembe tega sporazuma začnejo za države pogodbenice, ki jih ratificirajo ali pristopajo k njim, veljati na 30. dan po depozitu listin o ratifikaciji ali pristopu dveh tretjin držav pogodbenic. Zatem začne za vsako državo pogodbenico, ki ratificira spremembo ali pristopa k njej po depozitiranju zahtevanega števila takšnih listin, sprememba veljati 30. dan po depozitu njenih listin o ratifikaciji ali pristopu.
6. Sprememba lahko predvidi zahtevo po manjšem ali večjem številu ratifikacij ali pristopov, kakor je zahtevano v tem členu.
7. Država, ki postane pogodbenica tega sporazuma po začetku veljavnosti sprememb v skladu z odstavkom 5, če navedena država ne izrazi drugačnih namenov:
(a) se obravnava kot pogodbenica tako spremenjenega sporazuma;
(b) se obravnava kot pogodbenica nespremenjenega sporazuma v odnosu do vsake države pogodbenice, ki je sprememba ne zavezuje.
Člen 46
Odpoved
1. Država pogodbenica se lahko s pisnim obvestilom, naslovljenim na generalnega sekretarja Združenih narodov, odpove temu sporazumu in lahko navede svoje razloge. Če razlogov ne navede, to ne vpliva na veljavnost odpovedi. Odpoved začne veljati eno leto po datumu sprejema obvestila, razen če v obvestilu ni naveden poznejši datum.
2. Odpoved nikakor ne vpliva na obveznost katere koli države pogodbenice izpolnjevanja vseh obvez iz tega sporazuma, ki bi jih morala izpolnjevati po mednarodnem pravu ne glede na ta sporazum.
Člen 47
Udeležba mednarodnih organizacij
1. Kadar mednarodna organizacija iz člena 1 Priloge IX h Konvenciji ni usposobljena za vse zadeve, ki jih ureja ta sporazum, se Priloga IX h Konvenciji uporablja s potrebnimi spremembami za udeležbo takšne mednarodne organizacije v tem sporazumu, ne uporabljajo pa se naslednje določbe navedene priloge:
(a) člen 2, prvi stavek;
(b) člen 3(1).
2. Kadar je mednarodna organizacija iz člena 1 Priloge IX h Konvenciji usposobljena za vse zadeve, ki jih ureja ta sporazum, se za udeležbo takšne mednarodne organizacije v tem sporazumu uporabljajo naslednje določbe:
(a) pri podpisu ali pristopu takšna mednarodna organizacija poda izjavo, v kateri zagotavlja:
(i) da je usposobljena za vse zadeve, ki jih ureja ta sporazum;
(ii) da zato njene države članice ne smejo postati države pogodbenice, kar ne velja za njihova območja, za katera mednarodna organizacija ni odgovorna;
(iii) da sprejema pravice in obveznosti podpisnic tega sporazuma;
(b) udeležba takšne mednarodne organizacije nikakor ne daje nobenih pravic iz tega sporazuma državam članicam mednarodne organizacije;
(c) pri križanju obveznosti mednarodne organizacije iz tega sporazuma in njenih obveznosti iz sporazuma o njeni ustanovitvi ali katerega koli akta, izhajajočega iz njega, prevladajo obveznosti iz tega sporazuma.
Člen 48
Priloge
1. Priloge so sestavni del tega sporazuma in, razen če ni izrecno predvideno drugače, sklicevanje na ta sporazum ali na katerega od njegovih delov vključuje tudi sklicevanje na priloge, ki se nanašajo nanj.
2. Države pogodbenice lahko včasih pregledajo priloge. Takšni pregledi temeljijo na znanstvenih in strokovnih obravnavah. Če je takšen pregled sprejet s soglasjem na sestanku držav pogodbenic, se ne glede na določbe iz člena 45 vključi v ta sporazum in začne veljati na dan njegovega sprejetja ali na kateri drugi dan, določen v pregledu. Če se pregled priloge ne sprejme sporazumno na takšnem sestanku, se uporabljajo postopki sprejemanja, določeni v členu 45.
Člen 49
Depozitar
Depozitar za ta sporazum in vse njegove spremembe ali preglede je generalni sekretar Združenih narodov.
Člen 50
Verodostojna besedila
Arabsko, kitajsko, angleško, francosko, rusko in špansko besedilo tega sporazuma so enako verodostojna. Spodaj podpisani pooblaščenci, pravilno pooblaščeni za to, so podpisali ta sporazum v prisotnosti prič.
Na voljo za podpis v New Yorku na četrti dan decembra tisoč devetsto petindevetdeset, v enem izvirniku v arabščini, kitajščini, angleščini, francoščini, ruščini in španščini.
Priloga I
STANDARDNE ZAHTEVE ZA ZBIRANJE IN SKUPNO UPORABO PODATKOV
Člen 1
Splošna načela
1. Pravočasno zbiranje, urejanje in analiza podatkov so nujni pogoji za učinkovito ohranjanje in upravljanje čezconskih staležev rib ali izrazito selivskih staležev rib. Zato so potrebni podatki o ribištvu teh staležev na odprtem morju in v območjih državne jurisdikcije, ki jih je treba zbirati in pripraviti tako, da omogočajo statistično smiselno analizo za namene ohranjanja in upravljanja ribolovnih virov. Ti podatki vključujejo statistiko o ulovu in ribiškem naporu ter druge podatke, povezane z ribištvom, kakor so podatki glede plovila in drugi podatki za standardiziranje ribiškega napora. Zbrani podatki naj zaobsegajo tudi neciljne in pridružene ali odvisne vrste. Vse podatke je treba preveriti, s čimer se zagotovi njihova točnost. Ohranja se zaupnost neagregatnih podatkov. Razširjanje podatkov je podvrženo pogojem, pod katerimi so bili pridobljeni.
2. Pomoč, vključno z usposabljanjem ter finančno in strokovno pomočjo, se zagotovi državam v razvoju za vzpostavljanje zmožnosti na področju ohranjanja in upravljanja živih morskih virov. Pomoč je namenjena predvsem krepitvi zmožnosti za zbiranje in preverjanje podatkov, programe opazovanja, analizo podatkov in raziskovalne projekte, ki podpirajo oceno staležev. Spodbujati je treba kar največjo vključenost znanstvenikov in upravljavcev iz države v razvoju v ohranjanje in upravljanje čezconskih staležev rib in izrazito selivskih staležev rib.
Člen 2
Načela zbiranja, urejanja in izmenjave podatkov
Pri določanju parametrov za zbiranje, urejanje in izmenjavo podatkov o ribolovnih delovanjih za čezconske staleže rib in izrazito selivske staleže rib je treba upoštevati naslednja splošna načela:
(a) države naj zagotovijo, da se podatki o ribolovni aktivnosti plovil pod njihovo zastavo zbirajo glede na značilnosti posameznega načina ribolova (npr. vsak posamezen izvlek mreže, vsak met parangala in zaporne plavarice, vsak ulov z ribiško palico in vsak dan ribolova s panulo) in da so dovolj podrobni za učinkovito oceno staležev;
(b) države naj zagotovijo, da se ribiški podatki preverijo s primernim sistemom;
(c) države naj pripravijo podatke, povezane z ribištvom, in druge podporne znanstvene podatke ter jih v dogovorjeni obliki in pravočasno posredujejo ustrezni podobmočni ali območni ribiški upravljavski organizaciji ali dogovoru, če obstaja. Sicer naj države sodelujejo pri izmenjavi podatkov, bodisi neposredno ali prek drugačnih mehanizmov sodelovanja, za katere so se medsebojno sporazumele;
(d) države naj se v okviru podobmočnih ali območnih ribiških upravljavskih organizacij ali dogovorov, ali kako drugače, dogovorijo glede opredelitve podatkov in oblike, v kateri jih je treba posredovati, v skladu s to prilogo in ob upoštevanju vrste staležev in ribištev teh staležev v območju. Takšne organizacije ali dogovori naj zaprosijo nečlanice ali neudeleženke, da zagotovijo podatke glede ustreznih ribolovnih aktivnosti plovil pod njihovo zastavo;
(e) takšne organizacije ali dogovori pripravijo podatke ter jih pravočasno in v dogovorjeni obliki dajo na voljo vsem zainteresiranim državam pod pogoji, izoblikovanimi v okviru organizacije ali dogovora; in
(f) znanstveniki države zastave ter ustrezne podobmočne ali območne ribiške upravljavske organizacije ali dogovora naj analizirajo podatke posamezno ali skupaj, kakor je primerno.
Člen 3
Osnovni ribiški podatki
1. Države zbirajo in dajo na voljo ustrezni podobmočni ali območni ribiški upravljavski organizaciji ali dogovoru naslednje vrste dovolj natančnih podatkov, s čimer omogočijo učinkovito oceno staležev v skladu z dogovorjenimi postopki:
(a) časovni razpored ulova ter statistika napora ribištva in flote;
(b) celotni ulov, izražen v številu, nominalni masi ali obojem, po vrstah (ciljnih in neciljnih), kakor je primerno za vsako ribištvo. (Organizacija Združenih narodov za prehrano in kmetijstvo opredeljuje nominalno maso kot ustreznico žive mase iztovarjanj);
(c) statistiko zavržkov, vključno z ocenami, kadar je to potrebno, izraženimi v številu ali nominalni masi po vrstah, kakor je primerno za vsako ribištvo;
(d) statistika napora, primerna posameznemu načinu ribolova;
(e) kraj, datum in čas ribolova ter druge statistične podatke o ribolovnem delovanju, kakor je primerno.
2. Države tudi zbirajo, kjer je primerno, in posredujejo ustrezni podobmočni ali območni ribiški upravljavski organizaciji ali dogovoru podatke, s katerimi podpirajo oceno staležev, vključno z:
(a) sestavo ulova glede na dolžino, maso in spol;
(b) drugimi biološkimi podatki, ki podpirajo oceno staležev, kakor so podatki o starosti, rasti, pridobivanju, porazdelitvi in identiteti staležev;
(c) drugimi ustreznimi raziskavami, vključno s pregledi številčnosti, pregledi biomase, hidro-akustičnimi pregledi, raziskavami o okoljskih dejavnikih, ki vplivajo na velikost staležev, ter oceanografskimi in ekološkimi raziskavami.
Člen 4
Podatki o plovilu
1. Države naj zbirajo naslednje vrste podatkov v zvezi s plovili za standardizacijo sestave flote in ribolovno moč plovil ter za pretvarjanje med različnimi meritvami napora pri analizi ulova podatkov o naporu:
(a) identifikacija plovila, zastava in pristanišče vpisa;
(b) tip plovila;
(c) specifikacije plovila (npr. konstrukcijski material, datum izdelave, registrska dolžina, bruto registrska tonaža, moč glavnih motorjev, zmogljivost skladiščenja in način skladiščenja ulova);
(d) opis ribolovnega orodja (npr. vrste, specifikacije orodja in količina).
2. Država zastave zbere naslednje podatke:
(a) pripomočki za plovbo in določanje položaja;
(b) komunikacijska oprema in mednarodni radijski razpoznavni znak;
(c) število posadke.
Člen 5
Poročanje
Država zagotovi, da plovilo pod njeno zastavo pošlje svoji državni upravi za ribištvo in, kadar je tako dogovorjeno, ustrezni ribiški podobmočni ali območni upravljavski organizaciji ali dogovoru podatke iz ladijskega dnevnika o ulovu in naporu, vključno s podatki o ribolovnem delovanju na odprtem morju, in sicer dovolj pogosto, da ugodi nacionalnim zahtevam ter območnim in mednarodnim obveznostim. Takšni podatki se pošiljajo, kadar je treba, prek radia, teleksa, faksa ali satelitskega prenosa ali prek drugih sredstev.
Člen 6
Preverjanje podatkov
Države ali, kjer je to primerno, podobmočne ali območne ribiške upravljavske organizacije ali dogovori naj izoblikujejo mehanizme za preverjanje podatkov, na primer:
(a) preverjanje položaja prek sistema spremljanja plovil;
(b) znanstvene programe opazovanja, s katerimi se spremlja ulov, napor, sestava ulova (ciljni in neciljni) ter druge podrobnosti ribolovnega delovanja;
(c) poročila o potovanju plovila, iztovarjanjih in pretovarjanjih;
(d) vzorčenje v pristanišču.
Člen 7
Izmenjava podatkov
1. Podatke, ki jih zberejo države zastave, je treba deliti z drugimi državami zastave ter ustreznimi obalnimi državami prek ustreznih podobmočnih ali območnih ribiških upravljavskih organizacij ali dogovorov. Takšne organizacije ali dogovori pripravijo podatke ter jih pravočasno in v dogovorjeni obliki dajo na voljo vsem zainteresiranim državam pod pogoji, določenimi v okviru organizacije ali dogovori, pri čemer ohranjajo zaupnost neagregatnih podatkov in, kolikor je to mogoče, razvijajo podatkovne sisteme, ki zagotavljajo zadovoljiv dostop do podatkov.
2. Na globalni ravni naj zbiranje in razširjanje podatkov poteka prek Organizacije Združenih narodov za prehrano in kmetijstvo. Kjer ne obstaja podobmočna ali območna ribiška upravljavska organizacija ali dogovor, lahko navedena organizacija po dogovoru z zadevno državo opravlja enako nalogo na podobmočni ali območni ravni.
Priloga II
SMERNICE ZA UPORABO PREVIDNOSTNIH REFERENČNIH TOČK PRI OHRANJANJU IN UPRAVLJANU ČEZCONSKIH STALEŽEV RIB IN IZRAZITO SELIVSKIH STALEŽEV RIB
1. Previdnostna referenčna točka je ocenjena vrednost, izpeljana z dogovorjenim znanstvenim postopkom, ki ustreza državi vira in ribištva in ki se lahko uporablja kot vodilo pri upravljanju ribištva.
2. Uporabljati je treba dve vrsti previdnostnih referenčnih točk: referenčne točke ohranjanja ali mejne referenčne točke ter referenčne točke upravljanja ali ciljne referenčne točke. Mejne referenčne točke določijo meje, namenjene za zadrževanje ulova v območju varnih bioloških omejitev, v okviru katerih staleži lahko prinašajo največji trajnostni donos. Ciljne referenčne točke so namenjene zadovoljevanju ciljev upravljanja.
3. Previdnostne referenčne točke naj bodo prilagojene posameznim staležem ter naj med drugim upoštevajo njihovo reproduktivno sposobnost, sposobnost obnavljanja posameznega staleža ter značilnosti ribištva, ki izkorišča ta stalež, kakor tudi druge vire smrtnosti in večje vire negotovosti.
4. Strategije upravljanja si prizadevajo za ohranjanje ali obnovo populacij izkoriščanih staležev ter, kadar je to potrebno, povezanih in odvisnih vrst na ravneh, skladnih s prej dogovorjenimi previdnostnimi referenčnimi točkami. Takšne referenčne točke se uporabljajo za uvajanje predhodno dogovorjenih ukrepov ohranjanja in upravljanja. Strategije upravljanja vključujejo ukrepe, ki se jih lahko izvaja, ko se približa previdnostni referenčni točki.
5. Strategije upravljanja ribištva zagotovijo, da je tveganje za preseganje mejnih referenčnih točk zelo nizko. Če stalež pade pod mejno referenčno točko ali mu grozi, da bo padel pod mejno referenčno točko, je treba začeti izvajati ukrepe ohranjanja in upravljanja, ki omogočijo obnovo staleža. Strategije upravljanja ribištva zagotovijo, da ciljne referenčne točke v povprečju niso presežene.
6. Če so podatki za določanje referenčnih točk za določeno ribištvo pomanjkljivi ali jih ni, se določi začasna referenčna točka. Začasne referenčne točke se lahko določi po analogiji s podobnimi in bolje poznanimi staleži. V takšnih primerih je ribištvo podvrženo poostrenemu spremljanju, s čimer se zagotovi pregled začasnih referenčnih točk po pridobitvi boljših podatkov.
7. Ribolovno smrtnost, ki ustvari največji trajnostni donos, je treba obravnavati kot najnižji standard za mejne referenčne točke. Pri staležih, ki niso prelovljeni, strategije upravljanja ribištva zagotovijo, da ribolovna smrtnost ne preseže tiste, ki ustreza največjemu trajnostnemu donosu, in da biomasa ne pade pod predhodno določeno vrednost praga. Pri prelovljenih staležih se lahko biomasa, ki bi proizvedla največji trajnostni donos, uporablja za ciljno vrednost obnovitve.
3. člen
Ob predložitvi listine o ratifikaciji sporazuma Republika Slovenija poda naslednji izjavi, ki se v slovenskem jeziku glasita:
 
Izjava
Republika Slovenija ob deponiranju listine o ratifikaciji Sporazuma o uporabi določb Konvencije Združenih narodov o pomorskem mednarodnem pravu z dne 10. decembra 1982 glede ohranjanja in upravljanja čezconskih staležev rib in izrazito selivskih staležev rib izjavlja, da je kot država članica Evropske skupnosti na Skupnost prenesla naslednje pristojnosti v zvezi z zadevami, ki jih ureja sporazum in sicer:
I. ZADEVE, ZA KATERE JE SKUPNOST IZRECNO PRISTOJNA
1. Države članice so na Skupnost prenesle pristojnost za ohranjanje in upravljanje živih morskih virov. Zato mora za to področje Skupnost sprejeti ustrezna pravila in uredbe (ki jih izvajajo države članice) in je pristojna za sklepanje zunanjih poslov s tretjimi državami ali pristojnimi organizacijami. Ta pristojnost se uporablja za vode pod državno ribiško jurisdikcijo in za odprto morje.
2. Skupnost uživa regulativno pristojnost, ki jo mednarodno pravo podeljuje državi zastave plovila, za določanje ukrepov ohranjanja in upravljanja za morske ribolovne vire, ki se uporabljajo za plovila pod zastavo držav članic, in za zagotavljanje, da države članice sprejmejo določbe, ki omogočajo izvajanje navedenih ukrepov.
3. Kljub temu so ukrepi, ki se uporabljajo za poveljnike in druge častnike ribiških plovil, na primer za zavrnitev, začasni preklic ali prepoved opravljanja njihovih nalog, v pristojnosti držav članic v skladu z njihovo nacionalno zakonodajo. Ukrepi, ki se nanašajo na izvajanje zakonodaje države zastave za njena plovila na odprtem morju, zlasti na določbe, kakor so tiste glede prevzema in prepuščanja nadzora nad ribiškimi plovili s strani držav, ki niso države zastave, mednarodnega sodelovanja pri izvajanju in vnovičnem prevzemu nadzora nad njihovimi plovili, so v pristojnosti držav članic v skladu z zakonodajo Skupnosti.
II. ZADEVE, KI SO V PRISTOJNOSTI SKUPNOSTI IN NJENIH DRŽAV ČLANIC
Skupnost si deli pristojnost s svojimi državami članicami glede naslednjih zadev, ki jih ureja ta sporazum: zahteve držav v razvoju, znanstvene raziskave, ukrepi pristaniških držav in ukrepi, sprejeti za nečlanice območnih ribiških organizacij in nepogodbenice Sporazuma.
Naslednje določbe Sporazuma se nanašajo na Skupnost in njene države članice:
– splošne določbe: (členi 1, 4 in 34 do 50),
– reševanje sporov: (Del VIII).
 
Interpretativna izjava:
1. Republika Slovenija razume, da izrazi "geografske posebnosti", "posebne značilnosti podobmočja ali območja", "socialno-ekonomski geografski in okoljski dejavniki", "naravne lastnosti navedenega morja" in drugi podobni izrazi, ki se uporabljajo v zvezi z geografskim območjem, ne ogrožajo pravic in dolžnosti držav, izhajajočih iz mednarodnega prava.
2. Republika Slovenija razume, da se nobene določbe tega sporazuma ne da razlagati tako, da bi bila v nasprotju z načelom svobode na odprtem morju, ki ga priznava mednarodno pravo.
3. Republika Slovenija razume, da izraz "države, katerih državljani lovijo na odprtem morju", ne prinaša nikakršnih razlogov za jurisdikcijo, ki bi temeljila na nacionalnosti oseb, ki sodelujejo v ribolovu na odprtem morju, ne pa na načelu jurisdikcije države zastave.
4. Sporazum nobeni državi ne zagotavlja pravice, da bi ohranjala ali uporabljala enostranske ukrepe med prehodnim obdobjem iz člena 21(3). Tako države v primeru, da ni bil dosežen nikakršen dogovor, delujejo samo v skladu z določbami členov 21 in 22 Sporazuma.
5. Pri uporabi člena 21 Republika Slovenija razume, da v primeru, ko država zastave razglasi, da namerava v skladu z določbami člena 19 uveljavljati svojo oblast nad plovilom pod njeno zastavo, organi države inšpekcije ne poskušajo več uveljavljati oblasti nad takšnim plovilom v skladu s členom 21. Vse spore, ki izhajajo iz tega, se reši v skladu s postopki, določenimi v Delu VIII Sporazuma. Nobena država ne more sprožiti te vrste spora, da bi ohranila nadzor nad plovilom, ki ne pluje pod njeno zastavo. Poleg tega Republika Slovenija meni, da je treba besedo "nezakonito" v členu 21(18) Sporazuma razlagati glede na celoten Sporazum ter zlasti člena 4 in 35 Sporazuma.
6. Republika Slovenija ponavlja, da se morajo države v medsebojnih odnosih vzdržati uporabe sile v skladu s splošnimi načeli mednarodnega prava, Ustanovne listine Združenih narodov in Konvencije Združenih narodov o pomorskem mednarodnem pravu. Poleg tega Republika Slovenija poudarja, da je uporaba sile iz člena 22 izjemen ukrep, ki mora temeljiti na najstrožji skladnosti z načelom sorazmernosti, in da kakršna koli njegova zloraba zajema obveznosti do tujine države inšpekcije. Vse primere neskladnosti se rešuje z mirnimi sredstvi ter v skladu z ustreznimi postopki za reševanje sporov. Poleg tega Republika Slovenija meni, da je treba ustrezne pogoje za vkrcanje in pregled podrobneje opredeliti v skladu z ustreznimi načeli mednarodnega prava v okviru ustreznih območnih in podobmočnih ribiških upravljavskih organizacij ali dogovorov.
7. Republika Slovenija razume, da se država zastave pri uporabi določb člena 21(6), (7) in (8) lahko opira na zahteve svojega pravnega sistema, ki njenim organom pregona omogoča diskretnost pri odločanju, ali bodo pri pregonu upoštevali vsa dejstva o primeru ali ne. Odločitve države zastave, ki temeljijo na takšnih zahtevah, se ne razlagajo kot opustitev odzivanja ali ukrepanja.
 
Potrditev izjave Evropske skupnosti
Republika Slovenija potrjuje izjavo, ki jo je ob ratifikaciji Sporazuma o uporabi določb Konvencije Združenih narodov o pomorskem mednarodnem pravu z dne 10. decembra 1982 glede ohranjanja in upravljanja čezconskih staležev rib in izrazito selivskih staležev rib, dala Evropska skupnost.
4. člen
Za izvajanje sporazuma skrbi Ministrstvo za kmetijstvo, gozdarstvo in prehrano.
5. člen
Ta zakon začne veljati petnajsti dan po objavi v Uradnem listu Republike Slovenije – Mednarodne pogodbe.
Št. 325-04/06-7/1
Ljubljana, dne 4. aprila 2006
EPA 746-IV
Predsednik
Državnega zbora
Republike Slovenije
France Cukjati, dr. med., l.r.

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