Uradni list

Številka 108
Uradni list RS, št. 108/2005 z dne 2. 12. 2005
Uradni list

Uradni list RS, št. 108/2005 z dne 2. 12. 2005

Kazalo

72. Zakon o ratifikaciji Protokola h Konvenciji iz leta 1979 o onesnaževanju zraka na velike razdalje preko meja glede nadzora nad emisijami dušikovih oksidov ali njihovih čezmejnih tokov (MPKOZV), stran 1373.

Na podlagi druge alinee prvega odstavka 107. člena in prvega odstavka 91. člena Ustave Republike Slovenije izdajam
U K A Z
o razglasitvi Zakona o ratifikaciji Protokola h Konvenciji iz leta 1979 o onesnaževanju zraka na velike razdalje preko meja glede nadzora nad emisijami dušikovih oksidov ali njihovih čezmejnih tokov (MPKOZV)
Razglašam Zakon o ratifikaciji Protokola h Konvenciji iz leta 1979 o onesnaževanju zraka na velike razdalje preko meja glede nadzora nad emisijami dušikovih oksidov ali njihovih čezmejnih tokov (MPKOZV), ki ga je sprejel Državni zbor Republike Slovenije na seji 29. septembra 2005.
Št. 001-22-90/05
Ljubljana, dne 7. oktobra 2005
dr. Janez Drnovšek l. r.
Predsednik
Republike Slovenije
Z A K O N
O RATIFIKACIJI PROTOKOLA H KONVENCIJI IZ LETA 1979 O ONESNAŽEVANJU ZRAKA NA VELIKE RAZDALJE PREKO MEJA GLEDE NADZORA NAD EMISIJAMI DUŠIKOVIH OKSIDOV ALI NJIHOVIH ČEZMEJNIH TOKOV (MPKOZV)
1. člen
Ratificira se Protokol h Konvenciji iz leta 1979 o onesnaževanju zraka na velike razdalje preko meja glede nadzora nad emisijami dušikovih oksidov ali njihovih čezmejnih tokov, sestavljen v Sofiji 31. oktobra 1988.
2. člen
Besedilo protokola se v izvirniku v angleškem jeziku ter v prevodu v slovenskem jeziku glasi:
P R O T O C O L
TO THE 1979 CONVENTION ON LONG-RANGE TRANSBOUNDARY AIR POLLUTION CONCERNING THE CONTROL OF EMISSIONS OF NITROGEN OXIDES OR THEIR TRANSBOUNDARY FLUXES
The Parties,
Determined to implement the Convention on Long-range Transboundary Air Pollution,
Concerned that present emissions of air pollutants are causing damage, in exposed parts of Europe and North America, to natural resources of vital environmental and economic importance,
Recalling that the Executive Body for the Convention recognized at its second session the need to reduce effectively the total annual emissions of nitrogen oxides from stationary and mobile sources or their transboundary fluxes by 1995, and the need on the part of other States that had already made progress in reducing these emissions to maintain and review their emission standards for nitrogen oxides,
Taking into consideration existing scientific and technical data on emissions, atmospheric movements and effects on the environment of nitrogen oxides and their secondary products, as well as on control technologies,
Conscious that the adverse environmental effects of emissions of nitrogen oxides vary among countries,
Determined to take effective action to control and reduce national annual emissions of nitrogen oxides or their transboundary fluxes by, in particular, the application of appropriate national emission standards to new mobile and major new stationary sources and the retrofitting of existing major stationary sources,
Recognizing that scientific and technical knowledge of these matters is developing and that it will be necessary to take such developments into account when reviewing the operation of this Protocol and deciding on further action,
Noting that the elaboration of an approach based on critical loads is aimed at the establishment of an effect-oriented scientific basis to be taken into account when reviewing the operation of this Protocol and at deciding on further internationally agreed measures to limit and reduce emissions of nitrogen oxides or their transboundary fluxes,
Recognizing that the expeditious consideration of procedures to create more favourable conditions for exchange of technology will contribute to the effective reduction of emissions of nitrogen oxides in the region of the Commission,
Noting with appreciation the mutual commitment undertaken by several countries to implement immediate and substantial reductions of national annual emissions of nitrogen oxides,
Acknowledging the measures already taken by some countries which have had the effect of reducing emissions of nitrogen oxides,
Have agreed as follows:
Article 1
Definitions
For the purposes of the present Protocol,
1. “Convention” means the Convention on Long-range Transboundary Air Pollution, adopted in Geneva on 13 November 1979;
2. “EMEP” means the Co-operative Programme for Monitoring and Evaluation of the Long-range Transmission of Air Pollutants in Europe;
3. “Executive Body” means the Executive Body for the Convention constituted under article 10, paragraph 1, of the Convention;
4. “Geographical scope of EMEP” means the area defined in article 1, paragraph 4, of the Protocol to the 1979 Convention on Long-range Transboundary Air Pollution on Long-term Financing of the Co-operative Programme for Monitoring and Evaluation of the Long-range Transmission of Air Pollutants in Europe (EMEP), adopted in Geneva on 28 September 1984;
5. “Parties” means, unless the context otherwise requires, the Parties to the present Protocol;
6. “Commission” means the United Nations Economic Commission for Europe;
7. “Critical load” means a quantitative estimate of the exposure to one or more pollutants below which significant harmful effects on specified sensitive elements of the environment do not occur according to present knowledge;
8. “Major existing stationary source” means any existing stationary source the thermal input of which is at least 100 MW;
9. “Major new stationary source” means any new stationary source the thermal input of which is at least 50 MW;
10. “Major source category” means any category of sources which emit or may emit air pollutants in the form of nitrogen oxides, including the categories described in the Technical Annex, and which contribute at least 10 per cent of the total national emissions of nitrogen oxides on an annual basis as measured or calculated in the first calendar year after the date of entry into force of the present Protocol, and every fourth year thereafter;
11. “New stationary source” means any stationary source the construction or substantial modification of which is commenced after the expiration of two years from the date of entry into force of this Protocol;
12. “New mobile source” means a motor vehicle or other mobile source which is manufactured after the expiration of two years from the date of entry into force of the present Protocol.
Article 2
Basic obligation
1. The Parties shall, as soon as possible and as a first step, take effective measures to control and/or reduce their national annual emissions of nitrogen oxides or their transboundary fluxes so that these, at the latest by 31 December 1994, do not exceed their national annual emissions of nitrogen oxides or transboundary fluxes of such emissions for the calendar year 1987 or any previous year to be specified upon signature of, or accession to, the Protocol, provided that in addition, with respect to any Party specifying such a previous year, its national average annual transboundary fluxes or national average annual emissions of nitrogen oxides for the period from 1 January 1987 to 1 January 1996 do not exceed its transboundary fluxes or national emissions for the calendar year 1987.
2. Furthermore, the Parties shall in particular, and no later than two years after the date of entry into force of the present Protocol:
(a) Apply national emissions standards to major new stationary sources and/or source categories, and to substantially modified stationary sources in major source categories, based on the best available technologies which are economically feasible, taking into consideration the Technical Annex;
(b) Apply national emission standards to new mobile sources in all major source categories based on the best available technologies which are economically feasible, taking into consideration the Technical Annex and the relevant decisions taken within the framework of the Inland Transport Committee of the Commission; and
(c) Introduce pollution control measures for major existing stationary sources, taking into consideration the Technical Annex and the characteristics of the plant, its age and its rate of utilization and the need to avoid undue operational disruption.
3. (a) The Parties shall, as a second step, commence negotiations, no later than six months after the date of entry into force of the present Protocol, on further steps to reduce national annual emissions of nitrogen oxides or transboundary fluxes of such emissions, taking into account the best available scientific and technological developments, internationally accepted critical loads and other elements resulting from the work programme undertaken under article 6.
(b) To this end, the Parties shall co-operate in order to establish:
(i) Critical loads;
(ii) Reductions in national annual emissions of nitrogen oxides or transboundary fluxes of such emissions as required to achieve agreed objectives based on critical loads; and
(iii) Measures and a time-table commencing no later than 1 January 1996 for achieving such reductions.
4. Parties may take more stringent measures than those required by the present article.
Article 3
Exchange of technology
1. The Parties shall, consistent with their national laws, regulations and practices, facilitate the exchange of technology to reduce emissions of nitrogen oxides, particularly through the promotion of:
(a) Commercial exchange of available technology;
(b) Direct industrial contacts and co-operation, including joint ventures;
(c) Exchange of information and experience; and
(d) Provision of technical assistance.
2. In promoting the activities specified in subparagraphs (a) to (d) above, the Parties shall create favourable conditions by facilitating contacts and co-operation among appropriate organizations and individuals in the private and public sectors that are capable of providing technology, design and engineering services, equipment or finance.
3. The Parties shall, no later than six months after the date of entry into force of the present Protocol, commence consideration of procedures to create more favourable conditions for the exchange of technology to reduce emissions of nitrogen oxides.
Article 4
Unleaded fuel
The Parties shall, as soon as possible and no later than two years after the date of entry into force of the present Protocol, make unleaded fuel sufficiently available, in particular cases as a minimum along main international transit routes, to facilitate the circulation of vehicles equipped with catalytic converters.
Article 5
Review process
1. The Parties shall regularly review the present Protocol, taking into account the best available scientific substantiation and technological development.
2. The first review shall take place no later than one year after the date of entry into force of the present Protocol.
Article 6
Work to be undertaken
The Parties shall give high priority to research and monitoring related to the development and application of an approach based on critical loads to determine, on a scientific basis, necessary reductions in emissions of nitrogen oxides. The Parties shall, in particular, through national research programmes, in the work plan of the Executive Body and through other co-operative programmes within the framework of the Convention, seek to:
(a) Identify and quantify effects of emissions of nitrogen oxides on humans, plant and animal life, waters, soils and materials, taking into account the impact on these of nitrogen oxides from sources other than atmospheric deposition;
(b) Determine the geographical distribution of sensitive areas;
(c) Develop measurements and model calculations including harmonized methodologies for the calculation of emissions, to quantify the long-range transport of nitrogen oxides and related pollutants;
(d) Improve estimates of the performance and costs of technologies for control of emissions of nitrogen oxides and record the development of improved and new technologies; and
(e) Develop, in the context of an approach based on critical loads, methods to integrate scientific, technical and economic data in order to determine appropriate control strategies.
Article 7
National programmes, policies and strategies
The Parties shall develop without undue delay national programmes, policies and strategies to implement the obligations under the present Protocol that shall serve as a means of controlling and reducing emissions of nitrogen oxides or their transboundary fluxes.
Article 8
Information exchange and annual reporting
1. The Parties shall exchange information by notifying the Executive Body of the national programmes, policies and strategies that they develop in accordance with article 7 and by reporting to it annually on progress achieved under, and any changes to, those programmes, policies and strategies, and in particular on:
(a) The levels of national annual emissions of nitrogen oxides and the basis upon which they have been calculated;
(b) Progress in applying national emission standards required under article 2, subparagraphs 2 (a) and 2 (b), and the national emission standards applied or to be applied, and the sources and/or source categories concerned;
(c) Progress in introducing the pollution control measures required under article 2, subparagraph 2 (c), the sources concerned and the measures introduced or to be introduced;
(d) Progress in making unleaded fuel available;
(e) Measures taken to facilitate the exchange of technology; and
(f) Progress in establishing critical loads.
2. Such information shall, as far as possible, be submitted in accordance with a uniform reporting framework.
Article 9
Calculations
EMEP shall, utilizing appropriate models and in good time before the annual meetings of the Executive Body, provide to the Executive Body calculations of nitrogen budgets and also of transboundary fluxes and deposition of nitrogen oxides within the geographical scope of EMEP. In areas outside the geographical scope of EMEP, models appropriate to the particular circumstances of Parties to the Convention therein shall be used.
Article 10
Technical annex
The Technical Annex to the present Protocol is recommendatory in character. It shall form an integral part of the Protocol.
Article 11
Amendments to the Protocol
1. Any Party may propose amendments to the present Protocol.
2. Proposed amendments shall be submitted in writing to the Executive Secretary of the Commission who shall communicate them to all Parties. The Executive Body shall discuss the proposed amendments at its next annual meeting provided that these proposals have been circulated by the Executive Secretary to the Parties at least ninety days in advance.
3. Amendments to the Protocol, other than amendments to its Technical Annex, shall be adopted by consensus of the Parties present at a meeting of the Executive Body, and shall enter into force for the Parties which have accepted them on the ninetieth day after the date on which two-thirds of the Parties have deposited their instruments of acceptance thereof. Amendments shall enter into force for any Party which has accepted them after two-thirds of the Parties have deposited their instruments of acceptance of the amendment, on the ninetieth day after the date on which that Party deposited its instrument of acceptance of the amendments.
4. Amendments to the Technical Annex shall be adopted by consensus of the Parties present at a meeting of the Executive Body and shall become effective thirty days after the date on which they have been communicated in accordance with paragraph 5 below.
5. Amendments under paragraphs 3 and 4 above shall, as soon as possible after their adoption, be communicated by the Executive Secretary to all Parties.
Article 12
Settlement of disputes
If a dispute arises between two or more Parties as to the interpretation or application of the present Protocol, they shall seek a solution by negotiation or by any other method of dispute settlement acceptable to the parties to the dispute.
Article 13
Signature
1. The present Protocol shall be open for signature at Sofia from 1 November 1988 until 4 November 1988 inclusive, then at the Headquarters of the United Nations in New York until 5 May 1989, by the member States of the Commission as well as States having consultative status with the Commission, pursuant to paragraph 8 of Economic and Social Council resolution 36 (IV) of 28 March 1947, and by regional economic integration organizations, constituted by sovereign States members of the Commission, which have competence in respect of the negotiation, conclusion and application of international agreements in matters covered by the Protocol, provided that the States and organizations concerned are Parties to the Convention.
2. In matters within their competence, such regional economic integration organizations shall, on their own behalf, exercise the rights and fulfill the responsibilities which the present Protocol attributes to their member States. In such cases, the member States of these organizations shall not be entitled to exercise such rights individually.
Article 14
Ratification, acceptance, approval and accession
1. The present Protocol shall be subject to ratification, acceptance or approval by Signatories.
2. The present Protocol shall be open for accession as from 6 May 1989 by the States and organizations referred to in article 13, paragraph 1.
3. A State or organization which accedes to the present Protocol after 31 December 1993 may implement articles 2 and 4 no later than 31 December 1995.
4. The instruments of ratification, acceptance, approval or accession shall be deposited with the Secretary-General of the United Nations, who will perform the functions of depositary.
Article 15
Entry into force
1. The present Protocol shall enter into force on the ninetieth day following the date on which the sixteenth instrument of ratification, acceptance, approval or accession has been deposited.
2. For each State and organization referred to in article 13, paragraph 1, which ratifies, accepts or approves the present Protocol or accedes thereto after the deposit of the sixteenth instrument of ratification, acceptance, approval, or accession, the Protocol shall enter into force on the ninetieth day following the date of deposit by such Party of its instrument of ratification, acceptance, approval, or accession.
Article 16
Withdrawal
At any time after five years from the date on which the present Protocol has come into force with respect to a Party, that Party may withdraw from it by giving written notification to the depositary. Any such withdrawal shall take effect on the ninetieth day following the date of its receipt by the depositary, or on such later date as may be specified in the notification of the withdrawal.
Article 17
Authentic texts
The original of the present Protocol, of which the English, French and Russian texts are equally authentic, shall be deposited with the Secretary-General of the United Nations.
IN WITNESS WHEREOF the undersigned, being duly authorized thereto, have signed the present Protocol.
DONE at Sofia this thirty-first day of October one thousand nine hundred and eighty-eight.
TECHNICAL ANNEX
1. Information regarding emission performance and costs is based on official documentation of the Executive Body and its subsidiary bodies, in particular documents EB.AIR/WG.3/R.8, R.9 and R.16, and ENV/WP.1/R.86, and Corr.1, as reproduced in chapter 7 of Effects and Control of transboundary Air pollution.(*/) Unless otherwise indicated, the technologies listed are considered to be well established on the basis of operational experience.(**/)
2. The information contained in this annex is incomplete. Because experience with new engines and new plants incorporating low emission technology as well as with retrofitting existing plants, is continuously expanding, regular elaboration and amendment of the annex will be necessary. The annex cannot be an exhaustive statement of technical options; its aim is to provide guidance for the Parties in identifying economically feasible technologies for giving effect to the obligations of the Protocol.
I. CONTROL TECHNOLOGIES FOR NOx EMISSIONS FROM STATIONARY SOURCES
3. Fossil fuel combustion is the main stationary source of anthropogenic NOx emissions. In addition, some non-combustion processes can contribute relevant NOx emissions.
4. Major stationary source categories of NOx emissions may include:
(a) Combustion plants;
(b) Industrial process furnaces (e.g. cement manufacture);
(c) Stationary gas turbines and internal combustion engines; and
(d) Non-combustion processes (e.g. nitric acid production).
5. Technologies for the reduction of NOx emissions focus on certain combustion/process modification, and, especially for large power plant, on fuel gas treatment.
6. For retrofitting of existing plant, the extent of application of low-NOx technologies may be limited by negative operational side-effects or by other site-specific constraints. In the case of retrofitting, therefore, only approximate estimates are given for typically achievable NOx emission valnes. For new plants, negative side-effects can be minimized or excluded by appropriate design features.
7. According to currently available data, the costs of combustion modifications can be considered as small for new plants. However, in the case of retrofitting, for instance at large power plants, they ranged from about 8 to 25 Swiss francs per kW(el) (in 1985). As a rule, investment costs of flue gas treatment systems are considerably higher.
8. For stationary sources, emission factors are expressed in milligrams of NO(2) per normal (0°C, 1013 mb) cubic metre (mg/m3), dry basis.
Combustion plants
9. The category of combustion plants comprises fossil fuel combustion in furnaces, boilers, indirect heaters and other combustion facilities with a heat input larger than 10 MW, without mixing the combustion flue gases with other effluents or treated materials. The following combustion technologies, either singly or in combination, are available for new existing installations:
(a) Low-temperature design of the firebox, including fluidized bed combustion;
(b) Low excess-air operation;
(c) Installation of special low-NOx burners;
(d) Flue gas recirculation into the combustion air;
(e) Staged combustion/overfire-air operation; and
(f) Reburning (fuel staging)(***/)
Performance standards that can be achieved are summarized in table 1.
10. Flue gas treatment by selective catalytic reduction (SCR) is an additional NOx emission reduction measure with efficiencies of up to 80 per cent and more. Considerable operational experience from new and retrofitted installations is now being obtained within the region of the Commission, in particular for power plants larger than 300 MW (thermal). When combined with combustion modifications, emission values of 200 mg/m3 (solid fuels, 6% O(2)) and 150 mg/m3 (liquid fuels, 3% O(2)) can be easily met.
11. Selective non-catalytic reduction (SNCR), a flue gas treatment for a 20-60% NOx reduction, is a cheaper technology for special applications (e.g., refinery furnaces and base load gas combustion).
+---------------------------------------------------------------------------+
|Table 1: NOx performance standards (mg/m3), that can be achieved by        |
|combustion modifications                                                   |
+-----------------+--------------+------------+-----------------+-----+-----+
|                 |Plant type a/ |Uncontrolled| Existing plant  | New | 0(2)|
|                 |              | baseline   |   retrofit b/   |plant| (%) |
|                 |              |            |                 |     |     |
+-----------------+--------------+------------+-------+---------+-----+-----+
|                 |              |            | Range | Typical |     |     |
|                 |              |            |       |  value  |     |     |
+---------+-------+--------------+------------+-------+---------+-----+-----+
|Solid    |10 MW  |Grate         | 300 – 1    |   –   |   600   | 400 |  7  |
|Fuels    |c/ to  |Combustion    |   000      |       |         |     |     |
|         |300 MW |(coal)        |            |       |         |     |     |
|         |       |Fluidized Bed |            |       |         |     |     |
|         |       |              |            |   –   |     –   | 400 |  7  |
|         |       |Combustion    |300 – 600   |   –   |     –   | 200 |  7  |
|         |       |(i)           |150 – 300   |       |         |     |     |
|         |       |stationary    |            |       |         |     |     |
|         |       |(ii)          |            |600 – 1|   800   |< 600|  6  |
|         |       |circulating   | 700 – 1    |  100  |    –    | < 1 |  6  |
|         |       |Pulverized    |   700      |1 000 –|         | 000 |     |
|         |       |Coal          |1 000 – 2   | 1 400 |         |     |     |
|         |       |Combustion    |   300      |       |         |     |     |
|         |       |(i) dry       |            |       |         |     |     |
|         |       |bottom        |            |       |         |     |     |
|         |       |(ii) wet      |            |       |         |     |     |
|         |       |bottom        |            |       |         |     |     |
+---------+-------+--------------+------------+-------+---------+-----+-----+
|         |> 300  |Pulverized    |            |       |         |     |     |
|         |MW     |Coal          |            |       |         |     |     |
|         |       |Combustion    | 700 – 1    |600 – 1|     –   |< 600|  6  |
|         |       |(i) dry       |   700      |  100  |    –    | < 1 |  6  |
|         |       |bottom        |1 000 – 2   |1 000 –|         | 000 |     |
|         |       |(ii) wet      |   300      | 1 400 |         |     |     |
|         |       |bottom        |            |       |         |     |     |
+---------+-------+--------------+------------+-------+---------+-----+-----+
|Liquid   |10 MW  |Distillate    |     –      |   –   |   300   |   – |  3  |
|Fuels    |c/ to  |Oil           |            |       |         |     |     |
|         |300 MW |Combustion    | 500 – 1    | 200 – |   400   |   – |  3  |
|         |       |Residual Oil  |   400      |  400  |         |     |     |
|         |       |Combustion    |            |       |         |     |     |
+---------+-------+--------------+------------+-------+---------+-----+-----+
|         |> 300  |Residual Oil  | 500 – 1    | 200 – |    –    |  –  |  3  |
|         |MW     |Combustion    |   400      |  400  |         |     |     |
+---------+-------+--------------+------------+-------+---------+-----+-----+
|Gaseous  |10 MW  |              | 150 – 1    | 100 – |    –    |< 300|  3  |
|Fuels    |c/ to  |              |   000      |  300  |         |     |     |
|         |300 MW |              |            |       |         |     |     |
|         +-------+--------------+------------+-------+---------+-----+-----+
|         |> 300  |              | 250 – 1    | 100 – |    –    |< 300|  3  |
|         |MW     |              |   400      |  300  |         |     |     |
+---------+-------+--------------+------------+-------+---------+-----+-----+
a/ Capacity numbers refer to MW (thermal) heat input by fuel (lower heating value).
b/ Only approximate values can be given due to site specific factors and greater uncertainty for retrofitting of existing plant.
c/ For small (10 MW – 100 MW) plants a greater degree of uncertainty applies to all figures given.
 
Stationary gas turbines and internal combustion (IC) engines
12. NOx emissions from stationary gas turbines can be reduced either by combustion modification (dry control) or by water/steam injection (wet control). Both measures are well established. By these means, emission values of 150 mg/m³ (gas, 15% O(2)) and 300 mg/m3 (oil, 15% O(2)) can be met. Retrofit is possible.
13. NOx emissions from stationary spark ignition IC engines can be reduced either by combustion modifications (e.g., lean-burn and exhaust gas recirculation concepts) or by flue gas treatment (closed-loop 3-way catalytic converter, SCR). The technical and economic feasibility of these various processes depends on engine size, engine type (two stroke/four stroke), and engine operation mode (constant/varying load). The lean-burn concept is capable of meeting NOx emission values of 800 mg/m³ (5% O(2)), the SCR process reduces NOx emission well below 400 mg/m³ (5% O(2)), and the three-way catalytic converter reduces such emissions even below 200 mg/m³ (5% O(2)).
 
Industrial process furnaces – Cement calcination
14. The precalcination process is being evaluated within the region of the Commission as a possible technology with the potential for reducing NOx concentrations in the flue gas of new and existing cement calcination furnaces to about 300 mg/m³ (10% O(2)).
 
Non-combustion processes – Nitric acid production
15. Nitric acid production with a high pressure absorption (>8 bar) is capable of keeping NOx concentrations in undiluted effluents below 400 mg/m³. The same emission performance can be met by medium pressure absorption in combination with a SCR process or any other similar efficient NOx reduction process. Retrofit is possible.
II. CONTROL TECHNOLOGIES FOR NOx EMISSIONS FROM MOTOR VEHICLES
16. The motor vehicles considered in this annex are those used for road transport, namely: petrol-fuelled and diesel-fueled passenger cars, light-duty vehicles and heavy-duty vehicles. Appropriate reference is made, as necessary, to the specific vehicle categories (M(1), M(2), M(3), N(1), N(2), N(3)) defined in ECE Regulation No. 13 pursuant to the 1985 Agreement concerning the Adoption of Uniform Conditions of Approval and Reciprocal Recognition of Approval for Motor Vehicles Equipment and Parts.
17. Road transport is a major source of anthropogenic NOx emission in many Commission countries, contributing between 40 and 80 per cent of total national emissions. Typically petrol-fuelled vehicles contribute two-thirds of total road transport NOx emissions.
18. The technologies available for the control of nitrogen oxides from motor vehicles are summarized in tables 3 and 6. It is convenient to group the technologies by reference to existing or proposed national and international emission standards differing in stringency of control. Because current regulatory test cycles only reflect urban and metropolitan driving, the estimates of relative NOx emissions given below take account of higher speed driving where NOx emissions can be particularly important.
19. The additional production cost figures for the various technologies given in tables 3 and 6 are manufacturing cost estimates rather than retail prices.
20. Control of production conformity and in-use vehicle performance is important in ensuring that the reduction potential of emission standards is achieved in practice.
21. Technologies that incorporate or are based on the use of catalytic converters require unladed fuel. Free circulation of vehicles equipped with catalytic converters depends on the general availability of unleaded petrol.
 
Petrol- fuelled and diesel-fuelled passenger cars (M(1))
22. In table 2, four emission standards are summarized. These are used in table 3 to group the various engine technologies for petrol vehicles according to their NOx emission reduction potential.
Table 2: Definition of emission standards
+------------+-----------+--------------------------------------------------+
|Standard    |Limits     |Comments                                          |
+------------+-----------+--------------------------------------------------+
|A. ECE      |HC + NOx:  |Current ECE standard (Regulation No. 15,          |
|R.15-04     |19-28      |including the 04 series of amendments, pursuant   |
|            |g/test     |to the 1958 Agreement, referred to in paragraph   |
|            |           |16 above), also adopted by the European Economic  |
|            |           |Community (Directive 83/351/EEC). ECE R.15 urban  |
|            |           |test cycle. Emission limit varies with vehicle    |
|            |           |mass.                                             |
+------------+-----------+--------------------------------------------------+
|B.          |HC + NOx:  |Standards to be introduced during 1988 – 1993 in  |
|”Luxembourg |1.4-2.0 l: |the European Economic Community, as discussed at  |
|1985”       |8.0 g/test |the 1985 Luxembourg meeting of EEC Council of     |
|            |This       |Ministers and finally agreed upon in December     |
|            |standard   |1987. ECE R.15 urban test cycle applies. Standard |
|            |only used  |for engines > 2 l is generally equivalent to US   |
|            |to group   |1983 standard. Standard for engines < 1.4 l is    |
|            |technology |provisional, definite standard to be elaborated.  |
|            |(< 1.4 l:  |Standard for engines 1.4-2.0 applies to all       |
|            |15.0       |diesel cars > 1.4 l.                              |
|            |g/test;    |                                                  |
|            |> 2.0 l:   |                                                  |
|            |6.5 g/test)|                                                  |
|            |           |                                                  |
+------------+-----------+--------------------------------------------------+
|C.          |           |Standards for national legislation based on the   |
|”Stockholm  |           |“master document” developed after the 1985        |
|1985”       |           |Stockholm meeting of Environment Ministers from   |
|            |           |eight countries. Matching US 1987 standards, with |
|            |           |the following test procedures:                    |
+------------+-----------+--------------------------------------------------+
|            |NOx: 0.62  |US Federal Test Procedure (1975).                 |
|            |g/km       |                                                  |
|            |           |                                                  |
+------------+-----------+--------------------------------------------------+
|            |NOx: 0.76  |Highway fuel economy test procedure.              |
|            |g/km       |                                                  |
+------------+-----------+--------------------------------------------------+
|D.          |NOx: 0.25  |Standards to be introduced in the State of        |
|”California |g/km       |California United States from 1989, models        |
|1989”       |           |onwards. US Federal Test Procedure                |
|            |           |                                                  |
+------------+-----------+--------------------------------------------------+
Table 3: Petrol engine technologies, emission performance, costs and fuel consumption for emission standard levels
+--------+-----------------------+-------------+-------------+--------------+
|Standard|       Technology      | Composite a/|  Additional |     Fuel     |
|        |                       |NOx reduction|      b/     | consumption  |
|        |                       |     (%)     |  production |   index a/   |
|        |                       |             |     cost    |              |
|        |                       |             | (1986 Swiss |              |
|        |                       |             |   francs)   |              |
+--------+-----------------------+-------------+-------------+--------------+
| A.     |Baseline (Current      |     - c/    |      -      |     100      |
|        |conventional spark-    |             |             |              |
|        |ignition engine with   |             |             |              |
|        |carburettor)           |             |             |              |
+--------+-----------------------+-------------+-------------+--------------+
| B.     |(a) Fuel injection +   |      25     |     200     |     105      |
|        |EGR + secondary air d/ |             |             |              |
|        +-----------------------+-------------+-------------+--------------+
|        |(b) Open-loop three-way|      55     |     150     |     103      |
|        |catalyst (+EGR)        |             |             |              |
|        +-----------------------+-------------+-------------+--------------+
|        |(c) Lean-burn engine   |      60     |   200-600   |      90      |
|        |with oxidation catalyst|             |             |              |
|        |(+EGR) e/              |             |             |              |
|        |                       |             |             |              |
+--------+-----------------------+-------------+-------------+--------------+
| C.     |Closed-loop three-way  |      90     |   300-600   |      95      |
|        |catalyst               |             |             |              |
+--------+-----------------------+-------------+-------------+--------------+
| D.     |Closed-loop three-way  |      92     |   350-650   |      98      |
|        |catalyst (+EGR)        |             |             |              |
+--------+-----------------------+-------------+-------------+--------------+
a/ Composite NOx reduction and fuel combustion index estimates are for an average-weight European car operating under average European driving conditions.
b/ Additional production costs could be more realistically expressed as a percentage of the total car cost. However, since cost estimates are primarily for comparison in relative terms only, the formulation of the original documents has been retained.
c/ Composite NOx emission factor = 2.6 g/km.
d/ “EGR” means exhaust gas rec Circulation.
e/ Based entirely on data for experimental engines. Virtually no production of lean-burn engined vehicles exists.
23. The emission standards A, B, C and D include limits on hydrocarbon (HC) and carbon monoxide (CO) emissions as well as NOx. Estimates of emission reductions for the pollutants, relative to the baseline ECE R.15-04 case, are given in table 4.
Table 4: Estimated reduction in HC and CO emissions from petrol-fuelled passenger cars for different technologies
+--------+------------+------------+
|Standard|HC-reduction|CO-reduction|
|        |     (%)    |     (%)    |
+--------+------------+------------+
|   B.   | (a)  30-40 |     50     |
|        | (b)  50-60 |    40-50   |
|        | (c)  70-90 |    70-90   |
+--------+------------+------------+
|   C.   |     90     |     90     |
+--------+------------+------------+
|   D.   |     90     |     90     |
+--------+------------+------------+
24. Current diesel cars can meet the NOx emission requirements of standards A, B and C. Strict particulate emission requirements, together with the stringent NOx limits of standard D, imply that diesel passenger cars will require further development, probably including electronic control of the fuel pump, advanced fuel injection systems, exhaust gas recirculation and particulate traps. Only experimental vehicles exist to date. (See also table 6, footnote a/).
 
Other light-duty vehicles (N(1))
25. The control methods for passenger cars are applicable but NOx reductions, costs and commercial lead time factors may differ.
 
Heavy-duty petrol-fuelled vehicles (M(2), M(3), N(2), N(3))
26. This class of vehicle is insignificant in Western Europe and is decreasing in Eastern Europe. US 1990 and US 1991 NOx emission levels (see table 5) could be achieved at modest cost without significant technology advancement.
 
Heavy-duty diesel-fuelled vehicles (M(2), M(3), N(2), N(3))
27. In table 5, three emission standards are summarized. These are used in table 6 to group engine technologies for heavy-duty diesel vehicles according to NOx reduction potential. The baseline engine configuration is changing, with a trend away from naturally aspirated to turbo-charged engines. This trend has implications for improved baseline fuel consumption performance. Comparative estimates of consumption are therefore not included.
Table 5: Definition of emission standards
+-----------+-------+--------------+
|  Standard |  NOx  |   Comments   |
|           | limits|              |
|           |(g/kWh)|              |
+-----------+-------+--------------+
|I ECE R.49 |   18  |13 mode test  |
|           |       |              |
|           |       |              |
|II US-1990 |  8.0  |Transient test|
|III US-1991|  6.7  |Transient test|
+-----------+-------+--------------+
Table 6: Heavy-duty diesel engine technologies, emission performance, a/ and costs for emission standard levels
+--------+------------------------------------+-----------+-----------------+
|Standard|             Technology             |    NOx    |   Additional    |
|        |                                    | reduction | production cost |
|        |                                    |  estimate |   (1984 US$)    |
|        |                                    |    (%)    |                 |
+--------+------------------------------------+-----------+-----------------+
|I       |Current conventional direct         |     –     |        –        |
|        |injection diesel engine             |           |                 |
+--------+------------------------------------+-----------+-----------------+
|II b/   |Turbo-charging + after-cooling +    |     40    |    $115 ($69    |
|        |injection timing retard (Combustion |           | attributable to |
|        |chamber and port modification)      |           |NOx standard) c/ |
|        |(Naturally-aspirated engines are    |           |                 |
|        |unlikely to meet this standard)     |           |                 |
|        |                                    |           |                 |
+--------+------------------------------------+-----------+-----------------+
|III b/  |Further refinements of technologies |     50    |    $404 ($68    |
|        |listed under II together with       |           | attributable to |
|        |variable injection timing and use of|           |NOx standard) c/ |
|        |electronics                         |           |                 |
+--------+------------------------------------+-----------+-----------------+
a/ Deterioration in diesel fuel quality would adversely affect emission and may affect fuel consumption for both heavy and light duty vehicles.
b/ It is still necessary to verify on a large scale the availability of the new components.
c/ Particulate control and other considerations account for the balance.
(*/) Air Pollution Studies No. 4 (United Nations publication, Sales No. E.87.II.E.36).

(**/) It is at present difficult to provide reliable data on the costs of control technologies in absolute terms. For cost data included in the present annex, emphasis should therefore be placed on the relationships between the costs of different technologies rather than on absolute cost figures.

(***/) There is limited operational experience of this type of combustion technology.
P R O T O K O L
H KONVENCIJI IZ LETA 1979 O ONESNAŽEVANJU ZRAKA NA VELIKE RAZDALJE PREKO MEJA GLEDE NADZORA NAD EMISIJAMI DUŠIKOVIH OKSIDOV ALI NJIHOVIH ČEZMEJNIH TOKOV
Pogodbenice, ki
so odločene izvajati Konvencijo o onesnaževanju zraka na velike razdalje prek meja,
so zaskrbljene, ker sedanje emisije onesnaževal zraka v izpostavljenih delih Evrope in Severne Amerike povzročajo škodo naravnim virom bistvenega okoljskega in gospodarskega pomena,
upoštevajo, da je izvršilni organ Konvencije na svojem drugem zasedanju spoznal potrebo po učinkovitem zmanjšanju skupnih letnih emisij dušikovih oksidov iz nepremičnih in premičnih virov ali njihovih čezmejnih tokov do leta 1995, in potrebo drugih držav, ki so že dosegle napredek pri zmanjševanju teh emisij, po ohranitvi in ponovni preučitvi njihovih emisijskih standardov za dušikove okside,
upoštevajo obstoječe znanstvene in tehnične podatke o emisijah, gibanja ozračja in učinkih dušikovih oksidov in njihovih sekundarnih proizvodov na okolje, kot tudi o tehnologijah nadzora nad emisijami,
se zavedajo, da se škodljivi vplivi emisij dušikovih oksidov na okolje med državami razlikujejo,
so odločene sprejeti učinkovite ukrepe za nadzor in zmanjšanje nacionalnih letnih emisij dušikovih oksidov ali njihovih čezmejnih tokov, zlasti z uporabo primernih nacionalnih emisijskih standardov za nove premične in nove nepremične večje vire ter za rekonstrukcijo obstoječih večjih nepremičnih virov,
so spoznale, da se znanstvena in tehnična dognanja o teh zadevah razvijajo in da bo ta razvoj treba upoštevati pri preučevanju izvajanja tega protokola in odločanju o nadaljnjih aktivnostih,
upoštevajo, da je izdelava pristopa, ki temelji na kritičnih obremenitvah, namenjena vzpostavitvi učinkovitih znanstvenih podlag, ki jih je potrebno upoštevati pri preverjanju izvajanja tega protokola in odločanju o nadaljnjih mednarodno dogovorjenih ukrepih za omejitev in zmanjšanje emisij dušikovih oksidov ali njihovih čezmejnih tokov,
so spoznale, da bo hitra obravnava postopkov za vzpostavitev ugodnejših pogojev za izmenjavo tehnologije prispevala k učinkovitemu zmanjšanju emisij dušikovih oksidov v regijah Komisije,
z zadovoljstvom opažajo medsebojno obvezo več držav, da izvedejo takojšnja in znatna zmanjšanja nacionalnih letnih emisij dušikovih oksidov,
priznavajo že sprejete ukrepe nekaterih držav, s katerimi so bile zmanjšane emisije dušikovih oksidov
So se sporazumele o naslednjem:
Člen 1
Opredelitev pojmov
1. »Konvencija« pomeni Konvencijo o onesnaževanju zraka na velike razdalje prek meja, sprejeto v Ženevi 13. novembra 1979;
2. »EMEP« pomeni Program sodelovanja za spremljanje in oceno onesnaževanja zraka na velike razdalje v Evropi;
3. »izvršilni organ« pomeni izvršilni organ Konvencije, ustanovljen v skladu s prvim odstavkom 10. člena konvencije;
4. »zemljepisno območje EMEP« pomeni področje, opredeljeno v četrtem odstavku 1. člena Protokola h Konvenciji o onesnaževanju zraka na velike razdalje preko meja iz leta 1979 o dolgoročnem financiranju programa sodelovanja za spremljanje in oceno onesnaževanja zraka na velike razdalje v Evropi (EMEP), sprejetega v Ženevi 28. septembra 1984;
5. »pogodbenice« pomeni pogodbenice tega protokola, če pomen v besedilu ne zahteva drugače;
6. »Komisija« pomeni Evropsko ekonomsko komisijo Združenih narodov;
7. »kritična obremenitev« pomeni količinsko oceno izpostavljenosti enemu ali več onesnaževalom, pod mejo katere se glede na trenutna dognanja ne pojavljajo pomembni škodljivi učinki na občutljive elemente okolja;
8. »obstoječi večji nepremični vir« pomeni vsak večji nepremični vir z vhodno toplotno moč najmanj 100 MW;
9. »večji novi nepremični vir« pomeni vsak novi nepremični vir z vhodno toplotno močjo najmanj 50 MW;
10. »večja vrsta vira« pomeni vsako vrsto virov, ki oddaja ali bi lahko oddajala onesnaževala zraka v obliki dušikovih oksidov, vključno z vrstami iz tehnične priloge, in prispeva najmanj 10% skupnih nacionalnih emisij dušikovih oksidov letno, izmerjenih ali izračunanih v prvem koledarskem letu po datumu začetka veljavnosti tega protokola, nato pa vsaka štiri leta;
11. »novi nepremični vir« pomeni vsak nepremični vir, katerega gradnja ali bistvena sprememba se začne po izteku dveh let od datuma začetka veljavnosti tega protokola;
12. »novi premični vir« pomeni vsako motorno vozilo ali drug premični vir, ki se proizvede po izteku dveh let od datuma začetka veljavnosti tega protokola.
Člen 2
Temeljne obveznosti
1. Pogodbenice čim prej in najprej sprejmejo učinkovite ukrepe za kontrolo in/ali zmanjšanje svojih nacionalnih letnih emisij dušikovih oksidov ali njihovih čezmejnih tokov, tako da te, najpozneje do 31. decembra 1994, ne presežejo nacionalnih letnih emisij dušikovih oksidov ali čezmejnih tokov takšnih emisij za koledarsko leto 1987 ali katero koli drugo predhodno leto, ki se določi ob podpisu ali pristopu k Protokolu, pod pogojem da, če katera izmed pogodbenic določi takšno predhodno leto, povprečni nacionalni letni čezmejni tokovi te pogodbenice ali njene povprečne nacionalne letne emisije dušikovih oksidov za obdobje od 1. januarja 1987 do 1. januarja 1996 ne presežejo njenih čezmejnih tokov ali nacionalnih emisij za koledarsko leto 1987.
2. Poleg tega pogodbenice najpozneje dve leti po datumu začetka veljavnosti tega protokola zlasti:
(a) uporabljajo nacionalne emisijske standarde za večje nove nepremične vire in/ali kategorije virov ter bistveno spremenjene nepremične vire v glavnih kategorijah virov, na podlagi najboljših razpoložljivih in ekonomsko izvedljivih tehnologij, ob upoštevanju tehnične priloge;
(b) uporabljajo nacionalne emisijske standarde za nove premične vire v vseh glavnih kategorijah virov na podlagi najboljših razpoložljivih in ekonomsko izvedljivih tehnologij, ob upoštevanju tehnične priloge in ustreznih sklepov, sprejetih v okviru Odbora za notranji promet Komisije; in
(c) uvedejo ukrepe za kontrolo onesnaževanja za večje obstoječe nepremične vire ob upoštevanju tehnične priloge in značilnosti objekta, njegove starosti, stopnje uporabe in potrebe po preprečevanju neupravičenih motenj delovanja;
3. (a) Pogodbenice nato začnejo pogajanja, najpozneje šest mesecev po datumu začetka veljavnosti tega protokola, o nadaljnjih korakih za zmanjševanje nacionalnih letnih emisij dušikovih oksidov ali čezmejnih tokov takšnih emisij, ob upoštevanju najboljših razpoložljivih znanstvenih in tehnoloških dognanj, mednarodno sprejetih kritičnih obremenitev in drugih elementov, ki izhajajo iz delovnega programa, sprejetega v skladu s členom 6;
(b) V ta namen pogodbenice sodelujejo, da bi določile:
(i) kritične obremenitve;
(ii) zmanjšanja nacionalnih letnih emisij dušikovih oksidov ali čezmejnih tokov teh emisij, kot je potrebno za dosego dogovorjenih ciljev na podlagi kritičnih obremenitev, in
(iii) ukrepe in časovni razpored, ki se začne najpozneje 1. januarja 1996, za dosego teh zmanjšanj.
4. Pogodbenice lahko sprejmejo strožje ukrepe od tistih, ki jih zahteva ta člen.
Člen 3
Izmenjava tehnologije
1. Pogodbenice v skladu s svojo nacionalno zakonodajo, predpisi in prakso pospešijo izmenjavo tehnologije za zmanjšanje emisij dušikovih oksidov, zlasti s spodbujanjem:
(a) trgovinske menjave razpoložljive tehnologije;
(b) neposrednih industrijskih stikov in sodelovanja, vključno z mešanimi družbami;
(c) izmenjave informacij in izkušenj; ter
(d) zagotavljanja tehnične pomoči.
2. Pri spodbujanju dejavnosti iz pododstavkov (a) do (d) zgoraj pogodbenice ustvarjajo ugodne pogoje s pospeševanjem stikov in sodelovanja med ustreznimi organizacijami in posamezniki v zasebnem in javnem sektorju, ki lahko ponudijo tehnologijo, storitve oblikovanja in inženiringa, opremo ali finančna sredstva.
3. Pogodbenice najpozneje šest mesecev po datumu začetka veljavnosti tega protokola začnejo obravnavo postopkov, namenjenih ustvarjanju ugodnejših pogojev za izmenjavo tehnologije za zmanjševanje emisij dušikovih oksidov.
Člen 4
Neosvinčeno gorivo
Pogodbenice čim prej in najpozneje dve leti po datumu začetka veljavnosti tega protokola zagotovijo, da je na razpolago dovolj neosvinčenega goriva, v določenih primerih vsaj ob glavnih mednarodnih tranzitnih progah za ublažitev pretoka vozil, opremljenih s katalizatorji.
Člen 5
Postopek pregleda
1. Pogodbenice redno pregledajo ta protokol ob upoštevanju najboljših razpoložljivih znanstvenih utemeljitev in tehnološkega razvoja.
2. Prvi pregled se opravi eno leto po datumu začetka veljavnosti tega protokola.
Člen 6
Potrebne dejavnosti
Pogodbenice dajejo posebno prednost dejavnostim raziskovanja in spremljanja, povezanim z razvojem in uporabo pristopa, ki temelji na kritičnih obremenitvah, za znanstveno določitev potrebnih zmanjšanj emisij dušikovih oksidov. Pogodbenice si prek nacionalnih raziskovalnih programov v načrtu dela izvršilnega organa in prek drugih programov sodelovanja v okviru Konvencije zlasti prizadevajo:
(a) ugotoviti in kvantificirati učinke emisij dušikovih oksidov na ljudi, rastlinstvo in živalstvo, vodo, tla in materiale, ob upoštevanju vpliva, ki jih imajo na našteto dušikovi oksidi iz drugih virov in ne iz izpustov v zrak;
(b) določiti geografsko porazdelitev občutljivih območij;
(c) razviti meritve in modelne izračune, vključno s skladnimi metodologijami za izračunavanje emisij, za kvantifikacijo prenosa dušikovih oksidov in povezanih onesnaževal v zraku na velike razdalje;
(d) izboljšati ocenjevanje vrednosti in stroškov tehnologij vodenja emisij dušikovih oksidov ter evidentirati razvoj izboljšanih in novih tehnologij; in
(e) V kontekstu pristopa, ki temelji na kritičnih obremenitvah, razviti metode za vključitev znanstvenih, tehničnih in ekonomskih podatkov, ki omogočajo določitev ustreznih strategij nadzora nad emisijami.
Člen 7
Nacionalni programi, politike in strategije
Pogodbenice brez nepotrebnega odlašanja razvijejo nacionalne programe, politike in strategije za izvrševanje obveznosti po tem protokolu, ki služijo kot sredstva za nadzor in zmanjševanje emisij dušikovih oksidov ali njihovih čezmejnih tokov.
Člen 8
Izmenjava informacij in letno poročanje
1. Pogodbenice izmenjujejo informacije z obveščanjem izvršilnega organa o nacionalnih programih, politikah in strategijah, ki jih razvijajo v skladu s členom 7, in ga letno obveščajo o doseženem napredku in vseh spremembah teh programov, politik in strategij, ter ga zlasti obveščajo o:
(a) stopnjah nacionalnih letnih emisij dušikovih oksidov in osnovi, na podlagi katere so bile stopnje izračunane;
(b) napredku pri uporabi nacionalnih emisijskih standardov v skladu s členom 2, pododstavkom 2 (a) in (b), uporabljenih standardih ali standardih, ki jih je treba uporabiti, in virih in/ali zadevnih vrstah virov;
(c) napredku pri uvajanju ukrepov za kontrolo onesnaževanja v skladu s členom 2, pododstavkom 2 (c), zadevnem viru in ukrepih, ki so bili uvedeni ali ki jih je treba uvesti;
(d) napredku pri zagotavljanju razpoložljivosti neosvinčenega goriva;
(e) sprejetih ukrepih za pospeševanje izmenjave tehnologije; in
(f) napredku pri določanju kritičnih obremenitev.
2. Te informacije se, kolikor je to mogoče, predložijo v skladu z enotnim sistemom poročanja.
Člen 9
Izračuni
EMEP z uporabo ustreznih modelov izvršilnemu organu pred njegovimi letnimi sestanki pravočasno predloži ustrezne izračune bilanc dušika in čezmejnih tokov ter izpustov dušikovih oksidov znotraj zemljepisnega območja EMEP. Na območjih izven zemljepisnega območja EMEP, se uporabljajo modeli, ki so prilagojeni za posebne okoliščine pogodbenic Konvencije.
Člen 10
Tehnična priloga
Tehnična priloga k temu protokolu ima naravo priporočila. Tehnična priloga je sestavni del tega protokola.
Člen 11
Spremembe Protokola
1. Vsaka pogodbenica lahko predlaga spremembe tega protokola.
2. Predlagane spremembe se pisno predložijo izvršilnemu sekretarju Komisije, ki jih posreduje vsem pogodbenicam. Izvršilni organ o predlaganih spremembah razpravlja na svojem naslednjem letnem sestanku, če jih je izvršilni sekretar razposlal pogodbenicam vsaj 90 dni vnaprej.
3. Spremembe Protokola, razen sprememb tehnične priloge, se sprejmejo s soglasjem pogodbenic, ki so navzoče na sestanku izvršilnega organa, in za pogodbenice, ki so jih sprejele, začnejo veljati devetdeseti dan po datumu, ko dve tretjini pogodbenic deponira svoje listine o sprejetju sprememb Protokola. Spremembe začnejo veljati za vsako pogodbenico, ki jih je sprejela, potem ko dve tretjini pogodbenic deponira svoje listine o sprejetju spremembe devetdeseti dan po datumu, ko ta pogodbenica deponira svojo listino o sprejetju sprememb.
4. Spremembe tehnične priloge se sprejmejo s soglasjem pogodbenic, ki so navzoče na sestanku izvršilnega organa, in začnejo veljati trideset dni po datumu, ko so bile posredovane v skladu z odstavkom 5 spodaj.
5. Spremembe iz odstavkov 3 in 4 zgoraj izvršilni sekretar čim hitreje po njihovem sprejetju posreduje vsem pogodbenicam.
Člen 12
Reševanje sporov
Če med dvema ali več pogodbenicami pride do spora glede razlage ali uporabe tega protokola, ga poskušajo rešiti s pogajanji ali s kakršnim koli drugim načinom reševanja sporov, sprejemljivim za stranke v sporu.
Člen 13
Podpis
1. Ta protokol je na voljo za podpis od 1. novembra do vključno 4. novembra 1988 v Sofiji, potem pa do 5. maja 1989 na sedežu Združenih narodov v New Yorku za države članice Komisije kot tudi države, ki imajo v Komisiji posvetovalni status v skladu z osmim odstavkom resolucije Ekonomsko-socialnega sveta št. 36 (IV) z dne 28. marca 1947, in za regionalne organizacije za gospodarsko povezovanje, ki so jih ustanovile suverene države članice Komisije in imajo pristojnosti za pogajanja, sklenitev in uporabo mednarodnih sporazumov o zadevah, ki jih vključuje ta protokol, pod pogojem, da so zadevne države in organizacije pogodbenice Konvencije.
2. Take regionalne organizacije za gospodarsko povezovanje v zadevah iz svoje pristojnosti v svojem imenu uresničujejo pravice in izpolnjujejo obveznosti, ki jih ta protokol nalaga njihovim državam članicam. V takih primerih države članice teh organizacij ne morejo posamično uresničevati pravic iz te konvencije.
Člen 14
Ratifikacija, sprejetje, odobritev in pristop
1. Ta protokol ratificirajo, sprejmejo ali odobrijo podpisnice.
2. Ta protokol je na voljo za pristop državam in organizacijam iz člena 13 (1) od 6. maja 1989 dalje.
3. Država ali organizacija, ki pristopi k temu protokolu po 31. decembru 1993, lahko člena 2 in 4 izpolni najpozneje do 31. decembra 1995.
4. Listine o ratifikaciji, sprejetju, odobritvi ali pristopu se deponirajo pri generalnem sekretarju Združenih narodov, ki opravlja naloge depozitarja.
Člen 15
Začetek veljavnosti
1. Ta protokol začne veljati devetdeseti dan po datumu deponiranja šestnajste listine o ratifikaciji, sprejetju, odobritvi ali pristopu.
2. Za vsako državo ali organizacijo iz člena 13 (1), ki ratificira, sprejme ali odobri ta protokol ali k njemu pristopi po deponiranju šestnajste listine o ratifikaciji, sprejetju, odobritvi ali pristopu, ta protokol začne veljati devetdeseti dan po dnevu, ko ta pogodbenica deponira svojo listino o ratifikaciji, sprejetju, odobritvi ali pristopu.
Člen 16
Odpoved
Pogodbenica lahko odpove ta protokol kadar koli po petih letih od datuma, ko je protokol za to pogodbenico začel veljati s pisnim uradnim obvestilom depozitarju. Vsaka taka odpoved začne veljati devetdeseti dan, potem ko jo depozitar prejme, ali pozneje na datum, ki je določen v uradnem obvestilu o odpovedi.
Člen 17
Verodostojna besedila
Izvirnik tega protokola, katerega besedila v angleškem, francoskem in ruskem besedilu so enako verodostojna, je deponiran pri generalnem sekretarju Združenih narodov.
DA BI TO POTRDILI, so podpisani, ki so bili za to pravilno pooblaščeni, podpisali ta protokol.
V Sofiji, enaintridesetega oktobra tisoč devetsto oseminosemdeset.
TEHNIČNA PRILOGA
1. Informacije o emisijskih vrednostih in stroških temeljijo na uradni dokumentaciji izvršilnega organa in njegovih pomožnih organov, zlasti na dokumentih EB.AIR/WG.3/R. 8, R. 9 in R. 16 in ENV/WP.1/R. 86 in Corr. 1, ponatisnjenih v poglavju 7 z naslovom Učinki in kontrola čezmejnega onesnaževanja zraka(*/). Če ni drugače nakazano, naštete tehnologije na podlagi obratovalnih izkušenj veljajo za dobro uveljavljene(**/)
2. Informacije iz te priloge so nepopolne. Ker se izkušnje v zvezi z novimi motorji in novimi napravami z vgrajenimi tehnologijami nizkih emisij ter rekonstrukcijo obstoječih obratov neprestano širijo, je treba prilogo redno izpopolnjevati in spreminjati. V Prilogi ni mogoče na široko navajati tehničnih možnosti; njen cilj je pogodbenicam pomagati pri iskanju ekonomsko izvedljivih tehnologij za uresničevanje obveznosti iz Protokola.
I. TEHNOLOGIJE NADZORA EMISIJ NOx IZ NEPREMIČNIH VIROV
3. Zgorevanje fosilnih goriv je glavni nepremični vir antropogenih emisij NOx. Poleg tega lahko k ustreznim emisijam NOx prispevajo nekateri postopki, ki ne vključujejo zgorevanja.
4. Med večje nepremične vrste virov emisij NOx spadajo:
(a) kurilne naprave;
(b) industrijske peči (npr. proizvodnja cementa);
(c) nepremične plinske turbine in motorji z notranjim zgorevanjem; in
(d) postopki, ki ne vključujejo zgorevanja (npr. proizvodnja dušikove kisline).
5. Tehnologije za zmanjševanje emisij NOx temeljijo na določenih spremembah zgorevanja/postopka in, zlasti za velike elektrarne, na čiščenju dimnega plina.
6. Za rekonstrukcijo obstoječih obratov lahko negativni obratovalni stranski učinki ali druge lokacijsko pogojene omejitve omejijo obseg uporabe tehnologij z nizko tvorbo NOx. Za rekonstrukcijo so podane samo približne ocene za običajno dosegljive emisijske vrednosti NOx. Za nove obrate lahko ustrezno projektiranje zmanjša negativne stranske učinke ali prepreči njihov nastanek.
7. Glede na trenutno razpoložljive podatke veljajo stroški sprememb zgorevanja za nove obrate za majhne. Vendar pa so se stroški rekonstrukcije, na primer v velikih elektrarnah, gibali med približno 8 in 25 švicarskih frankov na kWel (leta 1985). Praviloma so investicijski stroški za sisteme čiščenja dimnih plinov precej višji.
8. Za nepremične vire se emisijski faktorji izražajo v miligramih NO2 na normalni (0 °C, 1013 mb) kubični meter suhega plina.
Kurilne naprave
9. Kategorija kurilnih naprav vključuje zgorevanje fosilnih goriv v pečeh, kotlih, indirektnih grelnikih in drugih kurilnih napravah z vhodno toplotno močjo nad 10 MW, brez mešanja zgorevalnih dimnih plinov iz kurilnih naprav z drugimi izpusti ali obdelanimi materiali. Za nove in obstoječe obrate so na razpolago naslednje tehnologije zgorevanja, ki se uporabljajo bodisi posamično bodisi v kombinaciji,
(a) nizko temperaturna izvedba kurišča, vključno z zgorevanjem v zvrtinčeni plasti;
(b) delovanje z nizkim prebitkom zraka;
(c) namestitev posebnih gorilnikov z nizko tvorbo NOx;
(d) recirkulacija dimnih plinov;
(e) stopenjsko zgorevanje z dovajanjem zraka; in
(f) ponovni sežig (stopenjsko dovajanje goriva)(***/).
Emisijske vrednosti, ki jih je mogoče doseči, povzema Tabela 1.
10. Čiščenje dimnih plinov s selektivno katalitično redukcijo (SCR) je dodatni ukrep za zmanjševanje emisij NOx, katerega učinkovitost doseže 80% ali več. Na območju Komisije je sedaj na razpolago precej obratovalnih izkušenj iz novih in rekonstruiranih obratov, zlasti za elektrarne z vhodno toplotno močjo več kot 300 MW. Če k temu prištejemo še spremembe v načinu zgorevanja, se lahko z lahkoto dosežejo emisijske vrednosti 200 mg/m3 (trdna goriva, 6% O2) in 150 mg/m3 (tekoča goriva, 3% O2).
11. Selektivna nekatalična redukcija (SNCR), čiščenje dimnih plinov za 20 do 60-odstotno zmanjšanje NOx, je cenejša tehnologija za posebna področja uporabe (npr. rafinerijske peči in zgorevanje plinov pri osnovni obremenitvi).
Tabela 1: Emisijske vrednosti NOx, ki jih je mogoče doseči s spremembami v
načinu zgorevanja
+--------------+---------------+--------------+----------------+--------+---+
|              | Vrsta naprave |Nenadzorovano | Rekonstrukcija |  Nova  |02 |
|              |      a/       |  izhodiščno  |   obstoječe    | naprava|(%)|
|              |               |    stanje    |   naprave b/   |        |   |
+--------------+---------------+--------------+-------+--------+--------+---+
|              |               |              |Območje| Tipska |        |   |
|              |               |              |       |vrednost|        |   |
+---------+----+---------------+--------------+-------+--------+--------+---+
|Trdna    |10  |Zgorevanje na  |  300–1 000   |       |   600  |   400  | 7 |
|goriva   |c/  |rešetki        |              |       |        |        |   |
|         |do  |(premog)       |              |       |        |        |   |
|         |300 |Zgorevanje v   |   300–600    |   –   |    –   |   400  | 7 |
|         |MW  |zvrtinčeni     |   150–300    |   –   |    –   |   200  | 7 |
|         |    |plasti         |              |       |        |        |   |
|         |    |(i)            |              |       |        |        |   |
|         |    |stacionarno    |              |       |        |        |   |
|         |    |(ii)           |  700–1 700   | 600–1 |   800  |  < 600 | 6 |
|         |    |cirkulacijsko  | 1 000–2 300  |  100  |        | < 1 000| 6 |
|         |    |Zgorevanje     |              |1 000–1|        |        |   |
|         |    |premogovega    |              |  400  |        |        |   |
|         |    |prahu          |              |       |        |        |   |
|         |    |(i) suho       |              |       |        |        |   |
|         |    |odvajanje      |              |       |        |        |   |
|         |    |(ii) mokro     |              |       |        |        |   |
|         |    |odvajanje      |              |       |        |        |   |
+---------+----+---------------+--------------+-------+--------+--------+---+
|         |>   |Zgorevanje     |              |       |        |        |   |
|         |300 |premogovega    |              |       |        |        |   |
|         |MW  |prahu          |  700–1 700   | 600–1 |    –   |  < 600 | 6 |
|         |    |(i) suho       | 1 000–2 300  |  100  |    –   | < 1 000| 6 |
|         |    |odvajanje      |              |1 000–1|        |        |   |
|         |    |(ii) mokro     |              |  400  |        |        |   |
|         |    |odvajanje      |              |       |        |        |   |
+---------+----+---------------+--------------+-------+--------+--------+---+
|Tekoča   |10  |Zgorevanje     |      –       |   –   |   300  |    –   | 3 |
|goriva   |c/  |destilatov     |              |       |        |        |   |
|         |do  |olja           |  500–1 400   |200–400|   400  |        | 3 |
|         |300 |Zgorevanje     |              |       |        |        |   |
|         |MW  |težkega        |              |       |        |        |   |
|         |    |kurilnega olja |              |       |        |        |   |
+---------+----+---------------+--------------+-------+--------+--------+---+
|         |>   |Zgorevanje     |  500–1 400   |200–400|    –   |    –   | 3 |
|         |300 |težkega        |              |       |        |        |   |
|         |MW  |kurilnega olja |              |       |        |        |   |
+---------+----+---------------+--------------+-------+--------+--------+---+
|Plinasta |10  |               |  150–1 000   |100–300|    –   |  < 300 | 3 |
|goriva   |c/  |               |              |       |        |        |   |
|         |do  |               |              |       |        |        |   |
|         |300 |               |              |       |        |        |   |
|         |MW  |               |              |       |        |        |   |
|         +----+---------------+--------------+-------+--------+--------+---+
|         |>   |               |  250–1 400   |100–300|    –   |  < 300 | 3 |
|         |300 |               |              |       |        |        |   |
|         |MW  |               |              |       |        |        |   |
+---------+----+---------------+--------------+-------+--------+--------+---+
a/ Vrednosti se nanašajo na MW vhodne toplotne moči naprave, ki se izračuna na podlagi spodnje kurilnosti goriva.
b/ Podajo se lahko samo približne vrednosti zaradi lokacijsko pogojenih dejavnikov in večje negotovosti pri rekonstrukciji obstoječe naprave.
c/ Za male (10 do 100 MW) naprave je stopnja negotovosti za vse navedene številke večja.
 
Nepremične plinske turbine in motorji z notranjim zgorevanjem
12. Emisije NOx iz nepremičnih plinskih turbin se lahko zmanjšajo bodisi s spremembami zgorevanja (suha kontrola) ali z vbrizgom vode/pare (mokra kontrola). Oba ukrepa sta dobro uveljavljena. Tako se lahko dosežejo emisijske vrednosti 150 mg/m3 (plin, 15% O2) in 300 mg/m3 (olje, 15% O2). Rekonstrukcija je mogoča.
13. Emisije NOx iz nepremičnih motorjev z notranjim zgorevanjem na prisilni vžig se lahko zmanjšajo bodisi s spremembami zgorevanja (npr. koncepta revne mešanice in recirkulacije odpadnih plinov) bodisi s čiščenjem dimnih plinov (tristezni katalizator s povratno zanko, SCR). Tehnična in ekonomska izvedljivost teh različnih postopkov je odvisna od velikosti motorja, vrste motorja (dvotaktni/štiritaktni) in načina delovanja motorja (stalna/spremenljiva obremenitev). Koncept revne mešanice lahko doseže emisijske vrednosti NOx 800 mg/m3 (5% O2), postopek SCR zmanjša emisije NOx precej pod 400 mg/m3 (5% O2) in tristezni katalizator zmanjša te emisije celo pod 200 mg/m3 (5% O2).
 
Industrijske peči – Žganje cementa
14. Postopek predžganja je v postopku ocenjevanja v regiji Komisije kot možna tehnologija s potencialom za zmanjševanje koncentracij NOx v dimnih plinih novih in obstoječih peči za žganje cementa na približno 300 mg/m3 (10% O2).
Postopki, ki ne vključujejo zgorevanja – Proizvodnja dušikove kisline
15. Proizvodnja dušikove kisline z visokotlačno absorpcijo (> 8 bar) omogoča, da se koncentracije NOx v nerazredčenih izpustih gibljejo pod 400 m3. Iste emisijske vrednosti se dosežejo s srednjetlačno absorpcijo v kombinaciji s postopkom SCR ali katerim koli drugim podobnim učinkovitim postopkom za zmanjševanje NOx. Rekonstrukcija je mogoča.
II. TEHNOLOGIJE NADZORA EMISIJ NOx IZ MOTORNIH VOZIL
16. Motorna vozila iz te priloge so tista, ki se uporabljajo za cestni promet, to je: osebni avtomobili na bencinski in dizelski pogon, lahka tovorna vozila in težka tovorna vozila. Če je potrebno, se poda ustrezno napotilo na posebne kategorije vozil (M1, M2, M3, N1, N2, N3), opredeljene v Uredbi EGS št. 13 v skladu s Sporazumom o sprejetju enotnih pogojev za potrditev in vzajemno priznavanje potrditve za opremo in dele motornih vozil iz leta 1958.
17. Cestni promet je pomemben vir antropogenih emisij NOx v mnogih državah Komisije, ki prispeva med 40 in 80% skupnih nacionalnih emisij. Praviloma vozila na bencinski pogon prispevajo dve tretjini skupnih emisij NOx iz cestnega prometa.
18. Razpoložljive tehnologije za kontrolo dušikovih oksidov iz motornih vozil so povzete v tabelah 3 in 6. Tehnologije je umestno razvrstiti glede na obstoječe ali predlagane nacionalne in mednarodne emisijske standarde, ki se razlikujejo po stopnji strogosti kontrole. Ker so trenutno veljavni predpisani preskusni cikli primerni samo za vožnjo po naseljih in mestih, ocene spodaj podanih ustreznih emisij NOx upoštevajo vožnjo pri večjih hitrostih, kjer bi emisije NOx lahko bile posebej pomembne.
19. Dodatni proizvodni stroški za različne tehnologije iz tabel 3 in 6 pomenijo oceno stroškov izdelave in ne drobnoprodajno ceno.
20. Pomembno je kontrolirati skladnost proizvodnje in učinkovitost naprav za uravnavanje emisij vozil v uporabi in tako zagotoviti, da se potencial za zmanjšanje emisijskih standardov doseže v praksi.
21. Tehnologije, ki vključujejo ali temeljijo na uporabi katalizatorjev, zahtevajo neosvinčeno gorivo. Prost pretok vozil, opremljenih s katalizatorji, je odvisen od splošne razpoložljivosti neosvinčenega bencina.
 
Osebni avtomobili na bencinski in dizelski pogon (M1)
22. Tabela 2 povzema štiri emisijske standarde. Ti standardi so v Tabeli 3 uporabljeni za razvrstitev različnih tehnologij motorjev za vozila na bencinski pogon glede na njihov potencial za zmanjševanje emisije NOx.
Tabela 2: Opredelitev emisijskih standardov
+-------------+--------------+----------------------------------------------+
|Standard     |Mejne         |Pripombe                                      |
|             |vrednosti     |                                              |
+-------------+--------------+----------------------------------------------+
|A. ECE R.15- |HC + NOx: 19- |Trenutni standard ECE (Uredba št. 15, vključno|
|04           |28 g/preskus  |s serijo sprememb 04, v skladu s Sporazumom iz|
|             |              |leta 1953, navedenim v odstavku 16 zgoraj), ki|
|             |              |ga je sprejela tudi Evropska gospodarska      |
|             |              |skupnost (Direktiva 83/351/EGS). mestni       |
|             |              |preskusni cikel ECE R.15. Mejna emisijska     |
|             |              |vrednost se spreminja glede na maso vozila.   |
+-------------+--------------+----------------------------------------------+
|B.           |HC + NOx: 1,4-|Standardi, ki bodo uvedeni med letoma 1988 in |
|'Luksemburg  |2,0 l:        |1993 v Evropsko gospodarsko skupnost, o       |
|1985'        |8,0 g/preskus |katerih se je razpravljalo leta 1985 na       |
|             |Ta standard se|sestanku Sveta ministrov EGS v Luksemburgu in |
|             |uporablja samo|ki so bili dokončno dogovorjeni decembra 1987.|
|             |za razvrščanje|Uporablja se urbani preskusni cikel. ECE R.   |
|             |tehnologije   |15. Standard za motorje > 2 l je navadno      |
|             |(< 1,4 l: 15,0|enakovreden standardu US 1983. Standard za    |
|             |g/preskus;    |motorje < 1,4 l je začasen, dokončen standard |
|             |> 2,0 l: 6,5  |je treba izdelati. Standard za motorje 1,4-2,0|
|             |g/preskus)    |se uporablja za vse dizelske avtomobile > 1,4 |
|             |              |l.                                            |
+-------------+--------------+----------------------------------------------+
|C.           |              |Standardi za nacionalno zakonodajo na podlagi |
|'Stockholm   |              |'temeljnega dokumenta', ki so bili razviti po |
|1985'        |              |sestanku okoljskih ministrov iz osmih držav v |
|             |              |Stockholmu leta 1985. Enakovredni standardi   |
+-------------+--------------+----------------------------------------------+
|             |NOx: 0,62 g/km|US 1987 z naslednjimi preskusnimi postopki: US|
|             |              |Federal Test Procedure (1975) (Ameriški zvezni|
|             |              |preskusni postopek).                          |
+-------------+--------------+----------------------------------------------+
|             |NOx: 0,76 g/km|Preskusni postopek ekonomičnosti porabe goriva|
|             |              |na avtocestah.                                |
+-------------+--------------+----------------------------------------------+
|D.           |NOx: 0,25 g/km|Standardi, ki jih je treba uvesti v zvezni    |
|'Kalifornija |              |državi Kalifornija v Združenih državah za     |
|1989'        |              |modele od leta 1989 naprej. US Federal Test   |
|             |              |Procedure (1975) (Ameriški zvezni preskusni   |
|             |              |postopek).                                    |
+-------------+--------------+----------------------------------------------+
Tabela 3: Tehnologije bencinskih motorjev, emisijske vrednosti, stroški in poraba goriva za standardne stopnje emisije
+--------+-----------------------+--------------+-----------------+---------+
|Standard|      Tehnologija      |  Sestavljeno |    Dodatni b/   | Indeks  |
|        |                       | a/ zmanjšanje|    proizvodni   | porabe  |
|        |                       |      NOx     | stroški (1986 v | goriva  |
|        |                       |              |    švicarskih   |   a/    |
|        |                       |              |     frankih)    |         |
+--------+-----------------------+--------------+-----------------+---------+
| A.     |Izhodiščno stanje      |      c/      |                 |   100   |
|        |(Sedanji običajni motor|              |                 |         |
|        |na prisilni vžig z     |              |                 |         |
|        |uplinjačem)            |              |                 |         |
+--------+-----------------------+--------------+-----------------+---------+
| B.     |(a) Vbrizg goriva +    |      25      |       200       |   105   |
|        |sekundarni zrak d/     |              |                 |         |
|        +-----------------------+--------------+-----------------+---------+
|        |(b) Tristezni          |      55      |       150       |   103   |
|        |katalizator z odprto   |              |                 |         |
|        |zanko (+ EGR)          |              |                 |         |
|        +-----------------------+--------------+-----------------+---------+
|        |(c) Motor z revno      |      60      |     200-600     |   90    |
|        |mešanico z             |              |                 |         |
|        |oksidacijskim          |              |                 |         |
|        |katalizatorjem         |              |                 |         |
|        |(+ EGR) e/             |              |                 |         |
+--------+-----------------------+--------------+-----------------+---------+
| C.     |Tristezni katalizator s|      90      |     300-600     |   95    |
|        |povratno zanko         |              |                 |         |
+--------+-----------------------+--------------+-----------------+---------+
| D.     |Tristezni katalizator s|      92      |     350-600     |   98    |
|        |povratno zanko (+ EGR) |              |                 |         |
+--------+-----------------------+--------------+-----------------+---------+
a/ Ocene sestavljenega zmanjšanja NOx in indeksa porabe goriva se nanašajo na povprečno težek evropski avtomobil, ki deluje v povprečnih evropskih voznih razmerah.
b/ Dodatni proizvodni stroški bi lahko bili bolj realistično izraženi kot odstotek skupnih stroškov avtomobila. Ker pa so ocene stroškov prvenstveno namenjene zgolj za relativno primerjavo, so ohranjeni zneski iz izvirnih dokumentov.
c/ Sestavljeni emisijski faktor NOx = 2,6 g/km.
d/ 'EGR' pomeni recirkulacijo izpušnih plinov.
e/ Zgolj na osnovi podatkov za eksperimentalne motorje. Dejanska proizvodnja vozil z motorji na revne mešanice ne obstaja.
23. Emisijski standardi A, B, C in D vključujejo mejne vrednosti za emisije ogljikovodika (HC) in ogljikovega monoksida (CO) kot tudi NOx. Ocene emisijskih zmanjšanj za ta onesnaževala v zvezi z izhodiščnim stanjem pravilnika ECE R. 15-04 so v Tabeli 4.
Tabela 4: Ocene zmanjšanja emisij HC in CO iz osebnih avtomobilov na bencinski pogon za različne tehnologije
+--------+-------------+-------------+
|Standard|Zmanjšanje HC|Zmanjšanje CO|
|        |     (%)     |     (%)     |
+--------+-------------+-------------+
|   B.   |  (a) 30-40  |      50     |
|        |  (b) 50-60  |    40-50    |
|        |  (c) 70-90  |    70-90    |
+--------+-------------+-------------+
|   C.   |      90     |      90     |
+--------+-------------+-------------+
|   D.   |      90     |      90     |
+--------+-------------+-------------+
24. Sedanji dizelski avtomobili lahko izpolnjujejo zahteve standardov A, B in C glede emisije NOx. Stroge zahteve v zvezi z emisijo trdnih delcev, skupaj z strogimi mejnimi vrednostmi NOx standarda D, pomenijo, da bodo dizelska osebna vozila zahtevala nadaljnji razvoj, kar verjetno vključuje elektronski nadzor črpalke goriva, sodobne sisteme vbrizgavanja goriva, recirkulacijo izpušnih plinov in filtre za delce. Trenutno obstajajo samo eksperimentalna vozila. (Glej tudi Tabelo 6, sprotno opombo (a)).
 
Druga lahka tovorna vozila (N1)
25. Uporabijo se lahko kontrolne metode za osebne avtomobile, vendar se dejavniki zmanjšanja NOx, stroškov in časa začetka komercialne proizvodnje lahko razlikujejo.
 
Težka tovorna vozila na bencinski pogon (M2, M3, N2, N3)
26. Ta razred vozil je v zahodni Evropi zanemarljiv, v vzhodni Evropi pa se zmanjšuje. Emisijske stopnje NOx US 1990 in US 1991 (glej Tabelo 5) bi lahko bile dosežene z zmernimi stroški in brez večjega tehnološkega napredka.
 
Težka tovorna vozila na dizelski pogon (M2, M3, N2, N3)
27. Tabela 5 povzema tri emisijske standarde. Ti standardi so v Tabeli 6 uporabljeni za razvrstitev različnih tehnologij motorjev za težka tovorna dizelska vozila glede na njihov potencial za zmanjševanje emisije NOx. Osnovna konfiguracija motorja se spreminja zaradi tendence po nadomestitvi sesalnih motorjev s tlačno polnjenimi motorji s turbopuhalom na izpušne pline. Ta tendenca vpliva na izboljšanje vrednosti osnovne porabe goriva. Primerjalne ocene porabe zato niso vključene.
Tabela 5: Opredelitev emisijskih standardov
+------------+---------------------------+------------------+
|  Standard  |Mejne vrednosti NOx (g/kWh)|     Pripombe     |
+------------+---------------------------+------------------+
|I. ECE R. 49|             18            |Preskus po        |
|            |                           |13-faznem postopku|
|            |                           |Prehodni preskus  |
|II. US-1990 |            8,0            |Prehodni preskus  |
|III. US-1991|            6,7            |                  |
+------------+---------------------------+------------------+
Tabela 6: Tehnologije za težke tovorne dizelske motorje, emisijske vrednosti a/ in stroški standardnih stopenj emisije
+--------+-------------------------------------+-----------+----------------+
|Standard|             Tehnologija             |   Ocena   |    Dodatni     |
|        |                                     |zmanjšanja |   proizvodni   |
|        |                                     |    NOx    | stroški (1984  |
|        |                                     |    (%)    |      US$)      |
+--------+-------------------------------------+-----------+----------------+
|I.      |Sedanji običajni dizelski motor z    |     –     |       –        |
|        |direktnim vbrizgom                   |           |                |
+--------+-------------------------------------+-----------+----------------+
|II. b/  |Tlačno polnjenje s turbopuhalom +    |    40     |   $115 ($69    |
|        |naknadno hlajenje + zakasnitev       |           |  pripisljivih  |
|        |vbrizga (spremembe zgorevalnega      |           | standardu NOx) |
|        |prostora in vstopnega kanala)        |           |       c/       |
|        |(sesalni motorji verjetno ne bodo    |           |                |
|        |izpolnili tega standarda)            |           |                |
+--------+-------------------------------------+-----------+----------------+
|III. b/ |Nadaljnje izboljšave tehnologij iz   |    50     |   $404 ($68    |
|        |II skupaj s spremenljivim vbrizgom   |           |  pripisljivih  |
|        |in uporabo elektronike               |           | standardu NOx) |
|        |                                     |           |       c/       |
+--------+-------------------------------------+-----------+----------------+
a/ Poslabšanje kakovosti dizelskega goriva bi neugodno vplivalo na emisijo in lahko vpliva na porabo goriva pri težkih in lahkih tovornih vozilih.
b/ Še vedno je treba na široko preveriti razpoložljivost novih sestavnih delov.
c/ Nadzor trdnih delcev in drugi dejavniki so vključeni v znesek.
(*/) Študije o onesnaževanju zraka št. 4 (publikacija Združenih narodov, prodajna št. E.87.II.E.36).

(**/) Trenutno je težko ponuditi zanesljive podatke o stroških kontrolnih tehnologij v absolutnem smislu. Za podatke o stroških iz te priloge je zato treba dati poudarek na razmerje med stroški različnih tehnologij in ne na absolutne stroške.

(***/) Obratovalne izkušnje v zvezi s to vrsto tehnologije zgorevanja so omejene.
3. člen
Za izvajanje protokola skrbijo Ministrstvo za okolje in prostor, Ministrstvo za promet in Ministrstvo za gospodarstvo.
4. člen
Ta zakon začne veljati petnajsti dan po objavi v Uradnem listu Republike Slovenije – Mednarodne pogodbe.
Št. 801-08/05-10/1
Ljubljana, dne 29. septembra 2005
EPA 381-IV
Predsednik
Državnega zbora
Republike Slovenije
France Cukjati, dr. med., l.r.