Uradni list

Številka 41
Uradni list RS, št. 41/1997 z dne 11. 7. 1997
Uradni list

Uradni list RS, št. 41/1997 z dne 11. 7. 1997

Kazalo

43. Zakon o ratifikaciji Konvencije o pranju, odkrivanju, zasegu in zaplembi premoženjske koristi, pridobljene s kaznivim dejanjem (MKPKKD), stran 638.

Na podlagi druge alinee prvega odstavka 107. člena in prvega odstavka 91. člena Ustave Republike Slovenije izdajam
U K A Z
O RAZGLASITVI ZAKONA O RATIFIKACIJI KONVENCIJE O PRANJU, ODKRIVANJU, ZASEGU IN ZAPLEMBI PREMOŽENJSKE KORISTI, PRIDOBLJENE S KAZNIVIM DEJANJEM (MKPKKD)
Razglašam Zakon o ratifikaciji Konvencije o pranju, odkrivanju, zasegu in zaplembi premoženjske koristi, pridobljene s kaznivim dejanjem (MKPKKD), ki ga je sprejel Državni zbor Republike Slovenije na seji 26. junija 1997.
Št. 001-22-70/97
Ljubljana, dne 4. julija 1997
Predsednik
Republike Slovenije
Milan Kučan l. r.
Z A K O N
O RATIFIKACIJI KONVENCIJE O PRANJU, ODKRIVANJU, ZASEGU IN ZAPLEMBI PREMOŽENJSKE KORISTI, PRIDOBLJENE S KAZNIVIM DEJANJEM (MKPKKD)
1. člen
Ratificira se Konvencija o pranju, odkrivanju, zasegu in zaplembi premoženjske koristi, pridobljene s kaznivim dejanjem, ki je bila podpisana 8. novembra 1990 v Strasbourgu.
2. člen
Besedilo konvencije se v angleškem izvirniku in slovenskem prevodu glasi:
C O N V E N T I O N
ON LAUNDERING, SEARCH, SEIZURE AND CONFISCATION OF THE PROCEEDS FROM CRIME
PREAMBLE
The member States of the Council of Europe and the other States signatory hereto,
Considering that the aim of the Council of Europe is to achieve a greater unity between its members;
Convinced of the need to pursue a common criminal policy aimed at the protection of society;
Considering that the fight against serious crime, which has become an increasingly international problem, calls for the use of modern and effective methods on an international scale;
Believing that one of these methods consists in depriving criminals of the proceeds from crime;
Considering that for the attainment of this aim a well-functioning system of international co-operation also must be established,
Have agreed as follows:
CHAPTER I
USE OF TERMS
Article l
Use of terms
For the purposes of this Convention:
a. “proceeds” means any economic advantage from criminal offences. It may consist of any property as defined in sub-paragraph b of this article;
b. “property” includes property of any description, whether corporeal or incorporeal, movable or immovable, and legal documents or instruments evidencing title to, or interest in such property;
c. “instrumentalities” means any property used or intended to be used, in any manner, wholly or in part, to commit a criminal offence or criminal offences;
d. “confiscation” means a penalty or a measure, ordered by a court following proceedings in relation to a criminal offence or criminal offences resulting in the final deprivation of property;
e. “predicate offence” means any criminal offence as a result of which proceeds were generated that may become the subject of an offence as defined in Article 6 of this Convention.
CHAPTER II
MEASURES TO BE TAKEN AT NATIONAL
LEVEL
Article 2
Confiscation measures
1. Each Party shall adopt such legislative and other measures as may be necessary to enable it to confiscate instrumentalities and proceeds or property the value of which corresponds to such proceeds.
2. Each Party may, at the time of signature or when depositing its instrument of ratification, acceptance, approval or accession, by a declaration addressed to the Secretary General of the Council of Europe, declare that paragraph 1 of this article applies only to offences or categories of offences specified in such declaration.
Article 3
Investigative and provisional measures
Each Party shall adopt such legislative and other measures as may be necessary to enable it to identify and trace property which is liable to confiscation pursuant to Article 2, paragraph 1, and to prevent any dealing in, transfer or disposal of such property.
Article 4
Special investigative powers and techniques
1. Each Party shall adopt such legislative and other measures as may be necessary to empower its courts or other competent authorities to order that bank, financial or commercial records be made available or be seized in order to carry out the actions referred to in Articles 2 and 3. A Party shall not decline to act under the provisions of this article on grounds of bank secrecy.
2. Each Party shall consider adopting such legislative and other measures as may be necessary to enable it to use special investigative techniques facilitating the identification and tracing of proceeds and the gathering of evidence related thereto. Such techniques may include monitoring orders, observation, interception of telecommunications, access to computer systems and orders to produce specific documents.
Article 5
Legal remedies
Each Party shall adopt such legislative and other measures as may be necessary to ensure that interested parties affected by measures under Articles 2 and 3 shall have effective legal remedies in order to preserve their rights.
Article 6
Laundering offences
1. Each Party shall adopt such legislative and other measures as may be necessary to establish as offences under its domestic law, when committed intentionally:
a. the conversion or transfer of property, knowing that such property is proceeds, for the purpose of concealing or disguising the illicit origin of the property or of assisting any person who is involved in the commission of the predicate offence to evade the legal consequences of his actions;
b. the concealment or disguise of the true nature, source, location, disposition, movement, rights with respect to, or ownership of, property, knowing that such property is proceeds;
and, subject to its constitutional principles and the basic concepts of its legal system:
c. the acquisition, possession or use of property, knowing, at the time of receipt, that such property was proceeds;
d. participation in, association or conspiracy to commit, attempts to commit and aiding, abetting, facilitating and counselling the commission of any of the offences established in accordance with this article.
2. For the purposes of implementing or applying paragraph 1 of this article:
a. it shall not matter whether the predicate offence was subject to the criminal jurisdiction of the Party;
b. it may be provided that the offences set forth in that paragraph do not apply to the persons who committed the predicate offence;
c. knowledge, intent or purpose required as an element of an offence set forth in that paragraph may be inferred from objective, factual circumstances.
3. Each Party may adopt such measures as it considers necessary to establish also as offences under its domestic law all or some of the acts referred to in paragraph 1 of this article, in any or all of the following cases where the offender:
a. ought to have assumed that the property was proceeds;
b. acted for the purpose of making profit;
c. acted for the purpose of promoting the carrying on of further criminal activity.
4. Each Party may, at the time of signature or when depositing its instrument of ratification, acceptance, approval or accession, by declaration addressed to the Secretary General of the Council of Europe declare that paragraph 1 of this article applies only to predicate offences or categories of such offences specified in such declaration.
CHAPTER III
INTERNATIONAL CO-OPERATION
Section 1
Principles of international co-operation
Article 7
General principles and measures for international co-operation
1. The Parties shall co-operate with each other to the widest extent possible for the purposes of investigations and proceedings aiming at the confiscation of instrumentalities and proceeds.
2. Each Party shall adopt such legislative or other measures as may be necessary to enable it to comply, under the conditions provided for in this chapter, with requests:
a. for confiscation of specific items of property representing proceeds or instrumentalities, as well as for confiscation of proceeds consisting in a requirement to pay a sum of money corresponding to the value of proceeds;
b. for investigative assistance and provisional measures with a view to either form of confiscation referred to under a above.
Section 2
Investigative assistance
Article 8
Obligation to assist
The Parties shall afford each other, upon request, the widest possible measure of assistance in the identification and tracing of instrumentalities, proceeds and other property liable to confiscation. Such assistance shall include any measure providing and securing evidence as to the existence, location or movement, nature, legal status or value of the aforementioned property.
Article 9
Execution of assistance
The assistance pursuant to Article 8 shall be carried out as permitted by and in accordance with the domestic law of the requested Party and, to the extent not incompatible with such law, in accordance with the procedures specified in the request.
Article 10
Spontaneous information
Without prejudice to its own investigations or proceedings, a Party may without prior request forward to another Party information on instrumentalities and proceeds, when it considers that the disclosure of such information might assist the receiving Party in initiating or carrying out investigations or proceedings or might lead to a request by that Party under this chapter.
Section 3
Provisional measures
Article 11
Obligation to take provisional measures
1. At the request of another Party which has instituted criminal proceedings or proceedings for the purpose of confiscation, a Party shall take the necessary provisional measures, such as freezing or seizing, to prevent any dealing in, transfer or disposal of property which, at a later stage, may be the subject of a request for confiscation or which might be such as to satisfy the request.
2. A Party which has received a request for confiscation pursuant to Article 13 shall, if so requested, take the measures mentioned in paragraph 1 of this article in respect of any property which is the subject of the request or which might be such as to satisfy the request.
Article 12
Execution of provisional measures
1. The provisional measures mentioned in Article 11 shall be carried out as permitted by and in accordance with the domestic law of the requested Party and, to the extent not incompatible with such law, in accordance with the procedures specified in the request.
2. Before lifting any provisional measure taken pursuant to this article, the requested Party shall, wherever possible, give the requesting Party an opportunity to present its reasons in favour of continuing the measure.
Section 4
Confiscation
Article 13
Obligation to confiscate
1. A Party, which has received a request made by another Party for confiscation concerning instrumentalities or proceeds, situated in its territory, shall:
a. enforce a confiscation order made by a court of a requesting Party in relation to such instrumentalities or proceeds; or
b. submit the request to its competent authorities for the purpose of obtaining an order of confiscation and, if such order is granted, enforce it.
2. For the purposes of applying paragraph 1.b of this article, any Party shall whenever necessary have competence to institute confiscation proceedings under its own law.
3.The provisions of paragraph 1 of this article shall also apply to confiscation consisting in a requirement to pay a sum of money corresponding to the value of proceeds, if property on which the confiscation can be enforced is located in the requested Party. In such cases, when enforcing confiscation pursuant to paragraph 1, the requested Party shall, if payment is not obtained, realise the claim on any property available for that purpose.
4. If a request for confiscation concerns a specific item of property, the Parties may agree that the requested Party may enforce the confiscation in the form of a requirement to pay a sum of money corresponding to the value of the property.
Article 14
Execution of confiscation
1. The procedures for obtaining and enforcing the confiscation under Article 13 shall be governed by the law of the requested Party.
2. The requested Party shall be bound by the findings as to the facts in so far as they are stated in a conviction or judicial decision of the requesting Party or in so far as such conviction or judicial decision is implicitly based on them.
3. Each Party may, at the time of signature or when depositing its instrument of ratification, acceptance, approval or accession, by a declaration addressed to the Secretary General of the Council of Europe, declare that paragraph 2 of this article applies only subject to its constitutional principles and the basic concepts of its legal system.
4. If the confiscation consists in the requirement to pay a sum of money, the competent authority of the requested Party shall convert the amount thereof into the currency of that Party at the rate of exchange ruling at the time when the decision to enforce the confiscation is taken.
5. In the case of Article 13, paragraph 1.a, the requesting Party alone shall have the right to decide on any application for review of the confiscation order.
Article 15
Confiscated property
Any property confiscated by the requested Party shall be disposed of by that Party in accordance with its domestic law, unless otherwise agreed by the Parties concerned.
Article 16
Right of enforcement and maximum amount of confiscation
1. A request for confiscation made under Article 13 does not affect the right of the requesting Party to enforce itself the confiscation order.
2. Nothing in this Convention shall be so interpreted as to permit the total value of the confiscation to exceed the amount of the sum of money specified in the confiscation order. If a Party finds that this might occur, the Parties concerned shall enter into consultations to avoid such an effect.
Article 17
Imprisonment in default
The requested Party shall not impose imprisonment in default or any other measure restricting the liberty of a person as a result of a request under Article 13, if the requesting Party has so specified in the request.
Section 5
Refusal and postponement of co-operation
Article 18
Grounds for refusal
1. Co-operation under this chapter may be refused if:
a the action sought would be contrary to the fundamental principles of the legal system of the requested Party; or
b. the execution of the request is likely to prejudice the sovereignty, security, ordre public or other essential interests of the requested Party; or
c. in the opinion of the requested Party, the importance of the case to which the request relates does not justify the taking of the action sought; or
d. the offence to which the request relates is a political or fiscal offence; or
e. the requested Party considers that compliance with the action sought would be contrary to the principle of ne bis in idem; or
f. the offence to which the request relates would not be an offence under the law of the requested Party if committed within its jurisdiction. However, this ground for refusal applies to co-operation under Section 2 only in so far as the assistance sought involves coercive action.
2. Co-operation under Section 2, in so far as the assistance sought involves coercive action, and under Section 3 of this chapter, may also be refused if the measures sought could not be taken under the domestic law of the requested Party for the purposes of investigations or proceedings, had it been a similar domestic case.
3. Where the law of the requested Party so requires, co-operation under Section 2, in so far as the assistance sought involves coercive action, and under Section 3 of this chapter may also be refused if the measures sought or any other measures having similar effects would not be permitted under the law of the requesting Party, or, as regards the competent authorities of the requesting Party, if the request is not authorised by either a judge or another judicial authority, including public prosecutors, any of these authorities acting in relation to criminal offences.
4. Co-operation under Section 4 of this chapter may also be refused if:
a. under the law of the requested Party confiscation is not provided for in respect of the type of offence to which the request relates; or
b. without prejudice to the obligation pursuant to Article 13, paragraph 3, it would be contrary to the principles of the domestic laws of the requested Party concerning the limits of confiscation in respect of the relationship between an offence and:
i. an economic advantage that might be qualified as its proceeds; or
ii. property that might be qualified as its instrumentalities; or
c. under the law of the requested Party confiscation may no longer be imposed or enforced because of the lapse of time; or
d. the request does not relate to a previous conviction, or a decision of a judicial nature or a statement in such a decision that an offence or several offences have been committed, on the basis of which the confiscation has been ordered or is sought; or
e. confiscation is either not enforceable in the requesting Party, or it is still subject to ordinary means of appeal; or
f. the request relates to a confiscation order resulting from a decision rendered in absentia of the person against whom the order was issued and, in the opinion of the requested Party, the proceedings conducted by the requesting Party leading to such decision did not satisfy the minimum rights of defence recognised as due to everyone against whom a criminal charge is made.
5. For the purpose of paragraph 4.f of this article a decision is not considered to have been rendered in absentia if:
a. it has been confirmed or pronounced after opposition by the person concerned; or
b. it has been rendered on appeal, provided that the appeal was lodged by the person concerned.
6. When considering, for the purposes of paragraph 4.f of this article if the minimum rights of defence have been satisfied, the requested Party shall take into account the fact that the person concerned has deliberately sought to evade justice or the fact that that person, having had the possibility of lodging a legal remedy against the decision made in absentia, elected not to do so. The same will apply when the person concerned, having been duly served with the summons to appear, elected not to do so nor to ask for adjournment.
7. A Party shall not invoke bank secrecy as a ground to refuse any co-operation under this chapter. Where its domestic law so requires, a Party may require that a request for co-operation which would involve the lifting of bank secrecy be authorised by either a judge or another judicial authority, including public prosecutors, any of these authorities acting in relation to criminal offences.
8. Without prejudice to the ground for refusal provided for in paragraph 1.a of this article:
a. the fact that the person under investigation or subjected to a confiscation order by the authorities of the requesting Party is a legal person shall not be invoked by the requested Party as an obstacle to affording any co-operation under this chapter;
b. the fact that the natural person against whom an order of confiscation of proceeds has been issued has subsequently died or the fact that a legal person against whom an order of confiscation of proceeds has been issued has subsequently been dissolved shall not be invoked as an obstacle to render assistance in accordance with Article 13, paragraph 1.a.
Article 19
Postponement
The requested Party may postpone action on a request if such action would prejudice investigations or proceedings by its authorities.
Article 20
Partial or conditional granting of a request
Before refusing or postponing co-operation under this chapter, the requested Party shall, where appropriate after having consulted the requesting Party, consider whether the request may be granted partially or subject to such conditions as it deems necessary.
Section 6
Notification and protection of third parties’ rights
Article 21
Notification of documents
1. The Parties shall afford each other the widest measure of mutual assistance in the serving of judicial documents to persons affected by provisional measures and confiscation.
2. Nothing in this article is intended to interfere with:
a. the possibility of sending judicial documents, by postal channels, directly to persons abroad;
b. the possibility for judicial officers, officials or other competent authorities of the Party of origin to effect service of judicial documents directly through the consular authorities of that Party or through judicial officers, officials or other competent authorities of the Party of destination,
unless the Party of destination makes a declaration to the contrary to the Secretary General of the Council of Europe at the time of signature or when depositing its instrument of ratification, acceptance, approval or accession.
3. When serving judicial documents to persons abroad affected by provisional measures or confiscation orders issued in the sending Party, this Party shall indicate what legal remedies are available under its law to such persons.
Article 22
Recognition of foreign decisions
1. When dealing with a request for co-operation under Sections 3 and 4, the requested Party shall recognise any judicial decision taken in the requesting Party regarding rights claimed by third parties.
2. Recognition may be refused if:
a. third parties did not have adequate opportunity to assert their rights; or
b. the decision is incompatible with a decision already taken in the requested Party on the same matter; or
c. it is incompatible with the ordre public of the requested Party; or
d. the decision was taken contrary to provisions on exclusive jurisdiction provided for by the law of the requested Party.
Section 7
Procedural and other general rules
Article 23
Central authority
1. The Parties shall designate a central authority or, if necessary, authorities, which shall be responsible for sending and answering requests made under this chapter, the execution of such requests or the transmission of them to the authorities competent for their execution.
2. Each Party shall, at the time of signature or when depositing its instrument of ratification, acceptance, approval or accession, communicate to the Secretary General of the Council of Europe the names and addresses of the authorities designated in pursuance of paragraph 1 of this article.
Article 24
Direct communication
1. The central authorities shall communicate directly with one another.
2. In the event of urgency, requests or communications under this chapter may be sent directly by the judicial authorities, including public prosecutors, of the requesting Party to such authorities of the requested Party. In such cases a copy shall be sent at the same time to the central authority of the requested Party through the central authority of the requesting Party.
3. Any request or communication under paragraphs 1 and 2 of this article may be made through the International Criminal Police Organisation (Interpol).
4. Where a request is made pursuant to paragraph 2 of this article and the authority is not competent to deal with the request, it shall refer the request to the competent national authority and inform directly the requesting Party that it has done so.
5. Requests or communications under Section 2 of this chapter, which do not involve coercive action, may be directly transmitted by the competent authorities of the requesting Party to the competent authorities of the requested Party.
Article 25
Form of request and languages
1. All requests under this chapter shall be made in writing. Modern means of telecommunications, such as telefax, may be used.
2. Subject to the provisions of paragraph 3 of this article, translations of the requests or supporting documents shall not be required.
3. At the time of signature or when depositing its instrument of ratification, acceptance, approval or accession, any Party may communicate to the Secretary General of the Council of Europe a declaration that it reserves the right to require that requests made to it and documents supporting such requests be accompanied by a translation into its own language or into one of the official languages of the Council of Europe or into such one of these languages as it shall indicate. It may on that occasion declare its readiness to accept translations in any other language as it may specify. The other Parties may apply the reciprocity rule.
Article 26
Legalisation
Documents transmitted in application of this chapter shall be exempt from all legalisation formalities.
Article 27
Content of request
1 Any request for co-operation under this chapter shall specify:
a. the authority making the request and the authority carrying out the investigations or proceedings;
b. the object of and the reason for the request;
c. the matters, including the relevant facts (such as date, place and circumstances of the offence) to which the investigations or proceedings relate, except in the case of a request for notification;
d. in so far as the co-operation involves coercive action:
i. the text of the statutory provisions or, where this is not possible, a statement of the relevant law applicable; and
ii. an indication that the measure sought or any other measures having similar effects could be taken in the territory of the requesting Party under its own law;
e. where necessary and in so far as possible:
i. details of the person or persons concerned, including name, date and place of birth, nationality and location, and, in the case of a legal person, its seat; and
ii. the property in relation to which co-operation is sought, its location, its connection with the person or persons concerned, any connection with the offence, as well as any available information about other persons’ interests in the property; and
f. any particular procedure the requesting Party wishes to be followed.
2. A request for provisional measures under Section 3 in relation to seizure of property on which a confiscation order consisting in the requirement to pay a sum of money may be realised shall also indicate a maximum amount for which recovery is sought in that property.
3. In addition to the indications mentioned in paragraph 1, any request under Section 4 shall contain:
a. in the case of Article 13, paragraph 1.a:
i. a certified true copy of the confiscation order made by the court in the requesting Party and a statement of the grounds on the basis of which the order was made, if they are not indicated in the order itself;
ii. an attestation by the competent authority of the requesting Party that the confiscation order is enforceable and not subject to ordinary means of appeal;
iii. information as to the extent to which the enforcement of the order is requested; and
iv. information as to the necessity of taking any provisional measures;
b. in the case of Article 13, paragraph 1.b, a statement of the facts relied upon by the requesting Party sufficient to enable the requested Party to seek the order under its domestic law;
c. when third parties have had the opportunity to claim rights, documents demonstrating that this has been the case.
Article 28
Defective requests
1. If a request does not comply with the provisions of this chapter or the information supplied is not sufficient to enable the requested Party to deal with the request, that Party may ask the requesting Party to amend the request or to complete it with additional information.
2. The requested Party may set a time-limit for the receipt of such amendments or information.
3. Pending receipt of the requested amendments or information in relation to a request under Section 4 of this chapter, the requested Party may take any of the measures referred to in Sections 2 or 3 of this chapter.
Article 29
Plurality of requests
1. Where the requested Party receives more than one request under Sections 3 or 4 of this chapter in respect of the same person or property, the plurality of requests shall not prevent that Party from dealing with the requests involving the taking of provisional measures.
2. In the case of plurality of requests under Section 4 of this chapter, the requested Party shall consider consulting the requesting Parties.
Article 30
Obligation to give reasons
The requested Party shall give reasons for any decision to refuse, postpone or make conditional any co-operation under this chapter.
Article 31
Information
1. The requested Party shall promptly inform the requesting Party of:
a. the action initiated on a request under this chapter;
b. the final result of the action carried out on the basis of the request;
c. a decision to refuse, postpone or make conditional, in whole or in part, any co-operation under this chapter;
d. any circumstances which render impossible the carrying out of the action sought or are likely to delay it significantly; and
e. in the event of provisional measures taken pursuant to a request under Sections 2 or 3 of this chapter, such provisions of its domestic law as would automatically lead to the lifting of the provisional measure.
2. The requesting Party shall promptly inform the requested Party of:
a. any review, decision or any other fact by reason of which the confiscation order ceases to be wholly or partially enforceable; and
b. any development, factual or legal, by reason of which any action under this chapter is no longer justified.
3. Where a Party, on the basis of the same confiscation order, requests confiscation in more than one Party, it shall inform all Parties which are affected by an enforcement of the order about the request.
Article 32
Restriction of use
1. The requested Party may make the execution of a request dependent on the condition that the information or evidence obtained will not, without its prior consent, be used or transmitted by the authorities of the requesting Party for investigations or proceedings other than those specified in the request.
2. Each Party may, at the time of signature or when depositing its instrument of ratification, acceptance, approval or accession, by declaration addressed to the Secretary General of the Council of Europe, declare that, without its prior consent, information or evidence provided by it under this chapter may not be used or transmitted by the authorities of the requesting Party in investigations or proceedings other than those specified in the request.
Article 33
Confidentiality
1. The requesting Party may require that the requested Party keep confidential the facts and substance of the request, except to the extent necessary to execute the request. If the requested Party cannot comply with the requirement of confidentiality, it shall promptly inform the requesting Party.
2. The requesting Party shall, if not contrary to basic principles of its national law and if so requested, keep confidential any evidence and information provided by the requested Party, except to the extent that its disclosure is necessary for the investigations or proceedings described in the request.
3. Subject to the provisions of its domestic law, a Party which has received spontaneous information under Article 10 shall comply with any requirement of confidentiality as required by the Party which supplies the information. If the other Party cannot comply with such requirement, it shall promptly inform the transmitting Party.
Article 34
Costs
The ordinary costs of complying with a request shall be borne by the requested Party. Where costs of a substantial or extraordinary nature are necessary to comply with a request, the Parties shall consult in order to agree the conditions on which the request is to be executed and how the costs shall be borne.
Article 35
Damages
1. When legal action on liability for damages resulting from an act or omission in relation to co-operation under this chapter has been initiated by a person, the Parties concerned shall consider consulting each other, where appropriate, to determine how to apportion any sum of damages due.
2. A Party which has become subject of a litigation for damages shall endeavour to inform the other Party of such litigation if that Party might have an interest in the case.
CHAPTER IV
FINAL PROVISIONS
Article 36
Signature and entry into force
1. This Convention shall be open for signature by the member States of the Council of Europe and non-member States which have participated in its elaboration. Such States may express their consent to be bound by:
a. signature without reservation as to ratification, acceptance or approval; or
b. signature subject to ratification, acceptance or approval, followed by ratification, acceptance or approval.
2. Instruments of ratification, acceptance or approval shall be deposited with the Secretary General of the Council of Europe.
3. This Convention shall enter into force on the first day of the month following the expiration of a period of three months after the date on which three States, of which at least two are member States of the Council of Europe, have expressed their consent to be bound by the Convention in accordance with the provisions of paragraph 1.
4. In respect of any signatory State which subsequently expresses its consent to be bound by it, the Convention shall enter into force on the first day of the month following the expiration of a period of three months after the date of the expression of its consent to be bound by the Convention in accordance with the provisions of paragraph 1.
Article 37
Accession to the Convention
1. After the entry into force of this Convention, the Committee of Ministers of the Council of Europe, after consulting the Contracting States to the Convention, may invite any State not a member of the Council and not having participated in its elaboration to accede to this Convention, by a decision taken by the majority provided for in Article 20.d of the Statute of the Council of Europe and by the unanimous vote of the representatives of the Contracting States entitled to sit on the Committee.
2. In respect of any acceding State the Convention shall enter into force on the first day of the month following the expiration of a period of three months after the date of deposit of the instrument of accession with the Secretary General of the Council of Europe.
Article 38
Territorial application
1. Any State may, at the time of signature or when depositing its instrument of ratification, acceptance, approval or accession, specify the territory or territories to which this Convention shall apply.
2. Any State may, at any later date, by a declaration addressed to the Secretary General of the Council of Europe, extend the application of this Convention to any other territory specified in the declaration. In respect of such territory the Convention shall enter into force on the first day of the month following the expiration of a period of three months after the date of receipt of such declaration by the Secretary General.
3. Any declaration made under the two preceding paragraphs may, in respect of any territory specified in such declaration, be withdrawn by a notification addressed to the Secretary General. The withdrawal shall become effective on the first day of the month following the expiration of a period of three months after the date of receipt of such notification by the Secretary General.
Article 39
Relationship to other conventions and agreements
1. This Convention does not affect the rights and undertakings derived from international multilateral conventions concerning special matters.
2. The Parties to the Convention may conclude bilateral or multilateral agreements with one another on the matters dealt with in this Convention, for purposes of supplementing or strengthening its provisions or facilitating the application of the principles embodied in it.
3. If two or more Parties have already concluded an agreement or treaty in respect of a subject which is dealt with in this Convention or otherwise have established their relations in respect of that subject, they shall be entitled to apply that agreement or treaty or to regulate those relations accordingly, in lieu of the present Convention, if it facilitates international co-operation.
Article 40
Reservations
1. Any State may, at the time of signature or when depositing its instrument of ratification, acceptance, approval or accession, declare that it avails itself of one or more of the reservations provided for in Article 2, paragraph 2, Article 6, paragraph 4, Article 14, paragraph 3, Article 21, paragraph 2, Article 25, paragraph 3 and Article 32, paragraph 2. No other reservation may be made.
2. Any State which has made a reservation under the preceding paragraph may wholly or partly withdraw it by means of a notification addressed to the Secretary General of the Council of Europe. The withdrawal shall take effect on the date of receipt of such notification by the Secretary General.
3. A Party which has made a reservation in respect of a provision of this Convention may not claim the application of that provision by any other Party; it may, however, if its reservation is partial or conditional, claim the application of that provision in so far as it has itself accepted it.
Article 41
Amendments
1. Amendments to this Convention may be proposed by any Party, and shall be communicated by the Secretary General of the Council of Europe to the member States of the Council of Europe and to every non-member State which has acceded to or has been invited to accede to this Convention in accordance with the provisions of Article 37.
2. Any amendment proposed by a Party shall be communicated to the European Committee on Crime Problems which shall submit to the Committee of Ministers its opinion on that proposed amendment.
3. The Committee of Ministers shall consider the proposed amendment and the opinion submitted by the European Committee on Crime Problems and may adopt the amendment.
4. The text of any amendment adopted by the Committee of Ministers in accordance with paragraph 3 of this article shall be forwarded to the Parties for acceptance.
5. Any amendment adopted in accordance with paragraph 3 of this article shall come into force on the thirtieth day after all Parties have informed the Secretary General of their acceptance thereof.
Article 42
Settlement of disputes
1. The European Committee on Crime Problems of the Council of Europe shall be kept informed regarding the interpretation and application of this Convention.
2. In case of a dispute between Parties as to the interpretation or application of this Convention, they shall seek a settlement of the dispute through negotiation or any other peaceful means of their choice, including submission of the dispute to the European Committee on Crime Problems, to an arbitral tribunal whose decisions shall be binding upon the Parties, or to the International Court of Justice, as agreed upon by the Parties concerned.
Article 43
Denunciation
1. Any Party may, at any time, denounce this Convention by means of a notification addressed to the Secretary General of the Council of Europe.
2. Such denunciation shall become effective on the first day of the month following the expiration of a period of three months after the date of receipt of the notification by the Secretary General.
3. The present Convention shall, however, continue to apply to the enforcement under Article 14 of confiscation for which a request has been made in conformity with the provisions of this Convention before the date on which such a denunciation takes effect.
Article 44
Notifications
The Secretary General of the Council of Europe shall notify the member States of the Council and any State which has acceded to this Convention of:
a. any signature;
b. the deposit of any instrument of ratification, acceptance, approval or accession;
c. any date of entry into force of this Convention in accordance with Articles 36 and 37;
d. any reservation made under Article 40, paragraph 1;
e. any other act, notification or communication relating to this Convention.
In witness whereof the undersigned, being duly authorised thereto, have signed this Convention.
Done at Strasbourg, the 8th day of November 1990, in English and in French, both texts being equally authentic, in a single copy which shall be deposited in the archives of the Council of Europe. The Secretary General of the Council of Europe shall transmit certified copies to each member State of the Council of Europe, to the non-member States which have participated in the elaboration of this Convention, and to any State invited to accede to it.
K O N V E N C I J A
O PRANJU, ODKRIVANJU, ZASEGU IN ZAPLEMBI PREMOŽENJSKE KORISTI, PRIDOBLJENE S KAZNIVIM DEJANJEM
UVOD
Države članice Sveta Evrope in druge države podpisnice te konvencije so
ob upoštevanju, da je cilj Sveta Evrope doseči večjo enotnost med njegovimi članicami;
prepričane o potrebi po vodenju skupne kazenske politike za zaščito družbe;
ob upoštevanju, da boj proti težjim kaznivim dejanjem, ki postajajo vedno večji mednarodni problem, zahteva uporabo sodobnih in učinkovitih metod na mednarodni ravni;
prepričane, da je ena teh metod, da se storilcem odvzame premoženjska korist, pridobljena s kaznivimi dejanji;
ob upoštevanju, da je za dosego tega cilja treba vzpostaviti tudi dobro delujoč sistem mednarodnega sodelovanja,
sklenile:
I. POGLAVJE
UPORABA IZRAZOV
1. člen
Uporaba izrazov
Za namene te konvencije izraz:
a) “premoženjska korist” pomeni vsako gospodarsko korist, pridobljeno s kaznivimi dejanji. To je lahko katerokoli premoženje, kot je opredeljeno v pododstavku b) tega člena;
b) “premoženje” vključuje vse vrste premoženja, materialnega ali nematerialnega, premičnega ali nepremičnega, ter pravne dokumente ali listine, ki dokazujejo pravico do takega premoženja ali udeležbo na njem;
c) “predmet” pomeni vsako premoženje, ki je ali naj bi bilo na kakršenkoli način v celoti ali deloma uporabljeno za storitev kaznivega dejanja ali kaznivih dejanj;
d) “zaplemba” pomeni kazen ali ukrep, ki ga v postopku v zvezi s kaznivim dejanjem ali kaznivimi dejanji, katerih posledica je dokončen odvzem premoženja, odredi sodišče;
e) “predhodno kaznivo dejanje” pomeni vsako kaznivo dejanje, katerega posledica je ustvarjena premoženjska korist, ki lahko postane predmet kaznivega dejanja, opredeljenega v 6. členu te konvencije.
II. POGLAVJE
UKREPI, KI JIH JE TREBA SPREJETI NA DRŽAVNI RAVNI
2. člen
Ukrepi za zaplembo
1. Vsaka pogodbenica sprejme take zakonske in druge ukrepe, kot so morebiti potrebni, da lahko zapleni predmete in premoženjsko korist ali premoženje, ki po vrednosti ustreza taki premoženjski koristi.
2. Vsaka pogodbenica lahko ob podpisu ali deponiranju svoje listine o ratifikaciji, sprejetju, odobritvi ali pristopu z izjavo, naslovljeno na generalnega sekretarja Sveta Evrope, izjavi, da se prvi odstavek tega člena uporablja za kazniva dejanja ali vrste kaznivih dejanj, posebej določenih v taki izjavi.
3. člen
Preiskovalni in začasni ukrepi
Vsaka pogodbenica sprejme take zakonske in druge ukrepe, kot so morebiti potrebni, da lahko prepozna in izsledi premoženje, ki ga je po prvem odstavku 2. člena treba zapleniti, in da prepreči kakršnekoli posle s takim premoženjem, njegov prenos ali razpolaganje z njim.
4. člen
Posebna preiskovalna pooblastila in metode
1. Vsaka pogodbenica sprejme take zakonske in druge ukrepe, kot so morebiti potrebni, da pooblasti svoja sodišča ali druge pristojne organe, da odredijo, da se bančne, finančne ali poslovne evidence dajo na razpolago ali zasežejo z namenom, da se opravijo dejanja iz 2. in 3. člena. Pogodbenica ne sme odkloniti ukrepanja v skladu z določbami tega člena zaradi bančne tajnosti.
2. Vsaka pogodbenica prouči sprejem takih zakonskih in drugih ukrepov, kot so morebiti potrebni, da lahko uporabi posebne preiskovalne metode za lažje prepoznavanje in sledenje premoženjske koristi ter zbiranje dokazov v zvezi s tem. Take metode lahko vključujejo naloge za nadziranje, opazovanje, prestrezanje telekomunikacij, dostop do računalniških sistemov in naloge za izdelavo posebnih listin.
5. člen
Pravna sredstva
Vsaka pogodbenica sprejme take zakonske in druge ukrepe, kot so morebiti potrebni, da zainteresiranim strankam, prizadetim z ukrepi po 2. in 3. členu, lahko zagotovi učinkovita pravna sredstva za ohranitev njihovih pravic.
6. člen
Kazniva dejanja pranja
1. Vsaka pogodbenica sprejme take zakonske in druge ukrepe, kot so morebiti potrebni, da v svoji notranji zakonodaji opredeli kot kazniva naslednja naklepna dejanja:
a) zamenjava ali prenos premoženja, za katero se ve, da je premoženjska korist, z namenom skrivanja ali prikrivanja nezakonitega izvora premoženja ali da bi se pomagalo osebi, ki je udeležena pri storitvi predhodnega kaznivega dejanja, da se izogne pravnim posledicam svojega ravnanja;
b) skrivanje ali prikrivanje prave narave, izvora, nahajanja, razpolaganja, gibanja, pravic v zvezi s premoženjem ali lastništva premoženja, kadar se ve, da je tako premoženje premoženjska korist;
in ob upoštevanju svojih ustavnih načel in temeljnih zasnov pravnega sistema:
c) pridobitev, posest ali uporaba premoženja, kadar se ob prejemu ve, da je bilo tako premoženje premoženjska korist;
d) udeležba, povezovanje ali tajen dogovor z namenom storiti ali poskusiti storiti katerokoli kaznivo dejanje, opredeljeno v skladu s tem členom, ter pomoč, napeljevanje, omogočanje in svetovanje pri storitvi takega kaznivega dejanja.
2. Za namene izvajanja ali uporabe prvega odstavka tega člena:
a) ni pomembno, ali je bilo predhodno kaznivo dejanje obravnavano v okviru pristojnosti pogodbenice za kazenske zadeve;
b) se lahko določi, da se kazniva dejanja, opredeljena v prvem odstavku, ne nanašajo na osebe, ki so storile predhodno kaznivo dejanje;
c) se o vedenju, naklepu ali namenu kot zahtevanem elementu kaznivega dejanja, opredeljenega v prvem odstavku, lahko sklepa na podlagi objektivnih, dejanskih okoliščin.
3. Vsaka pogodbenica lahko sprejme take ukrepe, kot se ji zdijo potrebni, da v skladu s svojo notranjo zakonodajo opredeli kot kazniva tudi vsa ali nekatera dejanja, navedena v prvem odstavku tega člena, v vsakem ali vseh spodaj naštetih primerih, kadar je storilec:
a) moral domnevati, da je premoženje bilo premoženjska korist,
b) deloval z namenom, da ustvari dobiček,
c) deloval z namenom, da podpira izvajanje nadaljnje kaznive dejavnosti.
4. Vsaka pogodbenica lahko ob podpisu ali deponiranju svoje listine o ratifikaciji, sprejetju, odobritvi ali pristopu z izjavo, naslovljeno na generalnega sekretarja Sveta Evrope, izjavi, da se prvi odstavek tega člena uporablja le za predhodna kazniva dejanja ali vrste takih kaznivih dejanj, posebej določenih v taki izjavi.
III. POGLAVJE
MEDNARODNO SODELOVANJE
1. del
Načela mednarodnega sodelovanja
7. člen
Splošna načela in ukrepi za mednarodno sodelovanje
1. Pogodbenice v največji možni meri medsebojno sodelujejo za namene preiskav in postopkov za zaplembo predmetov in premoženjske koristi.
2. Vsaka pogodbenica sprejme take zakonske ali druge ukrepe, kot so morebiti potrebni, da pod pogoji, navedenimi v tem poglavju, lahko ugodi zaprosilu:
a) za zaplembo določenih delov premoženja, ki pomenijo premoženjsko korist ali predmete, in za zaplembo premoženjske koristi v obliki zahtevka za plačilo denarnega zneska, ki ustreza vrednosti premoženjske koristi;
b) za pomoč pri preiskavi in za začasne ukrepe za eno ali drugo obliko zaplembe iz pododstavka a).
2. del
Pomoč pri preiskavi
8. člen
Obveznost dajanja pomoči
Pogodbenice dajejo druga drugi na zaprosilo kar najširšo pomoč pri prepoznavanju in sledenju predmetov, premoženjske koristi in drugega premoženja, ki se lahko zapleni. Taka pomoč vključuje vsak ukrep, da se priskrbi in zagotovi dokaz o obstoju, nahajanju ali gibanju, naravi, pravnem položaju ali vrednosti omenjenega premoženja.
9. člen
Izvajanje pomoči
Pomoč na podlagi 8. člena se izvaja, kot je dovoljeno in v skladu z notranjo zakonodajo zaprošene pogodbenice ter v skladu s postopki, navedenimi v zaprosilu, če niso nezdružljivi s tako zakonodajo.
10. člen
Spontano obveščanje
Brez vpliva na lastne preiskave ali postopke lahko pogodbenica brez predhodnega zaprosila drugi pogodbenici da podatke o predmetih in premoženjski koristi, kadar meni, da bi lahko razkritje take informacije pomagalo drugi pogodbenici pri uvedbi ali vodenju preiskav ali postopkov ali da bi lahko drugo pogodbenico spodbudilo k vložitvi zaprosila po tem poglavju.
3. del
Začasni ukrepi
11. člen
Obveznost uvedbe začasnih ukrepov
1. Na prošnjo druge pogodbenice, ki je uvedla kazenski postopek ali postopek za zaplembo, bo pogodbenica uvedla potrebne začasne ukrepe, kot je zamrznitev ali zaseg, da prepreči kakršnekoli posle s premoženjem, njegov prenos ali razpolaganje s premoženjem, ki bi pozneje lahko bilo predmet zahteve za zaplembo ali ki bi lahko omogočilo ugoditev taki zahtevi.
2. Pogodbenica, ki je prejela zaprosilo za zaplembo v skladu s 13. členom, bo na podlagi zaprosila uvedla ukrepe, omenjene v prvem odstavku tega člena, za vsako premoženje, ki je predmet zaprosila ali ki bi lahko omogočilo ugoditev takemu zaprosilu.
12. člen
Izvajanje začasnih ukrepov
1. Začasni ukrepi, omenjeni v 11. členu, se izvajajo, kot je dovoljeno in v skladu z notranjo zakonodajo zaprošene pogodbenice ter v skladu s postopki, navedenimi v zaprosilu, če niso nezdružljivi z omenjeno zakonodajo.
2. Pred ukinitvijo kakega začasnega ukrepa, uvedenega na podlagi tega člena, bo zaprošena pogodbenica, kadarkoli je to mogoče, pogodbenici prosilki dala možnost, da predloži razloge za nadaljevanje ukrepa.
4. del
Zaplemba
13. člen
Obveznost zaplembe
1. Pogodbenica, ki je prejela zaprosilo druge pogodbenice za zaplembo predmetov ali premoženjske koristi, ki so na njenem ozemlju:
a) izvrši sodni nalog pogodbenice prosilke za zaplembo takih predmetov ali premoženjske koristi ali
b) preda zaprosilo svojim pristojnim organom zaradi pridobitve naloga za zaplembo in ga, če je izdan, tudi izvrši.
2. Za izvedbo pododstavka b) prvega odstavka tega člena je vsaka pogodbenica, kadarkoli je to potrebno, pristojna, da v skladu s svojo zakonodajo uvede postopek za zaplembo.
3. Določbe prvega odstavka tega člena se uporabljajo tudi za zaplembo v obliki zahtevka za plačilo denarnega zneska, ki ustreza vrednosti premoženjske koristi, če je premoženje, ki ga je mogoče zapleniti, na ozemlju zaprošene pogodbenice. V takih primerih zaprošena pogodbenica pri izvrševanju zaplembe na podlagi prvega odstavka, če plačilo ni prejeto, terjatev realizira na kateremkoli premoženju, ki je v ta namen na voljo.
4. Če se zaprosilo za zaplembo nanaša na določen del premoženja, se lahko pogodbenici dogovorita, da zaprošena pogodbenica izvrši zaplembo v obliki zahteve za plačilo denarnega zneska, ki ustreza vrednosti premoženja.
14. člen
Izvršitev zaplembe
1. Postopke za pridobitev naloga za zaplembo in izvršitev zaplembe po 13. členu ureja zakonodaja zaprošene pogodbenice.
2. Zaprošeno pogodbenico zavezujejo ugotovitve o dejstvih, kolikor so navedene v obsodbi ali sodni odločbi pogodbenice prosilke ali kolikor se taka obsodba ali sodna odločba nanje implicitno opira.
3. Vsaka pogodbenica lahko ob podpisu ali deponiranju svoje listine o ratifikaciji, sprejetju, odobritvi ali pristopu z izjavo, naslovljeno na generalnega sekretarja Sveta Evrope, izjavi, da se drugi odstavek tega člena uporablja le, če je v skladu z njenimi ustavnimi načeli in temeljnimi zasnovami njenega pravnega sistema.
4. Če zaplemba sestoji iz zahtevka za plačilo denarnega zneska, bodo pristojni organi zaprošene pogodbenice ta znesek pretvorili v valuto te pogodbenice po menjalnem tečaju, ki velja ob sprejetju odločitve o izvršitvi zaplembe.
5. V primeru iz pododstavka a) prvega odstavka 13. člena lahko o prošnji za revizijo naloga za zaplembo odloča le pogodbenica prosilka.
15. člen
Zaplenjeno premoženje
Z vsakim premoženjem, ki ga zapleni zaprošena pogodbenica, v skladu s svojo notranjo zakonodajo razpolaga ta pogodbenica, če se zadevni pogodbenici ne dogovorita drugače.
16. člen
Pravica do izvršbe in najvišji znesek zaplembe
1. Zaprosilo za zaplembo, vloženo na podlagi 13. člena, ne vpliva na pravico pogodbenice prosilke, da sama izvrši nalog za zaplembo.
2. Nič v tej konvenciji se ne sme razlagati tako, kot da lahko skupna vrednost zaplembe preseže denarni znesek, določen v nalogu za zaplembo. Če pogodbenica ugotovi, da bi se to lahko zgodilo, se zadevni pogodbenici posvetujeta z namenom, da se temu izogneta.
17. člen
Zaporna kazen za dolžnika
Zaprošena pogodbenica ne bo odredila zaporne kazni za dolžnika ali kakega drugega ukrepa, ki omejuje osebno svobodo, zaradi prošnje na podlagi 13. člena, če je pogodbenica prosilka tako določila v svojem zaprosilu.
5. del
Odklonitev in odložitev sodelovanja
18. člen
Razlogi za odklonitev
1. Sodelovanje na podlagi tega poglavja se lahko odkloni, če:
a) bi bili zaprošeni ukrepi v nasprotju s temeljnimi načeli pravnega sistema zaprošene pogodbenice ali
b) bi izvršitev zaprosila utegnila škodovati suverenosti, varnosti, javnemu redu ali drugim bistvenim interesom zaprošene pogodbenice ali
c) po mnenju zaprošene pogodbenice tehtnost zadeve, na katero se zaprosilo nanaša, ne opravičuje zaprošenih ukrepov ali
d) je kaznivo dejanje, na katero se zaprosilo nanaša, politično ali davčno kaznivo dejanje ali
e) zaprošena pogodbenica meni, da bi bilo izvajanje zaprošenih ukrepov v nasprotju z načelom “ne bis in idem” ali
f) kaznivo dejanje, na katero se zaprosilo nanaša, po zakonodaji zaprošene pogodbenice ne bi bilo kaznivo, če bi bilo storjeno na območju njene jurisdikcije. Vendar pa ta razlog za odklonitev sodelovanja na podlagi drugega dela velja le, kolikor zaprošena pomoč vključuje prisilne ukrepe.
2. Sodelovanje na podlagi drugega dela, kolikor zaprošena pomoč vključuje prisilne ukrepe, in sodelovanje na podlagi tretjega dela tega poglavja je mogoče odkloniti tudi v primeru, če zaprošenih ukrepov za izvedbo preiskave ali postopkov v podobnih domačih primerih po notranji zakonodaji zaprošene pogodbenice ne bi bilo mogoče sprejeti.
3. Kadar to terja zakonodaja zaprošene pogodbenice, se sodelovanje na podlagi drugega dela – če zaprošena pomoč vključuje prisilne ukrepe – in na podlagi tretjega dela tega poglavja lahko tudi odkloni, če zaprošeni ukrepi ali kakšni drugi ukrepi s podobnimi učinki po zakonodaji zaprošene pogodbenice ne bi bili dovoljeni ali če v pogledu pristojnosti organov pogodbenice prosilke zaprosilu ni ugodil niti sodnik niti kak drug pravosodni organ vključno z javnim tožilstvom oziroma katerikoli od teh organov, ki ukrepa v zvezi s kaznivimi dejanji.
4. Sodelovanje na podlagi četrtega dela tega poglavja se tudi lahko odkloni, če:
a) po zakonodaji zaprošene pogodbenice za kaznivo dejanje, na katero se zaprosilo nanaša, zaplemba ni predvidena ali
b) bi bilo brez vpliva na obveznosti iz tretjega odstavka 13. člena to v nasprotju z načeli notranje zakonodaje zaprošene pogodbenice glede višine zaplembe ob upoštevanju odnosa med kaznivim dejanjem in:
i) ekonomsko koristjo, ki bi jo lahko opredelili kot premoženjsko korist ali
ii) premoženjem, ki bi ga lahko opredelili kot predmet ali
c) po zakonodaji zaprošene pogodbenice zaplembe ne bi bilo mogoče več izreči ali izvršiti zaradi zastaranja ali
d) se zaprosilo ne nanaša na prejšnjo obsodbo ali sodno odločbo ali ugotovitev v taki odločbi, da je bilo storjeno eno ali več kaznivih dejanj, na podlagi katerih je bila odrejena ali je zaprošena zaplemba ali
e) zaplemba v pogodbenici prosilki bodisi ni izvršljiva ali je zoper njo še vedno mogoča pritožba kot redno pravno sredstvo ali
f) se zaprosilo nanaša na nalog za zaplembo, ki izhaja iz odločitve sodišča, izrečene v odsotnosti osebe, proti kateri je bil nalog izdan, in po mnenju zaprošene pogodbenice država prosilka v postopku ni zagotovila minimalnih pravic obrambe, ki jih ima vsak obtoženec.
5. Za namene pododstavka f) četrtega odstavka tega člena se ne šteje, da je bila odločitev sodišča izrečena v odsotnosti, če:
a) je bila potrjena ali izrečena po ugovoru prizadete osebe ali
b) je bila izrečena na podlagi pritožbe, če je pritožbo vložila prizadeta oseba.
6. Če se za namene pododstavka f) četrtega odstavka tega člena upošteva, da so bile zagotovljene minimalne pravice obrambe, zaprošena pogodbenica upošteva dejstvo, da se je prizadeta oseba namenoma skušala izogniti roki pravice, ali dejstvo, da se je ta oseba odpovedala možnosti vložitve pravnega sredstva proti odločitvi, sprejeti v odsotnosti, čeprav je tako možnost imela. Enako bo veljalo tudi v primeru, ko je bilo prizadeti osebi pravočasno vročeno vabilo na sodišče, pa se je odločila, da se nanj ne bo odzvala niti ne bo prosila za preložitev.
7. Pogodbenica se ne sklicuje na bančno tajnost kot razlog za odklonitev kakršnegakoli sodelovanja po tem poglavju. Kadar to terja njena notranja zakonodaja, pogodbenica lahko zahteva, da prošnjo za sodelovanje, ki bi vključevala odpravo bančne tajnosti, odobri bodisi sodnik ali kak drug pravosodni organ vključno z javnim tožilstvom oziroma katerikoli od teh organov, ki ukrepa v zvezi s kaznivimi dejanji.
8. Brez vpliva na razloge za odklonitev, predvidene v pododstavku a) prvega odstavka tega člena:
a) dejstva, da je oseba, zoper katero so organi pogodbenice prosilke uvedli preiskavo ali izdali nalog za zaplembo, pravna oseba, zaprošena pogodbenica ne bo navajala kot oviro za sodelovanje na podlagi tega poglavja;
b) dejstva, da je fizična oseba, zoper katero je bil izdan nalog za zaplembo premoženjske koristi, pozneje umrla, ali dejstva, da je pravna oseba, zoper katero je bil izdan nalog za zaplembo premoženjske koristi, kasneje prenehala obstajati, pogodbenica ne bo navajala kot oviro za dajanje pomoči v skladu s pododstavkom a) prvega odstavka 13. člena.
19. člen
Odlog
Zaprošena pogodbenica lahko odloži ukrepanje na podlagi zaprosila, če bi tako ukrepanje lahko škodovalo preiskavi ali postopkom njenih organov.
20. člen
Delna ali pogojna ugoditev zaprosilu
Preden zaprošena pogodbenica odkloni ali odloži sodelovanje po tem poglavju, prouči – kadar je to primerno tudi po posvetu s pogodbenico prosilko – ali lahko zaprosilu ugodi delno ali pod določenimi pogoji, ki se ji zdijo potrebni.
6. del
Notifikacija in varstvo pravic tretjih
21. člen
Notifikacija listin
1. Pogodbenice dajejo druga drugi kar najširšo medsebojno pomoč pri vročanju pravosodnih listin osebam, na katere se nanašajo začasni ukrepi in zaplemba.
2. Nič v tem členu nima namena ovirati:
a) možnosti pošiljanja pravosodnih listin po pošti neposredno osebam v tujini;
b) možnosti, da predstavniki pravosodja ali drugi pristojni organi pogodbenice, ki je izdala pravosodne listine, te listine tudi vročijo neposredno prek konzularnih služb te pogodbenice ali po predstavnikih pravosodja ali drugih pristojnih organov namembne pogodbenice,
razen če namembna pogodbenica ob podpisu ali deponiranju listine o ratifikaciji, sprejetju, odobritvi ali pristopu predloži generalnemu sekretarju Sveta Evrope izjavo o nasprotnem.
3. Pri vročanju pravosodnih listin osebam v tujini, na katere se nanašajo začasni ukrepi ali nalogi za zaplembo, ta pogodbenica navede pravna sredstva, ki so po njeni zakonodaji tem osebam na voljo.
22. člen
Priznavanje tujih odločb
1. Pri obravnavi zaprosila za sodelovanje na podlagi tretjega in četrtega dela zaprošena pogodbenica prizna vsako sodno odločbo, ki jo je pogodbenica prosilka sprejela v zvezi s pravicami, ki jih zahtevajo tretje osebe.
2. Priznanje se lahko zavrne, če:
a) tretje osebe niso imele primerne možnosti za uveljavitev svojih pravic ali
b) je sodna odločba nezdružljiva s sodno odločbo, ki je bila o isti zadevi že sprejeta v zaprošeni pogodbenici ali
c) je sodna odločba nezdružljiva z javnim redom zaprošene pogodbenice ali
d) je bila sodna odločba sprejeta v nasprotju z določbami o izključni pristojnosti, ki je predvidena po zakonodaji zaprošene pogodbenice.
7. del
Pravila postopka in druga splošna pravila
23. člen
Osrednji organ
1. Pogodbenice določijo osrednji organ, ali če je potrebno, organe, ki so odgovorni za pošiljanje zaprosil po tem poglavju ali odgovore nanje, za ugoditev takim zaprosilom ali za njihovo pošiljanje organom, pristojnim za njihovo izvedbo.
2. Vsaka pogodbenica ob podpisu ali deponiranju listine o ratifikaciji, sprejetju, odobritvi ali pristopu generalnemu sekretarju Sveta Evrope sporoči imena in naslove organov, imenovanih v skladu s prvim odstavkom tega člena.
24. člen
Neposredno komuniciranje
1. Komuniciranje med osrednjimi organi poteka neposredno.
2. V nujnih primerih lahko pravosodni organi pogodbenice prosilke vključno z javnim tožilstvom zaprosila ali sporočila na podlagi tega poglavja pošiljajo neposredno ustreznim organom zaprošene pogodbenice. V teh primerih se hkrati prek osrednjega organa pogodbenice prosilke pošlje kopija osrednjemu organu zaprošene pogodbenice.
3. Vsako zaprosilo ali sporočilo na podlagi prvega in drugega odstavka tega člena se lahko pošlje prek Mednarodne organizacije kriminalistične policije (Interpol).
4. Če je zaprosilo iz drugega odstavka tega člena naslovljeno na organ, ki ni pristojen za njegovo obravnavanje, ga ta odstopi pristojnemu državnemu organu in o tem neposredno obvesti pogodbenico prosilko.
5. Zaprosila in sporočila na podlagi drugega dela tega poglavja, ki ne vključujejo prisilnih ukrepov, lahko pristojni organi pogodbenice prosilke pošljejo neposredno pristojnim organom zaprošene pogodbenice.
25. člen
Oblika zaprosila in jeziki
1. Vsa zaprosila na podlagi tega poglavja morajo biti pisna. Dovoljena je uporaba sodobnih telekomunikacij, kot je telefaks.
2. Ob upoštevanju določb tretjega odstavka tega člena se ne zahtevajo prevodi zaprosil ali dodatne dokumentacije.
3. Ob podpisu ali deponiranju listine o ratifikaciji, sprejetju, odobritvi ali pristopu lahko vsaka pogodbenica generalnemu sekretarju Sveta Evrope izjavi, da si pridržuje pravico zahtevati, da je nanjo naslovljenim zaprosilom in dodatni dokumentaciji priložen prevod v njen jezik ali v enega od uradnih jezikov Sveta Evrope ali v tistega izmed teh jezikov, ki ga določi. Ob tej priložnosti lahko izjavi, da je pripravljena sprejeti prevod v kateremkoli drugem jeziku, ki ga navede. Druge pogodbenice lahko uporabljajo pravilo recipročnosti.
26. člen
Overitev
Dokumentov, ki se pošiljajo zaradi izvajanja tega poglavja, ni treba sodno overiti.
27. člen
Vsebina zaprosila
1. V vsakem zaprosilu za sodelovanje na podlagi tega poglavja so točno navedeni:
a) organ, ki vlaga zaprosilo, in organ, ki izvaja preiskavo ali postopek;
b) namen zaprosila in razlog zanj;
c) zadeve vključno s pomembnimi podatki (kot so datum, kraj in okoliščine kaznivega dejanja), na katere se preiskava ali postopek nanaša, razen pri zaprosilu za notifikacijo;
d) če sodelovanje vključuje prisilne ukrepe:
i) besedilo zakonskih določb, ali če to ni mogoče, navedba ustreznega zakona, ki se uporablja v zvezi s tem in
ii) navedba, da bi zaprošeni ukrep ali kakršenkoli drug ukrep s podobnim učinkom lahko sprejeli na ozemlju pogodbenice prosilke na podlagi njene zakonodaje;
e) kjer je to potrebno in kolikor je mogoče:
i) podatki o osebi ali osebah, ki jih to zadeva, vključno z imenom, datumom in krajem rojstva, državljanstvom in bivališčem, ter če gre za pravno osebo, sedežem in
ii) premoženje, na katero se zaprosilo za sodelovanje nanaša, kraj, kjer se nahaja, povezava z osebo ali osebami, ki jih zadeva, vsaka povezava s kaznivim dejanjem kot tudi vsi razpoložljivi podatki o pravicah drugih oseb do deleža na tem premoženju in
f) vsak poseben postopek, ki ga želi pogodbenica prosilka.
2. V zaprosilu za začasne ukrepe na podlagi tretjega dela, ki se nanaša na zaseg premoženja, nad katerim se lahko izvrši nalog za zaplembo v obliki zahteve za plačilo denarnega zneska, naj bo naveden tudi najvišji znesek, ki naj se kot odškodnina izterja iz tega premoženja.
3. Poleg podatkov, navedenih v prvem odstavku, mora vsako zaprosilo na podlagi četrtega dela vsebovati:
a) v primeru iz pododstavka a) prvega odstavka 13. člena:
i) overjen točen prepis naloga za zaplembo, ki ga je izdalo sodišče pogodbenice prosilke, in ugotovitev razlogov, na podlagi katerih je bil izdan nalog, če ti niso navedeni že v samem nalogu;
ii) potrdilo pristojnega organa pogodbenice prosilke, da je nalog za zaplembo izvršljiv in da zoper njega ni možno redno pravno sredstvo pritožbe;
iii) podatek o vrednostnem obsegu zaprošene izvršitve naloga in
iv) podatek o potrebi po sprejemu kakršnegakoli začasnega ukrepa;
b) v primeru iz pododstavka b) prvega odstavka 13. člena navedbo dejstev, na katera se opira pogodbenica prosilka in ki zaprošeni pogodbenici zadoščajo, da v skladu s svojo notranjo zakonodajo zaprosi za nalog;
c) kadar so tretje osebe imele možnost uveljavljajti svoje pravice, listine, ki to dokazujejo.
28. člen
Pomanjkljiva zaprosila
1. Če zaprosilo ni v skladu z določbami tega poglavja ali posredovani podatki zaprošeni pogodbenici ne zadoščajo za obravnavo zaprosila, lahko ta pogodbenica povabi pogodbenico prosilko, da ga popravi ali dopolni z dodatnimi podatki.
2. Zaprošena pogodbenica lahko določi rok za prejem takih dopolnitev ali podatkov.
3. Dokler zaprošena pogodbenica ne prejme zahtevanih dopolnitev ali podatkov v zvezi z zaprosilom na podlagi četrtega dela tega poglavja, lahko sprejme kateregakoli od ukrepov, navedenih v drugem in tretjem delu tega poglavja.
29. člen
Večje število zaprosil
1. Kadar zaprošena pogodbenica prejme več kot eno zaprosilo na podlagi tretjega ali četrtega dela tega poglavja v zvezi z isto osebo ali istim premoženjem, večje število zaprosil ne preprečuje pogodbenici obravnavanja zaprosil, ki vključujejo sprejem začasnih ukrepov.
2. Pri večjem številu zaprosil na podlagi četrtega dela tega poglavja zaprošena pogodbenica prouči možnost posvetovanja s pogodbenicami prosilkami.
30. člen
Obveznost navedbe razlogov
Zaprošena pogodbenica bo navedla razloge za vsako odločitev, da odkloni, odloži ali pogojuje sodelovanje na podlagi tega poglavja.
31. člen
Obveščanje
1. Zaprošena pogodbenica takoj obvesti pogodbenico prosilko o:
a) vsakem ukrepanju, sproženem na podlagi zaprosila iz tega poglavja;
b) končnem izidu ukrepanja na podlagi zaprosila;
c) odločitvi, da v celoti ali delno odkloni, odloži ali pogojuje kakršnokoli sodelovanje na podlagi tega poglavja;
d) vseh okoliščinah, ki onemogočajo zaprošeno ukrepanje ali ga utegnejo znatno zakasniti in
e) tistih določbah notranje zakonodaje, ki bi avtomatično pripeljale do ukinitve začasnega ukrepa, kadar so začasni ukrepi sprejeti na podlagi zaprosila v skladu z drugim ali tretjim delom tega poglavja.
2. Pogodbenica prosilka takoj obvesti zaprošeno pogodbenico o:
a) vsaki obnovi postopka, odločitvi ali kateremkoli drugem dejstvu, zaradi katerega nalog za zaplembo deloma ali v celoti preneha biti izvršljiv in
b) vseh novih okoliščinah, dejanskih ali pravnih, zaradi katerih katerokoli ukrepanje na podlagi tega poglavja ni več upravičeno.
3. Kadar pogodbenica na podlagi istega naloga za zaplembo zaprosi za zaplembo v več pogodbenicah, o svojem zaprosilu obvesti vse pogodbenice, ki jih zadeva izvršitev naloga.
32. člen
Omejitev uporabe
1. Zaprošena pogodbenica lahko za ugoditev zaprosilu zahteva, da organi pogodbenice prosilke dobljenih podatkov in dokazov brez njenega predhodnega soglasja ne bodo uporabili ali posredovali v preiskavah in postopkih, z izjemo tistih, navedenih v zaprosilu.
2. Vsaka pogodbenica lahko ob podpisu ali deponiranju listine o ratifikaciji, sprejetju, odobritvi ali pristopu z izjavo, naslovljeno na generalnega sekretarja Sveta Evrope, izjavi, da organi pogodbenice prosilke podatkov in dokazov, ki jim jih bo dala na podlagi tega poglavja, brez njenega predhodnega soglasja ne bodo uporabili ali posredovali v preiskavah in postopkih, z izjemo tistih, navedenih v zaprosilu.
33. člen
Zaupnost
1. Pogodbenica prosilka lahko od zaprošene pogodbenice zahteva, da dejstva in vsebino zaprosila varuje kot zaupne, razen kolikor so potrebni za ugoditev zaprosilu. Če zaprošena pogodbenica ne more ugoditi zahtevi za zaupnost, o tem takoj obvesti pogodbenico prosilko.
2. Pogodbenica prosilka mora, če to ni v nasprotju s temeljnimi načeli njene notranje zakonodaje in če se to od nje zahteva, varovati kot zaupne vse dokaze in podatke, ki jih je dobila od zaprošene pogodbenice, razen kolikor je njihovo razkritje potrebno za preiskave in postopke, opisane v zaprosilu.
3. Ob upoštevanju določb notranje zakonodaje pogodbenica, ki prejme spontano obvestilo na podlagi 10. člena, ravna v skladu z zahtevo po zaupnosti, kot jo zahteva pogodbenica, ki podatke daje. Če druga pogodbenica ne more izpolniti take zahteve, o tem takoj obvesti pogodbenico, ki podatke pošilja.
34. člen
Stroški
Običajne stroške za ugoditev zaprosilu krije zaprošena pogodbenica. Če so za ugoditev zaprosilu potrebni znatni ali izjemno visoki stroški, se pogodbenici posvetujeta, da se dogovorita o pogojih za ugoditev zaprosilu in o načinu kritja stroškov.
35. člen
Odškodnina
1. Če oseba sproži sodni postopek zaradi odgovornosti za škodo, ki je posledica dejanja ali opustitve v zvezi s sodelovanjem na podlagi tega poglavja, bodo pogodbenice, ki jih to zadeva,če je to primerno, proučile možnost medsebojnega posvetovanja, da določijo, kako razdeliti dolgovani znesek odškodnine.
2. Pogodbenica, zoper katero je vložena odškodninska tožba, si prizadeva o takem postopku obvestiti drugo pogodbenico, če bi ta v postopku imela interes.
IV. POGLAVJE
KONČNE DOLOČBE
36. člen
Podpis in začetek veljavnosti
1. Konvencija je na voljo za podpis državam članicam Sveta Evrope in državam nečlanicam, ki so sodelovale pri njeni pripravi. Te države lahko izrazijo svoje soglasje, da jih zavezuje:
a) podpis brez pridržka ratifikacije, sprejetja ali odobritve ali
b) podpis s pridržkom ratifikacije, sprejetja ali odobritve, ki mu sledi ratifikacija, sprejetje ali odobritev.
2. Listine o ratifikaciji, sprejetju ali odobritvi se hranijo pri generalnem sekretarju Sveta Evrope.
3. Konvencija začne veljati prvi dan meseca po izteku trimesečnega roka od dne, ko so tri države, od katerih sta vsaj dve članici Sveta Evrope, v skladu z določbami prvega odstavka izrazile svoje soglasje, da jih konvencija zavezuje.
4. Za vsako državo podpisnico, ki pozneje izrazi svoje soglasje, da jo konvencija zavezuje, le-ta začne veljati prvi dan meseca po izteku trimesečnega roka od dne, ko je v skladu z določbami prvega odstavka izrazila svoje soglasje, da jo konvencija zavezuje.
37. člen
Pristop h konvenciji
1. Ko konvencija začne veljati, lahko Odbor ministrov Sveta Evrope po posvetu z državami pogodbenicami konvencije povabi katerokoli državo, ki ni članica Sveta in ni sodelovala pri njeni pripravi, da pristopi h konvenciji, in sicer na podlagi odločitve, sprejete z večino glasov, kot je določeno v pododstavku d) 20. člena statuta Sveta Evrope, ter ob soglasno sprejetem sklepu predstavnikov držav pogodbenic, ki imajo pravico sodelovati v Odboru.
2. Za vsako državo, ki pristopi h konvenciji, začne ta veljati prvi dan v mesecu po izteku trimesečnega roka od dne deponiranja listine o pristopu pri generalnem sekretarju Sveta Evrope.
38. člen
Ozemlja uporabe
1. Vsaka država lahko ob podpisu ali deponiranju listine o ratifikaciji, sprejetju, odobritvi ali pristopu posebej navede ozemlje ali ozemlja, za katera se bo konvencija uporabljala.
2. Vsaka država lahko kadarkoli pozneje z izjavo, naslovljeno na generalnega sekretarja Sveta Evrope, razširi uporabo konvencije na katerokoli drugo ozemlje, navedeno v izjavi. Za tako ozemlje začne konvencija veljati prvi dan v mesecu po izteku trimesečnega roka od dne, ko je generalni sekretar prejel tako izjavo.
3. Vsako izjavo na podlagi predhodnih dveh odstavkov, ki se nanaša na katerokoli ozemlje, posebej navedeno v taki izjavi, je mogoče preklicati z notifikacijo, naslovljeno na generalnega sekretarja. Preklic začne veljati prvi dan v mesecu po izteku trimesečnega roka od dne, ko je generalni sekretar prejel tako notifikacijo.
39. člen
Razmerje do drugih konvencij in sporazumov
1. Ta konvencija ne vpliva na pravice in obveznosti, ki izhajajo iz mednarodnih večstranskih konvencij o posebnih zadevah.
2. Pogodbenice konvencije lahko med seboj sklepajo dvostranske ali večstranske sporazume o zadevah, ki jih obravnava ta konvencija, zato da dopolnijo ali utrdijo njene določbe ali da omogočijo lažjo uporabo načel, ki so v njej vsebovana.
3. Če sta dve ali več pogodbenic že sklenili sporazum ali pogodbo v zvezi s predmetom, ki ga obravnava ta konvencija, ali sta drugače uredili svoje odnose v zvezi s tem predmetom, imata pravico namesto te konvencije uporabljati tak sporazum ali pogodbo ali njima ustrezno urejati svoje odnose, če to olajšuje mednarodno sodelovanje.
40. člen
Pridržki
1. Vsaka država lahko ob podpisu ali deponiranju listine o ratifikaciji, sprejetju, odobritvi ali pristopu izjavi, da bo izkoristila pravico do enega ali več pridržkov, določenih v drugem odstavku 2. člena, četrtem odstavku 6. člena, tretjem odstavku 14. člena, drugem odstavku 21. člena, tretjem odstavku 25. člena in drugem odstavku 32. člena. Drugi pridržki niso dovoljeni.
2. Vsaka država, ki je dala pridržek na podlagi prejšnjega odstavka, ga lahko v celoti ali deloma umakne z notifikacijo, naslovljeno na generalnega sekretarja Sveta Evrope. Umik pridržka začne veljati na dan, ko generalni sekretar prejme tako notifikacijo.
3. Pogodbenica, ki je dala pridržek v zvezi s kako določbo te konvencije, ne sme zahtevati uporabe take določbe od nobene druge pogodbenice; lahko pa, če je njen pridržek delen ali pogojen, zahteva uporabo te določbe v taki meri, kot jo je sama sprejela.
41. člen
Spremembe in dopolnitve
1. Spremembe in dopolnitve te konvencije lahko predlaga vsaka pogodbenica, generalni sekretar Sveta Evrope pa jih sporoči državam članicam Sveta Evrope in vsem državam nečlanicam, ki so v skladu z določbami 37. člena pristopile ali so bile povabljene, da pristopijo k tej konvenciji.
2. Vse spremembe in dopolnitve, ki jih kaka pogodbenica predlaga, se sporočijo Evropskemu odboru za problematiko kriminalitete, ki svoje mnenje o predlagani spremembi in dopolnitvi predloži Odboru ministrov.
3. Odbor ministrov prouči predlagano spremembo in dopolnitev in mnenje Evropskega odbora za problematiko kriminalitete ter spremembo in dopolnitev lahko sprejme.
4. Besedilo vsake spremembe in dopolnitve, ki ga je v skladu s tretjim odstavkom tega člena sprejel Odbor ministrov, se pošlje pogodbenicam v sprejem.
5. Vsaka sprememba in dopolnitev, sprejeta v skladu s tretjim odstavkom tega člena, začne veljati trideseti dan, potem ko so vse pogodbenice obvestile generalnega sekretarja, da so jo sprejele.
42. člen
Reševanje sporov
1. Evropski odbor za problematiko kriminalitete pri Svetu Evrope mora biti stalno obveščen o razlagi in uporabi te konvencije.
2. Morebiten spor med pogodbenicami v zvezi z razlago ali uporabo te konvencije skušajo pogodbenice rešiti s pogajanji ali na drug miren način po svoji izbiri vključno s tem, da spor lahko predložijo arbitražnemu sodišču Evropskega odbora za problematiko kriminalitete, katerega odločitev pogodbenico zavezuje, ali pa Meddržavnemu sodišču, kot se dogovorijo pogodbenice, ki jih to zadeva.
43. člen
Odpoved
1. Vsaka pogodbenica lahko kadarkoli odpove to konvencijo z notifikacijo, naslovljeno na generalnega sekretarja Sveta Evrope.
2. Taka odpoved začne veljati prvi dan v mesecu po izteku trimesečnega roka od datuma, ko je generalni sekretar prejel notifikacijo.
3. Vendar pa se konvencija še naprej uporablja za izvršitev zaplembe na podlagi 14. člena, za katero je bilo zaprosilo dano v skladu z določbami te konvencije pred datumom, ko taka odpoved začne veljati.
44. člen
Notifikacije
Generalni sekretar Sveta Evrope države članice Sveta in vse države, ki so pristopile k tej konvenciji, uradno obvesti o:
a) vsakem podpisu;
b) deponiranju vsake listine o ratifikaciji, sprejetju, odobritvi ali pristopu;
c) vsakem datumu začetka veljavnosti te konvencije v skladu s 36. in 37. členom;
d) vsakem pridržku, danem na podlagi prvega odstavka 40. člena;
e) vsakem drugem dejanju, notifikaciji ali sporočilu v zvezi s to konvencijo.
V dokaz tega so podpisani, ki so bili za to pravilno pooblaščeni, podpisali to konvencijo.
Sestavljeno v Strasbourgu 8. novembra 1990 v angleščini in francoščini, pri čemer sta obe besedili enako verodostojni, v enem izvodu, ki se hrani v arhivu Sveta Evrope. Generalni sekretar Sveta Evrope pošlje overjene izvode vsem članicam Sveta Evrope, državam nečlanicam, ki so sodelovale pri pripravi te konvencije, in vsaki državi, ki je povabljena, da k njej pristopi.
3. člen
Republika Slovenija na podlagi tretjega odstavka 25. člena konvencije izjavlja, da se zaprosilom in prilogam, naslovljenim pristojnemu osrednjemu organu Republike Slovenije, priloži prevod v slovenskem in v angleškem jeziku.
Republika Slovenija na podlagi drugega odstavka 32. člena konvencije izjavlja, da organi pogodbenice prosilke podatkov in dokazov, ki jim jih bo dala na podlagi tega poglavja, brez njenega predhodnega soglasja ne bodo uporabili ali posredovali v preiskavah in postopkih, z izjemo tistih, navedenih v zaprosilu.
4. člen
Za izvajanje te konvencije skrbijo Ministrstvo za finance – Urad Republike Slovenije za preprečevanje pranja denarja, Ministrstvo za pravosodje in Ministrstvo za notranje zadeve.
5. člen
Ta zakon začne veljati naslednji dan po objavi v Uradnem listu Republike Slovenije – Mednarodne pogodbe.
Št. 715-02/97-3/1
Ljubljana, dne 26. junija 1997
Predsednik
Državnega zbora
Republike Slovenije
Janez Podobnik, dr. med. l. r.

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