Uradni list

Številka 59
Uradni list RS, št. 59/1995 z dne 19. 10. 1995
Uradni list

Uradni list RS, št. 59/1995 z dne 19. 10. 1995

Kazalo

63. Zakon o ratifikaciji Okvirne konvencije Združenih narodov o spremembi podnebja (MOKSP), stran 829.

Na podlagi druge alinee prvega odstavka 107. člena in prvega odstavka 91. člena Ustave Republike Slovenije izdajam
U K A Z
O RAZGLASITVI ZAKONA O RATIFIKACIJI OKVIRNE KONVENCIJE ZDRUŽENIH NARODOV O SPREMEMBI PODNEBJA
Razglašam Zakon o ratifikaciji Okvirne konvencije Združenih narodov o spremembi podnebja, ki ga je sprejel Državni zbor Republike Slovenije na seji dne 29. septembra 1995.
Št. 012-01/95-89
Ljubljana, dne 7. oktobra 1995
Predsednik
Republike Slovenije
Milan Kučan l. r.
Z A K O N
O RATIFIKACIJI OKVIRNE KONVENCIJE ZDRUŽENIH NARODOV O SPREMEMBI PODNEBJA
1. člen
Ratificira se Okvirna konvencija Združenih narodov o spremembi podnebja, ki je bila sprejeta 9. maja 1992 v New Yorku v arabskem, kitajskem, angleškem, francoskem, ruskem in španskem jeziku.
2. člen
Besedilo konvencije v angleškem izvirniku in slovenskem prevodu se glasi:
UNITED NATIONS FRAMEWORK CONVENTION ON CLIMATE CHANGE
The Parties to this Convention,
Acknowledging that change in the Earth’s climate and its adverse effects are a common concern of humankind,
Concerned that human activities have been substantially increasing the atmospheric concentrations of greenhouse gases, that these increases enhance the natural greenhouse effect, and that this will result on average in an additional warming of the Earth’s surface and atmosphere and may adversely affect natural ecosystems and humankind,
Noting that the largest share of historical and current global emissions of greenhouse gases has originated in developed countries, that per capita emissions in developing countries are still relatively low and that the share of global emissions originating in developing countries will grow to meet their social and development needs,
Aware of the role and importance in terrestrial and marine ecosystems of sinks and reservoirs of greenhouse gases,
Noting that there are many uncertainties in predictions of climate change, particularly with regard to the timing, magnitude and regional patterns thereof,
Acknowledging that the global nature of climate change calls for the widest possible cooperation by all countries and their participation in an effective and appropriate international response, in accordance with their common but differentiated responsibilities and respective capabilities and their social and economic conditions,
Recalling the pertinent provisions of the Declaration of the United Nations Conference on the Human Environment, adopted at Stockholm on 16 June 1972,
Recalling also that States have, in accordance with the Charter of the United Nations and the principles of international law, the sovereign right to exploit their own resources pursuant to their own environmental and developmental policies, and the responsibility to ensure that activities within their jurisdiction or control do not cause damage to the environment of other States or of areas beyond the limits of national jurisdiction,
Reaffirming the principle of sovereignty of States in international cooperation to address climate change,
Recognizing that States should enact effective environmental legislation, that environmental standards, management objectives and priorities should reflect the environmental and developmental context to which they apply, and that standards applied by some countries may be inappropriate and of unwarranted economic and social cost to other countries, in particular developing countries,
Recalling the provisions of General Assembly resolution 44/228 of 22 December 1989 on the United Nations Conference on Environment and Development, and resolutions 43/53 of 6 December 1988, 44/207 of 22 December 1989, 45/212 of 21 December 1990 and 46/169 of 19 December 1991 on protection of global climate for present and future generations of mankind,
Recalling also the provisions of General Assembly resolution 44/206 of 22 December 1989 on the possible adverse effects of sea-level rise on islands and coastal areas, particularly low-lying coastal areas and the pertinent provisions of General Assembly resolution 44/172 of 19 December 1989 on the implementation of the Plan of Action to Combat Desertification,
Recalling further the Vienna Convention for the Protection of the Ozone Layer, 1985, and the Montreal Protocol on Substances that Deplete the Ozone Layer, 1987, as adjusted and amended on 29 June 1990,
Noting the Ministerial Declaration of the Second World Climate Conference adopted on 7 November 1990,
Conscious of the valuable analytical work being conducted by many States on climate change and of the important contributions of the World Meteorological Organization, the United Nations Environment Programme and other organs, organizations and bodies of the United Nations system, as well as other international and intergovernmental bodies, to the exchange of results of scientific research and the coordination of research,
Recognizing that steps required to understand and address climate change will be environmentally, socially and economically most effective if they are based on relevant scientific, technical and economic considerations and continually re-evaluated in the light of new findings in these areas,
Recognizing that various actions to address climate change can be justified economically in their own right and can also help in solving other environmental problems,
Recognizing also the need for developed countries to take immediate action in a flexible manner on the basis of clear priorities, as a first step towards comprehensive response strategies at the global, national and, where agreed, regional levels that take into account all greenhouse gases, with due consideration of their relative contributions to the enhancement of the greenhouse effect,
Recognizing further that low-lying and other small island countries, countries with low-lying coastal, arid and semi-arid areas or areas liable to floods, drought and desertification, and developing countries with fragile mountainous ecosystems are particularly vulnerable to the adverse effects of climate change,
Recognizing the special difficulties of those countries, especially developing countries, whose economies are particularly dependent on fossil fuel production, use and exportation, as a consequence of action taken on limiting greenhouse gas emissions,
Affirming that responses to climate change should be coordinated with social and economic development in an integrated manner with a view to avoiding adverse impacts on the latter, taking into full account the legitimate priority needs of developing countries for the achievement of sustained economic growth and the eradication of poverty,
Recognizing that all countries, especially developing countries, need access to resources required to achieve sustainable social and economic development and that, in order for developing countries to progress towards that goal, their energy consumption will need to grow taking into account the possibilities for achieving greater energy efficiency and for controlling greenhouse gas emissions in general, including through the application of new technologies on terms which make such an application economically and socially beneficial,
Determined to protect the climate system for present and future generations,
Have agreed as follows:
Article 1
DEFINITIONS*
For the purposes of this Convention:
1. ”Adverse effects of climate change” means changes in the physical environment or biota resulting from climate change which have significant deleterious effects on the composition, resilience or productivity of natural and managed ecosystems or on the operation of socio-economic systems or on human health and welfare.
2. ”Climate change” means a change of climate which is attributed directly or indirectly to human activity that alters the composition of the global atmosphere and which is in addition to natural climate variability observed over comparable time periods.
3. ”Climate system” means the totality of the atmosphere, hydrosphere, biosphere and geosphere and their interactions.
4. ”Emissions” means the release of greenhouse gases and/or their precursors into the atmosphere over a specified area and period of time.
5. ”Greenhouse gases” means those gaseous constituents of the atmosphere, both natural and anthropogenic, that absorb and re-emit infrared radiation.
6. ”Regional economic integration organization” means an organization constituted by sovereign States of a given region which has competence in respect of matters governed by this Convention or its protocols and has been duly authorized, in accordance with its internal procedures, to sign, ratify, accept, approve or accede to the instruments concerned.
7. ”Reservoir” means a component or components of the climate system where a greenhouse gas or a precursor of a greenhouse gas is stored.
8. ”Sink” means any process, activity or mechanism which removes a greenhouse gas, an aerosol or a precursor of a greenhouse gas from the atmosphere.
9. ”Source” means any process or activity which releases a greenhouse gas, an aerosol or a precursor of a greenhouse gas into the atmosphere.
Article 2
OBJECTIVE
The ultimate objective of this Convention and any related legal instruments that the Conference of the Parties may adopt is to achieve, in accordance with the relevant provisions of the Convention, stabilization of greenhouse gas concentrations in the atmosphere at a level that would prevent dangerous anthropogenic interference with the climate system. Such a level should be achieved within a time-frame sufficient to allow ecosystems to adapt naturally to climate change, to ensure that food production is not threatened and to enable economic development to proceed in a sustainable manner.
Article 3
PRINCIPLES
In their actions to achieve the objective of the Convention and to implement its provisions, the Parties shall be guided, inter alia, by the following:
1. The Parties should protect the climate system for the benefit of present and future generations of humankind, on the basis of equity and in accordance with their common but differentiated responsibilities and respective capabilities. Accordingly, the developed country Parties should take the lead in combating climate change and the adverse effects thereof.
2. The specific needs and special circumstances of developing country Parties, especially those that are particularly vulnerable to the adverse effects of climate change, and of those Parties, especially developing country Parties, that would have to bear a disproportionate or abnormal burden under the Convention, should be given full consideration.
3. The Parties should take precautionary measures to anticipate, prevent or minimize the causes of climate change and mitigate its adverse effects. Where there are threats of serious or irreversible damage, lack of full scientific certainty should not be used as a reason for postponing such measures, taking into account that policies and measures to deal with climate change should be cost-effective so as to ensure global benefits at the lowest possible cost. To achieve this, such policies and measures should take into account different socio-economic contexts, be comprehensive, cover all relevant sources, sinks and reservoirs of greenhouse gases and adaptation, and comprise all economic sectors. Efforts to address climate change may be carried out cooperatively by interested Parties.
4. The Parties have a right to, and should, promote sustainable development. Policies and measures to protect the climate system against human-induced change should be appropriate for the specific conditions of each Party and should be integrated with national development programmes, taking into account that economic development is essential for adopting measures to address climate change.
5. The Parties should cooperate to promote a supportive and open international economic system that would lead to sustainable economic growth and development in all Parties, particularly developing country Parties, thus enabling them better to address the problems of climate change. Measures taken to combat climate change, including unilateral ones, should not constitute a means of arbitrary or unjustifiable discrimination or a disguised restriction on international trade.
Article 4
COMMITMENTS
1. All Parties, taking into account their common but differentiated responsibilities and their specific national and regional development priorities, objectives and circumstances, shall:
(a) Develop, periodically update, publish and make available to the Conference of the Parties, in accordance with Article 12, national inventories of anthropogenic emissions by sources and removals by sinks of all greenhouse gases not controlled by the Montreal Protocol, using comparable methodologies to be agreed upon by the Conference of the Parties;
(b) Formulate, implement, publish and regularly update national and, where appropriate, regional programmes containing measures to mitigate climate change by addressing anthropogenic emissions by sources and removals by sinks of all greenhouse gases not controlled by the Montreal Protocol, and measures to facilitate adequate adaptation to climate change;
(c) Promote and cooperate in the development, application and diffusion, including transfer, of technologies, practices and processes that control, reduce or prevent anthropogenic emissions of greenhouse gases not controlled by the Montreal Protocol in all relevant sectors, including the energy, transport, industry, agriculture, forestry and waste management sectors;
(d) Promote sustainable management, and promote and cooperate in the conservation and enhancement, as appropriate, of sinks and reservoirs of all greenhouse gases not controlled by the Montreal Protocol, including biomass, forests and oceans as well as other terrestrial, coastal and marine ecosystems;
(e) Cooperate in preparing for adaptation to the impacts of climate change; develop and elaborate appropriate and integrated plans for coastal zone management, water resources and agriculture, and for the protection and rehabilitation of areas, particularly in Africa, affected by drought and desertification, as well as floods;
(f) Take climate change considerations into account, to the extent feasible, in their relevant social, economic and environmental policies and actions, and employ appropriate methods, for example impact assessments, formulated and determined nationally, with a view to minimizing adverse effects on the economy, on public health and on the quality of the environment, of projects or measures undertaken by them to mitigate or adapt to climate change;
(g) Promote and cooperate in scientific, technological, technical, socio-economic and other research, systematic observation and development of data archives related to the climate system and intended to further the understanding and to reduce or eliminate the remaining uncertainties regarding the causes, effects, magnitude and timing of climate change and the economic and social consequences of various response strategies;
(h) Promote and cooperate in the full, open and prompt exchange of relevant scientific, technological, technical, socio-economic and legal information related to the climate system and climate change, and to the economic and social consequences of various response strategies;
(i) Promote and cooperate in education, training and public awareness related to climate change and encourage the widest participation in this process, including that of non- governmental organizations; and
(j) Communicate to the Conference of the Parties information related to implementation, in accordance with Article 12.
2. The developed country Parties and other Parties included in Annex I commit themselves specifically as provided for in the following:
(a) Each of these Parties shall adopt national(1) policies and take corresponding measures on the mitigation of climate change, by limiting its anthropogenic emissions of greenhouse gases and protecting and enhancing its greenhouse gas sinks and reservoirs. These policies and measures will demonstrate that developed countries are taking the lead in modifying longer-term trends in anthropogenic emissions consistent with the objective of the Convention, recognizing that the return by the end of the present decade to earlier levels of anthropogenic emissions of carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gases not controlled by the Montreal Protocol would contribute to such modification, and taking into account the differences in these Parties’ starting points and approaches, economic structures and resource bases, the need to maintain strong and sustainable economic growth, available technologies and other individual circumstances, as well as the need for equitable and appropriate contributions by each of these Parties to the global effort regarding that objective. These Parties may implement such policies and measures jointly with other Parties and may assist other Parties in contributing to the achievement of the objective of the Convention and, in particular, that of this subparagraph;
(b) In order to promote progress to this end, each of these Parties shall communicate, within six months of the entry into force of the Convention for it and periodically thereafter, and in accordance with Article 12, detailed information on its policies and measures referred to in subparagraph (a) above, as well as on its resulting projected anthropogenic emissions by sources and removals by sinks of greenhouse gases not controlled by the Montreal Protocol for the period referred to in subparagraph (a), with the aim of returning individually or jointly to their 1990 levels these anthropogenic emissions of carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gases not controlled by the Montreal Protocol. This information will be reviewed by the Conference of the Parties, at its first session and periodically thereafter, in accordance with Article 7;
(c) Calculations of emissions by sources and removals by sinks of greenhouse gases for the purposes of subparagraph (b) above should take into account the best available scientific knowledge, including of the effective capacity of sinks and the respective contributions of such gases to climate change. The Conference of the Parties shall consider and agree on methodologies for these calculations at its first session and review them regularly thereafter;
(d) The Conference of the Parties shall, at its first session, review the adequacy of subparagraphs (a) and (b) above. Such review shall be carried out in the light of the best available scientific information and assessment on climate change and its impacts, as well as relevant technical, social and economic information. Based on this review, the Conference of the Parties shall take appropriate action, which may include the adoption of amendments to the commitments in subparagraphs (a) and (b) above. The Conference of the Parties, at its first session, shall also take decisions regarding criteria for joint implementation as indicated in subparagraph (a) above. A second review of subparagraphs (a) and (b) shall take place not later than 31 December 1998, and thereafter at regular intervals determined by the Conference of the Parties, until the objective of the Convention is met;
(e) Each of these Parties shall:
(i) coordinate as appropriate with other such Parties, relevant economic and administrative instruments developed to achieve the objective of the Convention; and
(ii) identify and periodically review its own policies and practices which encourage activities that lead to greater levels of anthropogenic emissions of greenhouse gases not controlled by the Montreal Protocol than would otherwise occur;
(f) The Conference of the Parties shall review, not later than 31 December 1998, available information with a view to taking decisions regarding such amendments to the lists in Annexes I and II as may be appropriate, with the approval of the Party concerned;
(g) Any Party not included in Annex I may, in its instrument of ratification, acceptance, approval or accession, or at any time thereafter, notify the Depositary that it intends to be bound by subparagraphs (a) and (b) above. The Depositary shall inform the other signatories and Parties of any such notification.
3. The developed country Parties and other developed Parties included in Annex II shall provide new and additional financial resources to meet the agreed full costs incurred by developing country Parties in complying with their obligations under Article 12, paragraph 1. They shall also provide such financial resources, including for the transfer of technology, needed by the developing country Parties to meet the agreed full incremental costs of implementing measures that are covered by paragraph 1 of this Article and that are agreed between a developing country Party and the international entity or entities referred to in Article 11, in accordance with that Article. The implementation of these commitments shall take into account the need for adequacy and predictability in the flow of funds and the importance of appropriate burden sharing among the developed country Parties.
4. The developed country Parties and other developed Parties included in Annex II shall also assist the developing country Parties that are particularly vulnerable to the adverse effects of climate change in meeting costs of adaptation to those adverse effects.
5. The developed country Parties and other developed Parties included in Annex II shall take all practicable steps to promote, facilitate and finance, as appropriate, the transfer of, or access to, environmentally sound technologies and know-how to other Parties, particularly developing country Parties, to enable them to implement the provisions of the Convention. In this process, the developed country Parties shall support the development and enhancement of endogenous capacities and technologies of developing country Parties. Other Parties and organizations in a position to do so may also assist in facilitating the transfer of such technologies.
6. In the implementation of their commitments under paragraph 2 above, a certain degree of flexibility shall be allowed by the Conference of the Parties to the Parties included in Annex I undergoing the process of transition to a market economy, in order to enhance the ability of these Parties to address climate change, including with regard to the historical level of anthropogenic emissions of greenhouse gases not controlled by the Montreal Protocol chosen as a reference.
7. The extent to which developing country Parties will effectively implement their commitments under the Convention will depend on the effective implementation by developed country Parties of their commitments under the Convention related to financial resources and transfer of technology and will take fully into account that economic and social development and poverty eradication are the first and overriding priorities of the developing country Parties.
8. In the implementation of the commitments in this Article, the Parties shall give full consideration to what actions are necessary under the Convention, including actions related to funding, insurance and the transfer of technology, to meet the specific needs and concerns of developing country Parties arising from the adverse effects of climate change and/or the impact of the implementation of response measures, especially on:
(a) Small island countries;
(b) Countries with low-lying coastal areas;
(c) Countries with arid and semi-arid areas, forested areas and areas liable to forest decay;
(d) Countries with areas prone to natural disasters;
(e) Countries with areas liable to drought and desertification;
(f) Countries with areas of high urban atmospheric pollution;
(g) Countries with areas with fragile ecosystems, including mountainous ecosystems;
(h) Countries whose economies are highly dependent on income generated from the production, processing and export, and/or on consumption of fossil fuels and associated energy-intensive products; and
(i) Land-locked and transit countries.
Further, the Conference of the Parties may take actions, as appropriate, with respect to this paragraph.
9. The Parties shall take full account of the specific needs and special situations of the least developed countries in their actions with regard to funding and transfer of technology.
10. The Parties shall, in accordance with Article 10, take into consideration in the implementation of the commitments of the Convention the situation of Parties, particularly developing country Parties, with economies that are vulnerable to the adverse effects of the implementation of measures to respond to climate change. This applies notably to Parties with economies that are highly dependent on income generated from the production, processing and export, and/or consumption of fossil fuels and associated energy-intensive products and/or the use of fossil fuels for which such Parties have serious difficulties in switching to alternatives.
Article 5
RESEARCH AND SYSTEMATIC OBSERVATION
In carrying out their commitments under Article 4, paragraph 1(g), the Parties shall:
(a) Support and further develop, as appropriate, international and intergovernmental programmes and networks or organizations aimed at defining, conducting, assessing and financing research, data collection and systematic observation, taking into account the need to minimize duplication of effort;
(b) Support international and intergovernmental efforts to strengthen systematic observation and national scientific and technical research capacities and capabilities, particularly in developing countries, and to promote access to, and the exchange of, data and analyses thereof obtained from areas beyond national jurisdiction; and
(c) Take into account the particular concerns and needs of developing countries and cooperate in improving their endogenous capacities and capabilities to participate in the efforts referred to in subparagraphs (a) and (b) above.
Article 6
EDUCATION, TRAINING AND PUBLIC AWARENESS
In carrying out their commitments under Article 4, paragraph 1(i), the Parties shall:
(a) Promote and facilitate at the national and, as appropriate, subregional and regional levels, and in accordance with national laws and regulations, and within their respective capacities:
(i) the development and implementation of educational and public awareness programmes on climate change and its effects;
(ii) public access to information on climate change and its effects;
(iii) public participation in addressing climate change and its effects and developing adequate responses; and
(iv) training of scientific, technical and managerial personnel.
(b) Cooperate in and promote, at the international level, and, where appropriate, using existing bodies:
(i) the development and exchange of educational and public awareness material on climate change and its effects; and
(ii) the development and implementation of education and training programmes, including the strengthening of national institutions and the exchange or secondment of personnel to train experts in this field, in particular for developing countries.
Article 7
CONFERENCE OF THE PARTIES
1. A Conference of the Parties is hereby established.
2. The Conference of the Parties, as the supreme body of this Convention, shall keep under regular review the implementation of the Convention and any related legal instruments that the Conference of the Parties may adopt, and shall make, within its mandate, the decisions necessary to promote the effective implementation of the Convention. To this end, it shall:
(a) Periodically examine the obligations of the Parties and the institutional arrangements under the Convention, in the light of the objective of the Convention, the experience gained in its implementation and the evolution of scientific and technological knowledge;
(b) Promote and facilitate the exchange of information on measures adopted by the Parties to address climate change and its effects, taking into account the differing circumstances, responsibilities and capabilities of the Parties and their respective commitments under the Convention;
(c) Facilitate, at the request of two or more Parties, the coordination of measures adopted by them to address climate change and its effects, taking into account the differing circumstances, responsibilities and capabilities of the Parties and their respective commitments under the Convention;
(d) Promote and guide, in accordance with the objective and provisions of the Convention, the development and periodic refinement of comparable methodologies, to be agreed on by the Conference of the Parties, inter alia, for preparing inventories of greenhouse gas emissions by sources and removals by sinks, and for evaluating the effectiveness of measures to limit the emissions and enhance the removals of these gases;
(e) Assess, on the basis of all information made available to it in accordance with the provisions of the Convention, the implementation of the Convention by the Parties, the overall effects of the measures taken pursuant to the Convention, in particular environmental, economic and social effects as well as their cumulative impacts and the extent to which progress towards the objective of the Convention is being achieved;
(f) Consider and adopt regular reports on the implementation of the Convention and ensure their publication;
(g) Make recommendations on any matters necessary for the implementation of the Convention;
(h) Seek to mobilize financial resources in accordance with Article 4, paragraphs 3, 4 and 5, and Article 11;
(i) Establish such subsidiary bodies as are deemed necessary for the implementation of the Convention;
(j) Review reports submitted by its subsidiary bodies and provide guidance to them;
(k) Agree upon and adopt, by consensus, rules of procedure and financial rules for itself and for any subsidiary bodies;
(l) Seek and utilize, where appropriate, the services and cooperation of, and information provided by, competent international organizations and intergovernmental and non-governmental bodies; and
(m) Exercise such other functions as are required for the achievement of the objective of the Convention as well as all other functions assigned to it under the Convention.
3. The Conference of the Parties shall, at its first session, adopt its own rules of procedure as well as those of the subsidiary bodies established by the Convention, which shall include decision-making procedures for matters not already covered by decision- making procedures stipulated in the Convention. Such procedures may include specified majorities required for the adoption of particular decisions.
4. The first session of the Conference of the Parties shall be convened by the interim secretariat referred to in Article 21 and shall take place not later than one year after the date of entry into force of the Convention. Thereafter, ordinary sessions of the Conference of the Parties shall be held every year unless otherwise decided by the Conference of the Parties.
5. Extraordinary sessions of the Conference of the Parties shall be held at such other times as may be deemed necessary by the Conference, or at the written request of any Party, provided that, within six months of the request being communicated to the Parties by the secretariat, it is supported by at least one third of the Parties.
6. The United Nations, its specialized agencies and the International Atomic Energy Agency, as well as any State member thereof or observers thereto not Party to the Convention, may be represented at sessions of the Conference of the Parties as observers. Any body or agency, whether national or international, governmental or non- governmental, which is qualified in matters covered by the Convention, and which has informed the secretariat of its wish to be represented at a session of the Conference of the Parties as an observer, may be so admitted unless at least one third of the Parties present object. The admission and participation of observers shall be subject to the rules of procedure adopted by the Conference of the Parties.
Article 8
SECRETARIAT
1. A secretariat is hereby established.
2. The functions of the secretariat shall be:
(a) To make arrangements for sessions of the Conference of the Parties and its subsidiary bodies established under the Convention and to provide them with services as required;
(b) To compile and transmit reports submitted to it;
(c) To facilitate assistance to the Parties, particularly developing country Parties, on request, in the compilation and communication of information required in accordance with the provisions of the Convention;
(d) To prepare reports on its activities and present them to the Conference of the Parties;
(e) To ensure the necessary coordination with the secretariats of other relevant international bodies;
(f) To enter, under the overall guidance of the Conference of the Parties, into such administrative and contractual arrangements as may be required for the effective discharge of its functions; and
(g) To perform the other secretariat functions specified in the Convention and in any of its protocols and such other functions as may be determined by the Conference of the Parties.
3. The Conference of the Parties, at its first session, shall designate a permanent secretariat and make arrangements for its functioning.
Article 9
SUBSIDIARY BODY FOR SCIENTIFIC AND TECHNOLOGICAL ADVICE
1. A subsidiary body for scientific and technological advice is hereby established to provide the Conference of the Parties and, as appropriate, its other subsidiary bodies with timely information and advice on scientific and technological matters relating to the Convention. This body shall be open to participation by all Parties and shall be multidisciplinary. It shall comprise government representatives competent in the relevant field of expertise. It shall report regularly to the Conference of the Parties on all aspects of its work.
2. Under the guidance of the Conference of the Parties, and drawing upon existing competent international bodies, this body shall:
(a) Provide assessments of the state of scientific knowledge relating to climate change and its effects;
(b) Prepare scientific assessments on the effects of measures taken in the implementation of the Convention;
(c) Identify innovative, efficient and state-of-the-art technologies and know-how and advise on the ways and means of promoting development and/or transferring such technologies;
(d) Provide advice on scientific programmes, international cooperation in research and development related to climate change, as well as on ways and means of supporting endogenous capacity-building in developing countries; and
(e) Respond to scientific, technological and methodological questions that the Conference of the Parties and its subsidiary bodies may put to the body.
3. The functions and terms of reference of this body may be further elaborated by the Conference of the Parties.
Article 10
SUBSIDIARY BODY FOR IMPLEMENTATION
1. A subsidiary body for implementation is hereby established to assist the Conference of the Parties in the assessment and review of the effective implementation of the Convention. This body shall be open to participation by all Parties and comprise government representatives who are experts on matters related to climate change. It shall report regularly to the Conference of the Parties on all aspects of its work.
2. Under the guidance of the Conference of the Parties, this body shall:
(a) Consider the information communicated in accordance with Article 12, paragraph 1, to assess the overall aggregated effect of the steps taken by the Parties in the light of the latest scientific assessments concerning climate change;
(b) Consider the information communicated in accordance with Article 12, paragraph 2, in order to assist the Conference of the Parties in carrying out the reviews required by Article 4, paragraph 2(d); and
(c) Assist the Conference of the Parties, as appropriate, in the preparation and implementation of its decisions.
Article 11
FINANCIAL MECHANISM
1. A mechanism for the provision of financial resources on a grant or concessional basis, including for the transfer of technology, is hereby defined. It shall function under the guidance of and be accountable to the Conference of the Parties, which shall decide on its policies, programme priorities and eligibility criteria related to this Convention. Its operation shall be entrusted to one or more existing international entities.
2. The financial mechanism shall have an equitable and balanced representation of all Parties within a transparent system of governance.
3. The Conference of the Parties and the entity or entities entrusted with the operation of the financial mechanism shall agree upon arrangements to give effect to the above paragraphs, which shall include the following:
(a) Modalities to ensure that the funded projects to address climate change are in conformity with the policies, programme priorities and eligibility criteria established by the Conference of the Parties;
(b) Modalities by which a particular funding decision may be reconsidered in light of these policies, programme priorities and eligibility criteria;
(c) Provision by the entity or entities of regular reports to the Conference of the Parties on its funding operations, which is consistent with the requirement for accountability set out in paragraph 1 above; and
(d) Determination in a predictable and identifiable manner of the amount of funding necessary and available for the implementation of this Convention and the conditions under which that amount shall be periodically reviewed.
4. The Conference of the Parties shall make arrangements to implement the above- mentioned provisions at its first session, reviewing and taking into account the interim arrangements referred to in Article 21, paragraph 3, and shall decide whether these interim arrangements shall be maintained. Within four years thereafter, the Conference of the Parties shall review the financial mechanism and take appropriate measures.
5. The developed country Parties may also provide and developing country Parties avail themselves of, financial resources related to the implementation of the Convention through bilateral, regional and other multilateral channels.
Article 12
COMMUNICATION OF INFORMATION RELATED TO IMPLEMENTATION
1. In accordance with Article 4, paragraph 1, each Party shall communicate to the Conference of the Parties, through the secretariat, the following elements of information:
(a) A national inventory of anthropogenic emissions by sources and removals by sinks of all greenhouse gases not controlled by the Montreal Protocol, to the extent its capacities permit, using comparable methodologies to be promoted and agreed upon by the Conference of the Parties;
(b) A general description of steps taken or envisaged by the Party to implement the Convention; and
(c) Any other information that the Party considers relevant to the achievement of the objective of the Convention and suitable for inclusion in its communication, including, if feasible, material relevant for calculations of global emission trends.
2. Each developed country Party and each other Party included in Annex I shall incorporate in its communication the following elements of information:
(a) A detailed description of the policies and measures that it has adopted to implement its commitment under Article 4, paragraphs 2(a) and 2(b); and
(b) A specific estimate of the effects that the policies and measures referred to in subparagraph (a) immediately above will have on anthropogenic emissions by its sources and removals by its sinks of greenhouse gases during the period referred to in Article 4, paragraph 2(a).
3. In addition, each developed country Party and each other developed Party included in Annex II shall incorporate details of measures taken in accordance with Article 4, paragraphs 3, 4 and 5.
4. Developing country Parties may, on a voluntary basis, propose projects for financing, including specific technologies, materials, equipment, techniques or practices that would be needed to implement such projects, along with, if possible, an estimate of all incremental costs, of the reductions of emissions and increments of removals of greenhouse gases, as well as an estimate of the consequent benefits.
5. Each developed country Party and each other Party included in Annex I shall make its initial communication within six months of the entry into force of the Convention for that Party. Each Party not so listed shall make its initial communication within three years of the entry into force of the Convention for that Party, or of the availability of financial resources in accordance with Article 4, paragraph 3. Parties that are least developed countries may make their initial communication at their discretion. The frequency of subsequent communications by all Parties shall be determined by the Conference of the Parties, taking into account the differentiated timetable set by this paragraph.
6. Information communicated by Parties under this Article shall be transmitted by the secretariat as soon as possible to the Conference of the Parties and to any subsidiary bodies concerned. If necessary, the procedures for the communication of information may be further considered by the Conference of the Parties.
7. From its first session, the Conference of the Parties shall arrange for the provision to developing country Parties of technical and financial support, on request, in compiling and communicating information under this Article, as well as in identifying the technical and financial needs associated with proposed projects and response measures under Article 4. Such support may be provided by other Parties, by competent international organizations and by the secretariat, as appropriate.
8. Any group of Parties may, subject to guidelines adopted by the Conference of the Parties, and to prior notification to the Conference of the Parties, make a joint communication in fulfilment of their obligations under this Article, provided that such a communication includes information on the fulfilment by each of these Parties of its individual obligations under the Convention.
9. Information received by the secretariat that is designated by a Party as confidential, in accordance with criteria to be established by the Conference of the Parties, shall be aggregated by the secretariat to protect its confidentiality before being made available to any of the bodies involved in the communication and review of information.
10. Subject to paragraph 9 above, and without prejudice to the ability of any Party to make public its communication at any time, the secretariat shall make communications by Parties under this Article publicly available at the time they are submitted to the Conference of the Parties.
Article 13
RESOLUTION OF QUESTIONS REGARDING IMPLEMENTATION
The Conference of the Parties shall, at its first session, consider the establishment of a multilateral consultative process, available to Parties on their request, for the resolution of questions regarding the implementation of the Convention.
Article 14
SETTLEMENT OF DISPUTES
1. In the event of a dispute between any two or more Parties concerning the interpretation or application of the Convention, the Parties concerned shall seek a settlement of the dispute through negotiation or any other peaceful means of their own choice.
2. When ratifying, accepting, approving or acceding to the Convention, or at any time thereafter, a Party which is not a regional economic integration organization may declare in a written instrument submitted to the Depositary that, in respect of any dispute concerning the interpretation or application of the Convention, it recognizes as compulsory ipso facto and without special agreement, in relation to any Party accepting the same obligation:
(a) Submission of the dispute to the International Court of Justice, and/or
(b) Arbitration in accordance with procedures to be adopted by the Conference of the Parties as soon as practicable, in an annex on arbitration.
A Party which is a regional economic integration organization may make a declaration with like effect in relation to arbitration in accordance with the procedures referred to in subparagraph (b) above.
3. A declaration made under paragraph 2 above shall remain in force until it expires in accordance with its terms or until three months after written notice of its revocation has been deposited with the Depositary.
4. A new declaration, a notice of revocation or the expiry of a declaration shall not in any way affect proceedings pending before the International Court of Justice or the arbitral tribunal, unless the parties to the dispute otherwise agree.
5. Subject to the operation of paragraph 2 above, if after twelve months following notification by one Party to another that a dispute exists between them, the Parties concerned have not been able to settle their dispute through the means mentioned in paragraph 1 above, the dispute shall be submitted, at the request of any of the parties to the dispute, to conciliation.
6. A conciliation commission shall be created upon the request of one of the parties to the dispute. The commission shall be composed of an equal number of members appointed by each party concerned and a chairman chosen jointly by the members appointed by each party. The commission shall render a recommendatory award, which the parties shall consider in good faith.
7. Additional procedures relating to conciliation shall be adopted by the Conference of the Parties, as soon as practicable, in an annex on conciliation.
8. The provisions of this Article shall apply to any related legal instrument which the Conference of the Parties may adopt, unless the instrument provides otherwise.
Article 15
AMENDMENTS TO THE CONVENTION
1. Any Party may propose amendments to the Convention.
2. Amendments to the Convention shall be adopted at an ordinary session of the Conference of the Parties. The text of any proposed amendment to the Convention shall be communicated to the Parties by the secretariat at least six months before the meeting at which it is proposed for adoption. The secretariat shall also communicate proposed amendments to the signatories to the Convention and, for information, to the Depositary.
3. The Parties shall make every effort to reach agreement on any proposed amendment to the Convention by consensus. If all efforts at consensus have been exhausted, and no agreement reached, the amendment shall as a last resort be adopted by a three-fourths majority vote of the Parties present and voting at the meeting. The adopted amendment shall be communicated by the secretariat to the Depositary, who shall circulate it to all Parties for their acceptance.
4. Instruments of acceptance in respect of an amendment shall be deposited with the Depositary. An amendment adopted in accordance with paragraph 3 above shall enter into force for those Parties having accepted it on the ninetieth day after the date of receipt by the Depositary of an instrument of acceptance by at least three fourths of the Parties to the Convention.
5. The amendment shall enter into force for any other Party on the ninetieth day after the date on which that Party deposits with the Depositary its instrument of acceptance of the said amendment.
6. For the purposes of this Article, “Parties present and voting” means Parties present and casting an affirmative or negative vote.
Article 16
ADOPTION AND AMENDMENT OF ANNEXES TO THE CONVENTION
1. Annexes to the Convention shall form an integral part thereof and, unless otherwise expressly provided, a reference to the Convention constitutes at the same time a reference to any annexes thereto. Without prejudice to the provisions of Article 14, paragraphs 2(b) and 7, such annexes shall be restricted to lists, forms and any other material of a descriptive nature that is of a scientific, technical, procedural or administrative character.
2. Annexes to the Convention shall be proposed and adopted in accordance with the procedure set forth in Article 15, paragraphs 2, 3 and 4.
3. An annex that has been adopted in accordance with paragraph 2 above shall enter into force for all Parties to the Convention six months after the date of the communication by the Depositary to such Parties of the adoption of the annex, except for those Parties that have notified the Depositary, in writing, within that period of their non-acceptance of the annex. The annex shall enter into force for Parties which withdraw their notification of non-acceptance on the ninetieth day after the date on which withdrawal of such notification has been received by the Depositary.
4. The proposal, adoption and entry into force of amendments to annexes to the Convention shall be subject to the same procedure as that for the proposal, adoption and entry into force of annexes to the Convention in accordance with paragraphs 2 and 3 above.
5. If the adoption of an annex or an amendment to an annex involves an amendment to the Convention, that annex or amendment to an annex shall not enter into force until such time as the amendment to the Convention enters into force.
Article 17
PROTOCOLS
1. The Conference of the Parties may, at any ordinary session, adopt protocols to the Convention.
2. The text of any proposed protocol shall be communicated to the Parties by the secretariat at least six months before such a session.
3. The requirements for the entry into force of any protocol shall be established by that instrument.
4. Only Parties to the Convention may be Parties to a protocol.
5. Decisions under any protocol shall be taken only by the Parties to the protocol concerned.
Article 18
RIGHT TO VOTE
1. Each Party to the Convention shall have one vote, except as provided for in paragraph 2 below.
2. Regional economic integration organizations, in matters within their competence, shall exercise their right to vote with a number of votes equal to the number of their member States that are Parties to the Convention. Such an organization shall not exercise its right to vote if any of its member States exercises its right, and vice versa.
Article 19
DEPOSITARY
The Secretary-General of the United Nations shall be the Depositary of the Convention and of protocols adopted in accordance with Article 17.
Article 20
SIGNATURE
This Convention shall be open for signature by States Members of the United Nations or of any of its specialized agencies or that are Parties to the Statute of the International Court of Justice and by regional economic integration organizations at Rio de Janeiro, during the United Nations Conference on Environment and Development, and thereafter at United Nations Headquarters in New York from 20 June 1992 to 19 June 1993.
Article 21
INTERIM ARRANGEMENTS
1. The secretariat functions referred to in Article 8 will be carried out on an interim basis by the secretariat established by the General Assembly of the United Nations in its resolution 45/212 of 21 December 1990, until the completion of the first session of the Conference of the Parties.
2. The head of the interim secretariat referred to in paragraph 1 above will cooperate closely with the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change to ensure that the Panel can respond to the need for objective scientific and technical advice. Other relevant scientific bodies could also be consulted.
3. The Global Environment Facility of the United Nations Development Programme, the United Nations Environment Programme and the International Bank for Reconstruction and Development shall be the international entity entrusted with the operation of the financial mechanism referred to in Article 11 on an interim basis. In this connection, the Global Environment Facility should be appropriately restructured and its membership made universal to enable it to fulfil the requirements of Article 11.
Article 22
RATIFICATION, ACCEPTANCE, APPROVAL OR ACCESSION
1. The Convention shall be subject to ratification, acceptance, approval or accession by States and by regional economic integration organizations. It shall be open for accession from the day after the date on which the Convention is closed for signature. Instruments of ratification, acceptance, approval or accession shall be deposited with the Depositary.
2. Any regional economic integration organization which becomes a Party to the Convention without any of its member States being a Party shall be bound by all the obligations under the Convention. In the case of such organizations, one or more of whose member States is a Party to the Convention, the organization and its member States shall decide on their respective responsibilities for the performance of their obligations under the Convention. In such cases, the organization and the member States shall not be entitled to exercise rights under the Convention concurrently.
3. In their instruments of ratification, acceptance, approval or accession, regional economic integration organizations shall declare the extent of their competence with respect to the matters governed by the Convention. These organizations shall also inform the Depositary, who shall in turn inform the Parties, of any substantial modification in the extent of their competence.
Article 23
ENTRY INTO FORCE
1. The Convention shall enter into force on the ninetieth day after the date of deposit of the fiftieth instrument of ratification, acceptance, approval or accession.
2. For each State or regional economic integration organization that ratifies, accepts or approves the Convention or accedes thereto after the deposit of the fiftieth instrument of ratification, acceptance, approval or accession, the Convention shall enter into force on the ninetieth day after the date of deposit by such State or regional economic integration organization of its instrument of ratification, acceptance, approval or accession.
3. For the purposes of paragraphs 1 and 2 above, any instrument deposited by a regional economic integration organization shall not be counted as additional to those deposited by States members of the organization.
Article 24
RESERVATIONS
No reservations may be made to the Convention.
Article 25
WITHDRAWAL
1. At any time after three years from the date on which the Convention has entered into force for a Party, that Party may withdraw from the Convention by giving written notification to the Depositary.
2. Any such withdrawal shall take effect upon expiry of one year from the date of receipt by the Depositary of the notification of withdrawal, or on such later date as may be specified in the notification of withdrawal.
3. Any Party that withdraws from the Convention shall be considered as also having withdrawn from any protocol to which it is a Party.
Article 26
AUTHENTIC TEXTS
The original of this Convention, of which the Arabic, Chinese, English, French, Russian and Spanish texts are equally authentic, shall be deposited with the Secretary- General of the United Nations.
IN WITNESS WHEREOF the undersigned, being duly authorized to that effect, have signed this Convention.
DONE at New York this ninth day of May one thousand nine hundred and ninety- two.
ANNEX I
Australia
Austria
Belarus(a/)
Belgium
Bulgaria(a/)
Canada
Czechoslovakia(a/)
Denmark
European Economic Community
Estonia(a/)
Finland
France
Germany
Greece
Hungary(a/)
Iceland
Ireland
Italy
Japan
Latvia(a/)
Lithuania(a/)
Luxembourg
Netherlands
New Zealand
Norway
Poland(a/)
Portugal
Romania(a/)
Russian Federation(a/)
Spain
Sweden
Switzerland
Turkey
Ukraine(a/)
United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland
United States of America
ANNEX II
Australia
Austria
Belgium
Canada
Denmark
European Economic Community
Finland
France
Germany
Greece
Iceland
Ireland
Italy
Japan
Luxembourg
Netherlands
New Zealand
Norway
Portugal
Spain
Sweden
Switzerland
Turkey
United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland
United States of America
* Titles of articles are included solely to assist the reader.
1 This includes policies and measures adopted by regional economic integration organizations.
a/ Countries that are undergoing the process of transition to a market economy.
OKVIRNA KONVENCIJA ZDRUŽENIH NARODOV O SPREMEMBI PODNEBJA
Pogodbenice te konvencije, ki:
priznavajo, da so sprememba podnebja na Zemlji in njeni škodljivi učinki skupna skrb vsega človeštva,
so zaskrbljene, ker človekove dejavnosti znatno povečujejo koncentracijo toplogrednih plinov v ozračju, ker to povečanje stopnjuje naravni učinek tople grede in ker bo to povečanje imelo v povprečju za posledico dodatno segrevanje zemeljske površine in ozračja in lahko škodljivo vpliva na naravne ekosisteme in človeštvo,
opažajo, da največji svetovni delež pretekle in sedanje globalne emisije toplogrednih plinov izvira iz razvitih držav, da je emisija na prebivalca v državah v razvoju še vedno razmeroma nizka, da pa se bo delež globalnih emisij, ki izvirajo iz držav v razvoju, povečeval zaradi socialnih in razvojnih potreb teh držav,
se zavedajo vloge in pomembnosti ponorov in zbiralnikov toplogrednih plinov za kopenske in morske ekosisteme,
opažajo, da je mnogo negotovosti pri napovedih spremembe podnebja, zlasti glede časa njenega učinkovanja, obsega in regionalne razporejenosti,
priznavajo, da globalni pomen spremembe podnebja zahteva najširše možno sodelovanje vseh držav in njihovo udeležbo pri učinkovitem in ustreznem mednarodnem odzivu v skladu z njihovimi skupnimi, vendar različnimi odgovornostmi ob upoštevanju njihovih zmožnosti ter družbenogospodarskih razmer,
se sklicujejo na ustrezne določbe Deklaracije Konference Združenih narodov o človekovem okolju, ki je bila sprejeta v Stockholmu 16. junija 1972,
se sklicujejo tudi na to, da imajo države v skladu z Ustanovno listino Združenih narodov in načeli mednarodnega prava suvereno pravico izkoriščati svoje naravne vire v skladu z lastno okoljsko in razvojno politiko ter odgovornost zagotoviti, da dejavnosti pod njihovo jurisdikcijo ali nadzorom ne povzročajo škode okolju drugih držav ali območjem zunaj meja državne jurisdikcije,
ponovno potrjujejo načelo suverenosti držav pri mednarodnem sodelovanju v zvezi z obravnavanjem spremembe podnebja,
priznavajo, da bi države morale sprejeti učinkovito zakonodajo o varstvu okolja, tako da se bodo okoljski standardi, cilji upravljanja in prednostne naloge izražali v okolju in razvoju, na katere se nanašajo, ter da so standardi, ki se uporabljajo v nekaterih državah, morda neprimerni in so neupravičen gospodarski in družbeni strošek za druge države, zlasti države v razvoju,
se sklicujejo na določbe resolucije Generalne skupščine 44/228, sprejete dne 22. decembra 1989 o Konferenci Združenih narodov o okolju in razvoju, in resolucij 43/53 z dne 6. decembra 1988, 44/207 z dne 22. decembra 1989, 45/212 z dne 21. decembra 1990 in 46/169 z dne 19. decembra 1991 o varstvu podnebja na Zemlji za sedanje in prihodnje generacije človeštva,
se sklicujejo tudi na določbe resolucije Generalne skupščine 44/206 z dne 22. decembra 1989 o morebitnih škodljivih učinkih dviganja morske gladine na otoke in obalna območja, zlasti nizko ležeča obalna območja, in ustrezne določbe resolucije Generalne skupščine 44/172 z dne 19. decembra 1989 o izvajanju Akcijskega načrta za boj proti širjenju puščav,
se nadalje sklicujejo tudi na Dunajsko konvencijo o zaščiti ozonskega plašča, 1985 in Montrealski protokol o snoveh, ki škodljivo delujejo na ozonski plašč, 1987, kot je bil prirejen in dopolnjen 29. junija 1990,
upoštevajo Deklaracijo ministrov Druge svetovne konference o podnebju, sprejeto 7. novembra 1990,
se zavedajo dragocenega analitičnega dela o spremembi podnebja, ki ga opravljajo mnoge države, in pomembnih prispevkov Svetovne meteorološke organizacije, Programa Združenih narodov za okolje in drugih organov, organizacij in teles sistema Združenih narodov kot tudi drugih mednarodnih in medvladnih teles k izmenjavi dosežkov znanstvenih raziskav in usklajevanju raziskav,
priznavajo, da bodo ukrepi, potrebni za razumevanje in ukvarjanje s spremembo podnebja, okoljsko, družbeno in gospodarsko najučinkovitejši, če bodo temeljili na ustreznih znanstvenih, tehničnih in gospodarskih proučevanjih in bodo vedno znova vrednoteni z vidika novih ugotovitev na teh področjih,
priznavajo, da so lahko različna dejanja za obravnavanje spremembe podnebja sama po sebi gospodarsko upravičena, poleg tega pa lahko pripomorejo k reševanju drugih problemov okolja,
priznavajo tudi potrebo, da razvite države na podlagi jasnih prednostnih nalog takoj prožno ukrepajo in kot prvi korak k vsestransko odzivnim strategijam na globalni, državni in, kjer je to dogovorjeno, tudi regionalni ravni upoštevajo vse toplogredne pline in ob tem primerno upoštevajo njihove relativne prispevke k povečanju učinka tople grede,
nadalje priznavajo, da so nizko ležeče in druge majhne otoške države, države z nizko ležečimi obalnimi območji, izsušenimi in delno izsušenimi območji oziroma območji, ki so izpostavljena poplavam, suši in širjenju puščav, in države v razvoju z občutljivimi gorskimi ekosistemi še posebej občutljive za škodljive učinke spremembe podnebja,
priznavajo posebne težave tistih držav, zlasti držav v razvoju, katerih gospodarstvo je posebej odvisno od pridobivanja, uporabe in izvoza fosilnih goriv, in ki so posledica ukrepov za omejevanje emisije toplogrednih plinov,
potrjujejo, da bi morali biti odzivi na podnebno spremembo celostno usklajeni z družbenim in gospodarskim razvojem, da bi se tako izognili škodljivim učinkom na razvoj, pri čemer je treba v celoti upoštevati legitimne prednostne potrebe držav v razvoju, da bi dosegle trajno gospodarsko rast ter izkoreninile revščino,
priznavajo, da vse države, zlasti države v razvoju, potrebujejo dostop do virov, potrebnih za trajnostni družbeni in gospodarski razvoj; da bi lahko države v razvoju napredovale proti temu cilju, se bo morala njihova poraba energije povečati, pri tem pa je treba upoštevati možnosti za doseganje večje energetske učinkovitosti in v celoti nadzorovati emisijo toplogrednih plinov, vključno z uporabo novih tehnologij, tako da bo ta uporaba gospodarsko in družbeno koristna,
so odločene varovati podnebni sistem za sedanje in prihodnje generacije,
so se sporazumele o naslednjem:
1. člen
DEFINICIJE*1
Za namene te konvencije:
1. “Škodljivi učinki spremembe podnebja” pomenijo spremembe v stvarnem ali življenjskem okolju, ki so posledica spremembe podnebja in imajo pomemben škodljiv učinek na sestavo, prožnost ali produktivnost naravnih in upravljanih ekosistemov, na delovanje družbenogospodarskih sistemov ali na človekovo zdravje in blaginjo.
2. “Sprememba podnebja” pomeni spremembo podnebja, ki je nastala neposredno ali posredno zaradi človekovih dejavnosti, ki spreminjajo sestavo zemeljskega ozračja, in se poleg naravne spremembe podnebja opaža v primerljivih časovnih obdobjih.
3. “Podnebni sistem” pomeni celoto ozračja, hidrosfere, biosfere, geosfere ter njihovih medsebojnih učinkovanj.
4. “Emisije” pomenijo izpuščanje toplogrednih plinov in/ali njihovih predhodnikov v ozračje nad določenim območjem in v določenem obdobju.
5. “Toplogredni plini” pomenijo tiste plinske sestavine ozračja, tako naravne kot antropogene, ki absorbirajo in ponovno oddajajo infrardeče sevanje.
6. “Regionalna organizacija za gospodarsko povezovanje” pomeni organizacijo, ki jo ustanovijo suverene države določene regije in ima pristojnosti v zadevah, ki jih ureja ta konvencija ali njeni protokoli, ter je v skladu s svojo notranjo ureditvijo ustrezno pooblaščena, da podpiše, ratificira, sprejme, odobri ali pristopi k omenjenim instrumentom.
7. “Zbiralnik” pomeni eno ali več sestavin podnebnega sistema, kjer je shranjen toplogredni plin ali njegov predhodnik.
8. “Ponor” pomeni kateri koli proces, dejavnost ali mehanizem, ki odstranjuje toplogredni plin, aerosol ali predhodnik toplogrednega plina iz ozračja.
9. “Vir” pomeni kateri koli proces ali dejavnost, ki izpušča toplogredni plin, aerosol ali predhodnik toplogrednega plina v ozračje.
2. člen
CILJ
Končni cilj te konvencije in vseh z njo povezanih pravnih instrumentov, ki jih lahko sprejme Konferenca pogodbenic, je v skladu z njenimi določili doseči ustalitev koncentracije toplogrednih plinov v ozračju na takšni ravni, ki bo preprečila nevarno antropogeno poseganje v podnebni sistem. Ta raven naj bi bila dosežena v takšnem časovnem obdobju, ki ekosistemom dovoljuje naravno prilagoditev spremembi podnebja, ki zagotavlja, da ne bo ogroženo pridobivanje hrane, in ki omogoča trajnostni gospodarski razvoj.
3. člen
NAČELA
Pogodbenice se pri svojih dejanjih za doseganje cilja te konvencije in izpolnjevanje njenih določb ravnajo med drugim po naslednjih načelih:
1. Pogodbenice naj varujejo podnebni sistem v dobro sedanje in prihodnjih generacij človeštva na temelju pravičnosti in v skladu s svojimi skupnimi, vendar različnimi odgovornostmi in njihovimi zmožnostmi. Glede na to naj bodo razvite države pogodbenice vodilne v boju proti spremembi podnebja in njenim škodljivim učinkom.
2. Vsa pozornost naj bo posvečena posebnim potrebam in posebnim okoliščinam pogodbenic držav v razvoju, še zlasti tistim, ki so posebej občutljive za škodljive učinke spremembe podnebja, in tistim, ki bodo zaradi konvencije nesorazmerno ali čezmerno obremenjene.
3. Pogodbenice naj sprejmejo vnaprejšnje ukrepe, da bi predvidele, preprečile ali kar najbolj zmanjšale vzroke spremembe podnebja in ublažile njene škodljive učinke. Kadar grozi resna ali nepopravljiva škoda, pomanjkanje popolne znanstvene zanesljivosti ne bi smel biti razlog za odlaganje teh ukrepov. Pri tem naj bodo politike in ukrepi, ki se nanašajo na spremembo podnebja, stroškovno učinkoviti, tako da se globalne koristi zagotovijo ob najnižjih možnih stroških. Za dosego tega naj takšne politike in ukrepi upoštevajo različne družbene in gospodarske razmere, naj bodo vsestranske, zajemajo naj vse pomembne vire, ponore in zbiralnike toplogrednih plinov ter prilagoditve in naj vključujejo vse gospodarske panoge. Pogodbenice lahko medsebojno sodelujejo pri prizadevanjih, ki se nanašajo na spremembo podnebja.
4. Pogodbenice imajo pravico spodbujati trajnostni razvoj in naj to uresničujejo. Politike in ukrepi za varovanje podnebnega sistema pred spremembami, ki jih povzroča človek, naj ustrezajo posebnim razmeram vsake pogodbenice in naj bodo vključeni v državne razvojne programe ob upoštevanju, da je razvoj gospodarstva nujen za sprejem ukrepov, ki se nanašajo na spremembo podnebja.
5. Pogodbenice naj sodelujejo pri pospeševanju podpornega in odprtega mednarodnega gospodarskega sistema, ki bo vodil k trajnostni gospodarski rasti in razvoju v vseh pogodbenicah, zlasti pogodbenicah državah v razvoju, in jim tako omogočal boljše možnosti za premagovanje problemov, ki jih povzroča sprememba podnebja. Ukrepi, tudi enostranski, za boj proti spremembi podnebja, naj ne bodo sredstvo samovoljne ali neupravičene diskriminacije ali prikritih omejitev v mednarodni trgovini.
4. člen
OBVEZNOSTI
1. Pogodbenice ob upoštevanju svojih skupnih, vendar različnih odgovornosti in svojih posebnih državnih in regionalnih razvojnih prednosti, ciljev in okoliščin:
(a) razvijajo, občasno posodabljajo, objavljajo ter Konferenci pogodbenic v skladu z 12. členom omogočajo vpogled v državne sezname antropogenih emisij iz virov in vseh po ponorih odstranjenih toplogrednih plinov, ki jih ne nadzira Montrealski protokol, z uporabo primerljivih metodologij, ki jih sprejme Konferenca pogodbenic;
(b) oblikujejo, izvajajo, objavljajo in redno posodabljajo državne in, kjer je to potrebno tudi regionalne programe ukrepov za ublažitev spremembe podnebja glede na antropogene emisije iz virov ter po ponorih odstranjenih vseh toplogrednih plinov, ki jih ne nadzira Montrealski protokol, in ukrepe, s katerimi bodo olajšale ustrezno prilagoditev spremembi podnebja;
(c) spodbujajo in sodelujejo pri razvoju, uporabi, širjenju in prenosu tehnologij, običajnih delovnih postopkov in procesov, ki nadzirajo, zmanjšujejo ali preprečujejo antropogene emisije toplogrednih plinov, ki jih ne nadzira Montrealski protokol, v vseh pomembnih panogah, vključno z energetiko, prometom, industrijo, kmetijstvom, gozdarstvom in ravnanjem z odpadki;
(d) spodbujajo trajnostno upravljanje ter spodbujajo in sodelujejo pri ohranitvi in izboljšanju, kot je primerno, ponorov in zbiralnikov vseh toplogrednih plinov, ki jih ne nadzira Montrealski protokol, vključno z biomaso, gozdovi in oceani ter z drugimi kopenskimi, obalnimi in morskimi ekosistemi;
(e) sodelujejo pri pripravah za prilagajanje vplivom spremembe podnebja; razvijajo in izpopolnjujejo ustrezne in celovite načrte za upravljanje obalnih območij, vodnih virov in kmetijstva ter za zaščito in sanacijo območij, zlasti v Afriki, ki so jih prizadeli suša, širjenje puščav ali poplave;
(f) v največji možni meri upoštevajo spremembo podnebja v družbeni, gospodarski in okoljski politiki ter dejanjih in uporabljajo pri projektih ali ukrepih za zmanjšanje spremembe podnebja ali prilagoditev nanjo primerne metode, na primer presojo vplivov, ki bodo oblikovane in določene na državni ravni z namenom čim bolj zmanjšati škodljive učinke na gospodarstvo, zdravje in kakovost okolja;
(g) spodbujajo in sodelujejo pri znanstvenih, tehnoloških, tehničnih, družbeno-gospodarskih in drugih raziskavah, sistematičnem spremljanju in razvoju podatkovnih zbirk, ki se nanašajo na podnebni sistem in so namenjene izboljšanju razumevanja in zmanjšanju oziroma odstranitvi preostalih negotovosti glede vzrokov, učinkov, obsega in časa nastopa spremembe podnebja ter gospodarskih in družbenih posledic različnih odzivnih strategij;
(h) spodbujajo in sodelujejo pri celoviti, odprti in hitri izmenjavi pomembnih znanstvenih, tehnoloških, tehničnih, družbenogospodarskih in pravnih informacij, ki se nanašajo na podnebni sistem in spremembo podnebja ter gospodarske in socialne posledice različnih odzivnih strategij;
(i) spodbujajo in sodelujejo pri izobraževanju, usposabljanju in ozaveščanju javnosti o spremembi podnebja ter spodbujajo najširše sodelovanje v tem procesu, vključno z nevladnimi organizacijami; in
(j) sporočajo Konferenci pogodbenic informacije o izvajanju konvencije v skladu z 12. členom te konvencije.
2. Razvite države pogodbenice in druge pogodbenice konvencije iz aneksa I se izrecno zavezujejo, da:
(a) vsaka od teh pogodbenic sprejme državno (1) politiko in ustrezne ukrepe za ublažitev spremembe podnebja z omejevanjem antropogenih emisij toplogrednih plinov ter z zaščito in izboljšanjem ponorov in zbiralnikov toplogrednih plinov. Te politike in ukrepi bodo pokazali, da razvite države prevzemajo vodstvo pri spreminjanju dolgoročnih trendov antropogenih emisij v skladu s ciljem konvencije; pri tem priznavajo, da bi vrnitev antropogenih emisij ogljikovega dioksida in drugih toplogrednih plinov, ki jih ne nadzira Montrealski protokol, na prejšnje ravni do konca tega desetletja prispevala k takšni spremembi ob upoštevanju razlik v izhodiščih in pristopih pogodbenic, njihove gospodarske strukture in razpoložljive vire, potrebe po ohranitvi trdne in trajnostne gospodarske rasti, razpoložljivih tehnologij in drugih individualnih okoliščin kot tudi potrebe po pravičnih in ustreznih prispevkih vsake pogodbenice h globalnim prizadevanjem za uresničitev tega cilja. Te pogodbenice lahko uresničujejo take politike in ukrepe skupaj z drugimi pogodbenicami in lahko pomagajo drugim pogodbenicam pri uresničevanju ciljev konvencije, zlasti tistih, ki so navedeni v tej točki;
(b) da bi pospešile napredek v ta namen, vsaka od teh držav pogodbenic v skladu z 12. členom sporoči v šestih mesecih od dneva, ko zanjo konvencija začne veljati, in potem občasno podrobne informacije o svojih politikah in ukrepih, ki se nanašajo na točko (a) tega odstavka, kot tudi o svojih doseženih predvidenih antropogenih emisijah iz virov in odstranjevanj po ponorih toplogrednih plinov, ki jih ne nadzira Montrealski protokol, za obdobje, določeno v točki (a), in to s ciljem, da posamezno ali skupno vrnejo antropogene emisije ogljikovega dioksida in drugih toplogrednih plinov, ki jih ne nadzira Montrealski protokol, na ravni iz leta 1990. Te informacije bo pregledala Konferenca pogodbenic na prvem zasedanju in nato občasno v skladu s 7. členom;
(c) pri izračunavanje emisij iz virov in odstranjevanj po ponorih toplogrednih plinov za namene iz točke (b) tega odstavka naj se upoštevajo najboljša razpoložljiva znanstvena spoznanja, vključno z učinkovito zmogljivostjo ponorov in s posamičnimi prispevki teh plinov k spremembi podnebja. Konferenca pogodbenic obravnava in odobri metodologije za ta izračunavanja na svojem prvem zasedanju in jih potem redno pregleduje;
(d) Konferenca pogodbenic na svojem prvem zasedanju prouči ustreznost točk (a) in (b) tega odstavka z vidika najboljših razpoložljivih znanstvenih informacij in ocen spremembe podnebja in njenih učinkov kot tudi ustreznih tehničnih, družbenih in gospodarskih informacij. Na tej podlagi Konferenca pogodbenic sprejme primerne ukrepe, ki lahko vključujejo tudi sprejem amandmajev k obveznostim v točkah (a) in (b) tega odstavka. Konferenca pogodbenic na svojem prvem zasedanju sprejme tudi odločitve o merilih za skupno izvajanje, kot izhaja iz točke (a) tega odstavka. Točki (a) in (b) morata biti drugič pregledani najkasneje do 31. decembra 1998 in zatem v rednih obdobjih, ki jih določi Konferenca pogodbenic, dokler ne bo uresničen cilj te konvencije;
(e) vsaka od teh pogodbenic:
(i) z drugimi takimi pogodbenicami na primeren način usklajuje ustrezne gospodarske in upravne instrumente, izdelane za uresničitev cilja konvencije; in
(ii)določa in občasno pregleduje lastno politiko in prakso, ki spodbujata dejavnosti za doseganje višjih ravni antropogenih emisij toplogrednih plinov, ki jih ne nadzira Montrealski protokol, kot bi bile sicer dosežene;
(f) Konferenca pogodbenic najkasneje do 31. decembra 1998 pregleda razpoložljive informacije, z namenom da se po potrebi odloči za ustrezne amandmaje k seznamom v aneksih I in II, in to s privolitvijo pogodbenice, ki jo to zadeva;
(g) vsaka pogodbenica, ki ni vključena v aneks I, lahko v listini o ratifikaciji, sprejemu, odobriti ali pristopu ali kadar koli kasneje obvesti depozitarja, da namerava sprejeti obveznosti iz točk (a) in (b) tega odstavka. Depozitar o vsaki taki sprejeti notifikaciji obvesti druge podpisnice in pogodbenice.
3. Razvite države pogodbenice in druge razvite pogodbenice, vključene v aneks II, priskrbijo nove in dodatne finančne vire za pokritje vseh dogovorjenih stroškov pogodbenic držav v razvoju v skladu s svojimi obveznostmi, naštetimi v prvem odstavku 12. člena. Zagotoviti morajo tudi takšne finančne vire, vključno s tistimi za prenos tehnologije, ki jih pogodbenice države v razvoju potrebujejo, da bi lahko pokrile vse dogovorjene povečane stroške, nastale pri izvajanju ukrepov iz prvega odstavka tega člena in ki so dogovorjeni med pogodbenico državo v razvoju in mednarodnim subjektom ali subjekti iz 11. člena in v skladu z njim. Pri izpolnjevanju teh obveznosti je treba upoštevati potrebo po ustreznosti in predvidljivosti denarnih sredstev pri njihovem dotoku ter pomen primerne porazdelitve bremena med razvite države pogodbenice.
4. Razvite države pogodbenice in druge razvite pogodbenice, vključene v aneks II, morajo prav tako pomagati pogodbenicam državam v razvoju, ki so posebej občutljive za škodljive učinke spremembe podnebja, pri pokrivanju stroškov prilagajanja tem škodljivim učinkom.
5. Razvite države pogodbenice in druge razvite pogodbenice, vključene v aneks II, storijo vse potrebno in primerno za spodbujanje, lajšanje in financiranje prenosa ali dostopa do okolju prijaznih tehnologij ter do znanja in izkušenj drugim pogodbenicam, zlasti pogodbenicam državam v razvoju, da jim tako omogočijo izvajanje določil konvencije. V tem procesu razvite države pogodbenice podpirajo razvoj in napredek lastnih zmogljivosti in tehnologij pogodbenic držav v razvoju. Tudi druge pogodbenice in organizacije lahko glede na svoje zmožnosti prispevajo k lajšanju prenosa takšnih tehnologij.
6. Konferenca pogodbenic dovoljuje pogodbenicam iz aneksa I, ki so na prehodu v tržno gospodarstvo, določeno stopnjo prožnosti pri izpolnjevanju njihovih obveznosti iz drugega odstavka tega člena, da bi izboljšale svoje zmožnosti odzivanja na spremembo podnebja, vključno s preteklo ravnijo antropogenih emisij toplogrednih plinov, izbrano kot osnovo, ki jih ne nadzira Montrealski protokol.
7. Obseg učinkovitega izpolnjevanja obveznosti iz konvencije pogodbenic držav v razvoju bo odvisen od učinkovitega izpolnjevanja teh obveznosti razvitih držav pogodbenic glede na finančne vire in prenos tehnologije. Pri tem pa je treba dosledno upoštevati, da sta gospodarski in družben razvoj ter odprava revščine prvi in najpomembnejši prednostni nalogi pogodbenic držav v razvoju.
8. Pri izpolnjevanju obveznosti iz tega člena pogodbenice namenjajo posebno pozornost temu, katera dejanja, ki izhajajo iz konvencije, so potrebna, vključno s financiranjem, zavarovanjem in prenosom tehnologije, da bi se odzvale posebnim potrebam in skrbem pogodbenic držav v razvoju zaradi škodljivih učinkov spremembe podnebja in/ali vpliva izvajanja ukrepov, potrebnih zlasti v:
(a) majhnih otoških državah;
(b) državah z nizko ležečimi obalnimi območji;
(c) državah z izsušenimi in delno izsušenimi območji, gozdnatimi območji in območji, izpostavljenimi propadanju gozdov;
(d) državah z območji, izpostavljenimi naravnim nesrečam;
(e) državah z območji, izpostavljenimi suši in širjenju puščav;
(f) državah z območji močnega urbanega onesnaževanja ozračja;
(g) državah z občutljivimi ekosistemi, vključno z gorskimi ekosistemi;
(h) državah, katerih gospodarstva so močno odvisna od dohodka iz proizvodnje, predelave ter izvoza in/ali porabe fosilnih goriv in z njimi povezanih energetsko intenzivnih proizvodov; in
(i) državah brez izhoda na morje in tranzitnih državah.
Konferenca pogodbenic lahko sprejme ustrezne ukrepe v skladu s tem odstavkom.
9. Pogodbenice pri financiranju in prenosu tehnologije v celoti upoštevajo posebne potrebe in razmere najmanj razvitih držav.
10. Pogodbenice v skladu z 10. členom pri izpolnjevanju obveznosti iz konvencije upoštevajo razmere tistih pogodbenic, zlasti držav v razvoju, katerih gospodarstvo je občutljivo za škodljive posledice izvajanja ukrepov, ki se nanašajo na spremembo podnebja. To velja zlasti za pogodbenice, katerih gospodarstva so v veliki meri odvisna od dohodka, ki izvira iz proizvodnje, predelave ter izvoza in/ali porabe fosilnih goriv in z njimi povezanih energetsko intenzivnih proizvodov in/ali uporabe fosilnih goriv, zaradi česar imajo resne težave pri prehodu k alternativnim rešitvam.
5. člen
RAZISKOVANJE IN SISTEMATIČNO OPAZOVANJE
Pri izpolnjevanju svojih obveznosti iz točke (g) prvega odstavka 4. člena pogodbenice:
(a) podpirajo in ustrezno nadalje razvijajo mednarodne in medvladne programe ter mreže ali organizacije, ki se ukvarjajo z določanjem, vodenjem, presojanjem in financiranjem raziskovanja, zbiranja podatkov in sistematičnega opazovanja, ob upoštevanju potrebe po zmanjšanju podvajanja teh prizadevanj na najmanjšo možno mero;
(b) podpirajo mednarodna in medvladna prizadevanja za krepitev sistematičnega opazovanja in državnih znanstvenih in tehničnih raziskovalnih zmogljivosti in sposobnosti, zlasti v državah v razvoju, ter spodbujajo dostop do podatkov in analiz ter njihovo izmenjavo z območij zunaj meja državne jurisdikcije; in
(c) upoštevajo posebne težave in potrebe držav v razvoju ter sodelujejo pri izboljšanju njihovih lastnih zmogljivosti in sposobnosti sodelovati pri prizadevanjih, omenjenih v točkah (a) in (b) tega člena.
6. člen
IZOBRAŽEVANJE, USPOSABLJANJE IN OZAVEŠČANJE JAVNOSTI
Pri izpolnjevanju obveznosti iz točke (i) prvega odstavka 4. člena pogodbenice:
(a) glede na svoje zmožnosti spodbujajo in omogočajo na državnih in, kjer je to potrebno, na subregionalni in regionalni ravni ter v skladu z državnimi zakoni in predpisi:
(i) razvoj in izvajanje izobraževalnih programov in programov ozaveščanja javnosti o spremembi podnebja ter njenih učinkih;
(ii) dostop javnosti do podatkov o spremembi podnebja ter njenih učinkih;
(iii) sodelovanje javnosti pri obravnavanju spremembe podnebja ter njenih učinkov in pri razvijanju ustreznega ukrepanja; in
(iv) usposabljanje znanstvenega, tehničnega in vodstvenega osebja;
(b) na mednarodni ravni in, kjer je to primerno, s pomočjo obstoječih teles spodbujajo in sodelujejo pri:
(i) pripravi in izmenjavi gradiva za izobraževanje in ozaveščanje javnosti o spremembi podnebja ter njenih učinkih; in
(ii) razvoju in izvajanju programov izobraževanja in usposabljanja, vključno s krepitvijo državnih ustanov in izmenjavo ali gostovanjem osebja za izobraževanje strokovnjakov na tem področju, zlasti v državah v razvoju.
7. člen
KONFERENCA POGODBENIC
1. Ustanovi se Konferenca pogodbenic.
2. Konferenca pogodbenic kot najvišje telo te konvencije redno pregleduje izvajanje konvencije in vseh z njo povezanih pravnih instrumentov, ki jih Konferenca pogodbenic lahko sprejme, in v okviru svojih pooblastil sprejema odločitve, potrebne za učinkovito izvajanje konvencije. S tem namenom:
(a) občasno proučuje obveznosti pogodbenic in institucionalne dogovore v okviru konvencije ter glede na cilj konvencije proučuje izkušnje, pridobljene z njenim izvajanjem, in razvoj znanstvenega in tehnološkega znanja;
(b) spodbuja in omogoča izmenjavo informacij o ukrepih, ki so jih sprejele pogodbenice, v zvezi s spremembo podnebja ter njenimi učinki ob upoštevanju različnih okoliščin, odgovornosti in sposobnosti pogodbenic ter njihove obveznosti iz konvencije;
(c) omogoča na zahtevo dveh ali več pogodbenic usklajevanje ukrepov, ki so jih sprejele, v zvezi s spremembo podnebja ter njenimi učinki ob upoštevanju različnih okoliščin, odgovornosti in sposobnosti pogodbenic ter njihovih obveznosti iz konvencije;
(d) v skladu s ciljem in določbami konvencije spodbuja in usmerja razvoj ter občasno izboljšuje primerljive metodologije, ki jih sprejme Konferenca pogodbenic, med drugim za pripravo seznamov emisij toplogrednih plinov po virih in odstranjevanja po ponorih in za vrednotenje učinkovitosti ukrepov, ki bi omejili emisije in pospešili odstranjevanje teh plinov;
(e) presodi na podlagi vseh informacij, ki so ji na voljo v skladu z določbami konvencije, kako pogodbenice izvajajo konvencijo, vsestranske učinke ukrepov, sprejetih v skladu s konvencijo, zlasti okoljskih, gospodarskih in družbenih, kot tudi njihovih skupnih učinkov in napredek pri doseganju cilja konvencije;
(f) obravnava in sprejema redna poročila o izvajanju konvencije in zagotavlja njihovo objavo;
(g) daje priporočila o vseh zadevah, potrebnih za izvajanje konvencije;
(h) išče načine zbiranja finančnih virov v skladu s 3., 4. in 5. odstavkom 4. člena ter z 11. členom;
(i) ustanovi takšna pomožna telesa, za katera meni, da so potrebna za izvajanje konvencije;
(j) pregleduje poročila svojih pomožnih teles in jih usmerja;
(k) soglaša in s konsenzom sprejema poslovnike in finančna pravila za svoje delovanje in za delovanje pomožnih teles;
(l) išče in uporablja, kjer je to primerno, storitve in sodelovanje ter informacije pristojnih mednarodnih organizacij in medvladnih ter nevladnih teles; in
(m) opravlja druge naloge, potrebne za doseganje cilja konvencije in drugih nalog, ki so ji določene s konvencijo.
3. Konferenca pogodbenic na svojem prvem zasedanju sprejme svoj poslovnik in poslovnike za delovanje pomožnih teles, ustanovljenih s to konvencijo, ki vsebujejo postopke odločanja o zadevah, ki še niso zajete v konvenciji. Taki postopki lahko vključujejo posebej določeno večino glasov, potrebno za sprejem posameznih odločitev.
4. Prvo zasedanje Konference pogodbenic skliče začasni sekretariat, omenjen v 21. členu, do zasedanja pa mora priti najkasneje v enem letu od dne začetka veljavnosti konvencije. Potem potekajo redna zasedanja Konference pogodbenic vsako leto, razen če Konferenca pogodbenic ne določi drugače.
5. Izredna zasedanja Konference pogodbenic se skličejo takrat, ko Konferenca meni, da je to potrebno, ali pa na pisno zahtevo katere koli pogodbenice, s tem da to zahtevo v šestih mesecih, potem ko jo je sekretariat posredoval pogodbenicam, podpre vsaj ena tretjina pogodbenic.
6. Organizacija Združenih narodov, njene specializirane agencije in Mednarodna agencija za atomsko energijo kot tudi vse države članice le-teh ali opazovalke, ki pa niso pogodbenice konvencije, so lahko zastopane na zasedanjih Konference pogodbenic kot opazovalke. Vsako telo ali agencija, bodisi državno ali mednarodno, vladno ali nevladno, usposobljeno za zadeve, ki jih ureja konvencija, in ki je obvestilo sekretariat o svoji želji, da bi bilo zastopano na zasedanju Konference pogodbenic kot opazovalec, lahko to postane, če temu ne nasprotuje vsaj ena tretjina prisotnih pogodbenic. Za sprejem in sodelovanje opazovalca veljajo pravila postopka, ki jih sprejme Konferenca pogodbenic.
8. člen
SEKRETARIAT
1. Ustanovi se sekretariat.
2. Naloge sekretariata so:
(a) pripravljati zasedanja Konference pogodbenic in njenih pomožnih teles, ustanovljenih v skladu s konvencijo, ter jim zagotavljati storitve, ki jih potrebujejo;
(b) zbirati in posredovati prejeta poročila;
(c) pomagati pogodbenicam, zlasti pogodbenicam državam v razvoju na njihovo zahtevo, pri zbiranju in posredovanju informacij v skladu z določili konvencije;
(d) pripraviti poročila o svojih dejavnostih in jih predložiti Konferenci pogodbenic;
(e) zagotoviti potrebno usklajenost s sekretariati drugih ustreznih mednarodnih teles;
(f) sklepati pod vodstvom Konference pogodbenic takšne upravne in pogodbene aranžmaje, ki so potrebni za učinkovito opravljanje njegovih nalog; in
g) opravljati druge naloge sekretariata, določene s konvencijo in njenimi protokoli, ter tiste druge naloge, ki jih določi Konferenca pogodbenic.
3. Konferenca pogodbenic na svojem prvem zasedanju imenuje stalni sekretariat in pripravi vse potrebno za njegovo delovanje.
9. člen
POMOŽNO TELO ZA ZNANSTVENO IN TEHNOLOŠKO SVETOVANJE
1. Ustanovi se pomožno telo za znanstveno in tehnološko svetovanje, ki daje Konferenci pogodbenic in po potrebi drugim pomožnim telesom pravočasne informacije in nasvete o znanstvenih in tehnoloških zadevah v zvezi s konvencijo. V tem telesu lahko sodelujejo vse pogodbenice in je multidisciplinarno. Sestavljeno je iz vladnih predstavnikov, usposobljenih za posamezna strokovna področja. Telo redno poroča Konferenci pogodbenic o vseh vidikih svojega dela.
2. Pod vodstvom Konference pogodbenic in ob naslonitvi na že obstoječa pristojna mednarodna telesa to telo:
(a) proučuje stanje znanstvenih spoznanj o spremembi podnebja in njenih učinkih;
(b) pripravlja znanstvene ocene učinkov ukrepov za izvajanje konvencije;
(c) ugotavlja izboljšane, učinkovite in sodobne tehnologije ter znanja in izkušnje in svetuje načine in sredstva za pospeševanje razvoja in/ali prenosa takšnih tehnologij;
(d) svetuje v zvezi z znanstvenimi programi, mednarodnim sodelovanjem pri raziskovanju in razvoju na področju spremembe podnebja kot tudi v zvezi z načini ter sredstvi podpore graditvi lastnih zmogljivosti v državah v razvoju; in
(e) se odziva na znanstvena, tehnološka in metodološka vprašanja, ki mu jih lahko zastavijo Konferenca pogodbenic in njena pomožna telesa.
3. Konferenca pogodbenic lahko določi še druge naloge in zadolžitve tega telesa.
10. člen
POMOŽNO TELO ZA IZVAJANJE
1. Ustanovi se pomožno telo za izvajanje z nalogo pomagati Konferenci pogodbenic pri ocenah in pregledu učinkovitega izvajanja konvencije. V tem telesu lahko sodelujejo vse pogodbenice in je sestavljeno iz vladnih predstavnikov, strokovnjakov za zadeve v zvezi s spremembo podnebja. Redno poroča Konferenci pogodbenic o vseh vidikih svojega dela.
2. Pod vodstvom Konference pogodbenic to telo:
(a) proučuje informacije, posredovane v skladu s prvim odstavkom 12. člena, da se presodi vsestranski skupni učinek ukrepov pogodbenic z vidika najnovejših znanstvenih ugotovitev o spremembi podnebja;
(b) proučuje informacije, posredovane v skladu z drugim odstavkom 12. člena, da bi Konferenci pogodbenic pomagalo pregledovati zahteve iz točke (d) drugega odstavka 4. člena; in
(c) po potrebi pomaga Konferenci pogodbenic pri pripravi in izvajanju njenih odločitev.
11. člen
FINANČNI MEHANIZEM
1. Določi se mehanizem za zagotavljanje finančnih virov na podlagi subvencij ali koncesij, vključno s prenosom tehnologije. Deluje pod vodstvom Konference pogodbenic in ji je odgovoren. Konferenca pogodbenic določala njegovo politiko, prednostne programe in kvalifikacijska merila, povezana s to konvencijo. Njegovo izvajanje je zaupano enemu ali več obstoječim mednarodnim subjektom.
2. V finančnem mehanizmu so pravično in uravnoteženo zastopane vse pogodbenice v okviru preglednega sistema upravljanja.
3. Konferenca pogodbenic in subjekt oziroma subjekti, ki jim je zaupano upravljanje finančnega mehanizma, se dogovorijo o načinih uresničevanja zgornjih odstavkov, kar vključuje:
(a) načine, s katerimi se zagotovi, da bodo financirani projekti, ki se nanašajo na spremembo podnebja, v skladu s politikami, prednostnimi programi in kvalifikacijskimi merili, ki jih določi Konferenca pogodbenic;
(b) načine, s katerimi bo lahko določena odločitev o financiranju preverjena z vidika teh politik, prednostnih programov in kvalifikacijskih meril;
(c) zagotavljanje rednih poročil subjekta ali subjektov Konferenci pogodbenic o postopkih financiranja, kar je v skladu z zahtevo po odgovornosti, omenjeni v prvem odstavku tega člena; in
(d) predvidljivo in določljivo odločitev o potrebnih in razpoložljivih sredstvih za financiranje izvajanja konvencije ter o pogojih, pod katerimi bodo ta sredstva občasno pregledana.
4. Konferenca pogodbenic na svojem prvem zasedanju pripravi vse potrebno za izvajanje zgornjih določil, pri tem pregleda in upošteva začasno ureditev, omenjeno v tretjem odstavku 21. člena, ter odloči, ali naj začasna ureditev še naprej velja. V štirih letih po tem Konferenca pregleda finančni mehanizem in sprejme ustrezne ukrepe.
5. Razvite države pogodbenice lahko pogodbenicam državam v razvoju preskrbijo tudi finančne vire za izvajanje konvencije po dvostranskih, regionalnih ali drugih mnogostranskih poteh.
12. člen
OBVEŠČANJE V ZVEZI Z IZVAJANJEM
1. V skladu s prvim odstavkom 4. člena vsaka pogodbenica po sekretariatu posreduje Konferenci pogodbenic naslednje elemente informacij:
(a) državni seznam antropogenih emisij po virih in odstranjevanja po ponorih vseh toplogrednih plinov, ki jih ne nadzira Montrealski protokol, v takem obsegu, kot ji dopuščajo njene zmogljivosti, z uporabo primerjalnih metodologij, ki jih odobri Konferenca pogodbenic;
(b) splošen opis ukrepov, ki jih sprejme ali predvidi pogodbenica za izvajanje konvencije; in
(c) katere koli druge informacije, za katere pogodbenica meni, da so pomembne za doseganje cilja konvencije in primerne za vključitev v njeno sporočilo in, če je to možno, vključno z gradivom, ustreznim za izračunavanje trendov globalnih emisij.
2. Vsaka razvita država pogodbenica in vsaka druga pogodbenica iz aneksa I vključi v svoje sporočilo naslednje elemente informacij:
(a) podroben opis politik in ukrepov, ki jih je sprejela za izpolnjevanje svojih obveznosti iz točk (a) in (b) drugega odstavka 4. člena; in
(b) posebno oceno učinkov, ki jih bodo politike in ukrepi iz prejšnje točke imeli na antropogene emisije po virih in odstranjanja po ponorih toplogrednih plinov v obdobju, omenjenem v točki (a) drugega odstavka 4. člena.
3. Dodatno vse razvite države pogodbenice in vse druge razvite pogodbenice iz aneksa II vključijo podrobnosti o ukrepih, sprejetih v skladu s tretjim, četrtim in petim odstavkom 4. člena.
4. Pogodbenice države v razvoju lahko prostovoljno predlagajo projekte za financiranje, vključno s posebnimi tehnologijami, snovmi, opremo, tehnikami ali običajnimi delovnimi postopki, potrebnimi za izvedbo teh projektov, po možnosti skupaj z oceno vseh dodatnih stroškov zmanjšanja emisij, povečanja odstranjevanja toplogrednih plinov kot tudi oceno posledičnih koristi.
5. Vsaka razvita država pogodbenica in vsaka druga pogodbenica iz aneksa I posreduje svoje prvo sporočilo v šestih mesecih od dne, ko konvencija začne zanjo veljati. Vsaka druga pogodbenica, ki ni vključena v ta seznam aneksa I, posreduje svoje prvo sporočilo v treh letih po datumu, ko konvencija začne zanjo veljati ali ko ima na voljo finančne vire, v skladu s tretjim odstavkom 4. člena. Najmanj razvite države pogodbenice lahko posredujejo svoja prva sporočila po svoji presoji. Pogostost nadaljnjih sporočil za vse pogodbenice določi Konferenca pogodbenic ob upoštevanju različnega časovnega razporeda, določenega s tem odstavkom.
6. Informacije, ki jih bodo v skladu s tem členom posredovale pogodbenice, sekretariat čim prej posreduje Konferenci pogodbenic in tistim pomožnim telesom, ki jih te informacije zadevajo. Po potrebi Konferenca pogodbenic postopke obveščanja nadalje prouči.
7. Od svojega prvega zasedanja dalje Konferenca pogodbenic na podlagi zahteve poskrbi za zagotavljanje tehnične in finančne pomoči pogodbenicam državam v razvoju, za sestavljanje in posredovanje informacij v skladu s tem členom kot tudi za opredelitev tehničnih in finančnih potreb, povezanih s predlaganimi projekti in ustreznimi ukrepi, v skladu s 4. členom. Takšno pomoč lahko dajejo druge pogodbenice, pristojne mednarodne organizacije in sekretariat.
8. Katera koli skupina pogodbenic lahko v skladu s smernicami Konference pogodbenic in po predhodnem obvestilu Konference pogodbenic posreduje skupno sporočilo o izpolnjevanju obveznosti iz tega člena, vendar mora tako sporočilo vsebovati informacijo o izpolnjevanju obveznosti iz konvencije za vsako posamezno pogodbenico posebej.
9. Informacijo, ki jo prejme sekretariat, pogodbenica pa jo v skladu z merili, ki jih določi Konferenca pogodbenic, označi kot zaupno, sekretariar vključi v celoto tako, da zaščiti njeno zaupnost, preden je dostopna kateremu koli telesu, ki se ukvarja s posredovanjem in pregledovanjem informacij.
10. Glede na prejšnji odstavek in brez poseganja v pravico katere koli pogodbenice, da kadar koli javno objavi svoje sporočilo, sekretariat objavi sporočila pogodbenic v skladu s tem členom takrat, ko so predložena Konferenci pogodbenic.
13. člen
REŠEVANJE VPRAŠANJ O IZVAJANJU
Konferenca pogodbenic na svojem prvem zasedanju prouči možnost ustanovitve mnogostranskega posvetovalnega postopka, ki je pogodbenicam na njihovo zahtevo na voljo za reševanje vprašanj o izvajanju konvencije.
14. člen
REŠEVANJE SPOROV
1. V primeru spora med katerima koli dvema ali več pogodbenicami glede razlage ali uporabe konvencije si morajo te pogodbenice prizadevati rešiti spor s pogajanji ali na kakšen drug miren način po svoji izbiri.
2. Ko ratificira, sprejme, odobri ali pristopi h konvenciji ali kadar koli kasneje lahko pogodbenica, ki ni regionalna organizacija za gospodarsko povezovanje, predloži depozitarju pisni instrument, v katerem izjavlja, da spor o razlagi ali uporabi konvencije obvezno priznava ipso facto in sprejema brez posebnega sporazuma s katero koli pogodbenico, ki sprejme isto obveznost:
(a) predložitev spora v obravnavo Meddržavnemu sodišču in/ali
(b) arbitražo v skladu s postopki, ki naj bi jih takoj, ko bo to mogoče, sprejela Konferenca pogodbenic v aneksu o arbitraži.
Pogodbenica regionalna organizacija za gospodarsko povezovanje lahko da izjavo z enakim učinkom glede na arbitražo in v skladu s postopki, omenjenimi v točki (b) tega odstavka.
3. Izjava iz drugega odstavka tega člena velja, dokler ji ne poteče veljavnost v skladu z njenimi določbami ali do preteka treh mesecev od deponiranja pisnega obvestila o njenem preklicu pri depozitarju.
4. Nova izjava, sporočilo o preklicu ali potek veljavnosti izjave nikakor ne smejo vplivati na postopke, ki potekajo pred Meddržavnim sodiščem ali arbitražnim sodiščem, če se stranke v sporu ne dogovorijo drugače.
5. Če dvanajst mesecev po obvestilu ene pogodbenice drugi o obstoju spora med njima prizadeti pogodbenici nista sposobni rešiti spora s sredstvi, omenjenimi v prvem odstavku tega člena, se spor na zahtevo katere koli stranke v sporu ob upoštevanju postopka iz drugega odstavka tega člena predloži v spravni postopek.
6. Spravna komisija se ustanovi na zahtevo ene od strank v sporu. Komisijo sestavljajo enako število članov, ki jih imenuje vsaka stranka v sporu, in predsednik, ki ga skupaj izberejo imenovani člani strank v sporu. Komisija ponudi priporočilo za rešitev spora, ki ga stranke v sporu obravnavajo v dobri veri.
7. Konferenca pogodbenic takoj, ko je to mogoče, sprejme dodatne postopke v zvezi s spravo, in sicer v aneksu o spravi.
8. Določbe tega člena se uporabljajo za kateri koli pravni instrument, ki ga sprejeme Konferenca pogodbenic, razen če instrument ne določa drugače.
15. člen
AMANDMAJI H KONVENCIJI
1. Katera koli pogodbenica lahko predlaga amandmaje h konvenciji.
2. Amandmaji h konvenciji se sprejmejo na rednem zasedanju Konference pogodbenic. Besedilo katerega koli predlaganega amandmaja h konvenciji sekretariat pošlje vsem pogodbenicam najmanj šest mesecev pred zasedanjem, na katerem naj bi ga sprejeli. Sekretariat pošlje predlagane amandmaje tudi podpisnicam konvencije, v vednost pa še depozitarju.
3. Pogodbenice si prizadevajo doseči sporazum o vsakem predlaganem amandmaju h konvenciji s konsenzom. Če so za dosego soglasja izčrpana vsa prizadevanja in sporazum ni dosežen, se amandma v končni fazi sprejme s tričetrtinsko večino glasov pogodbenic, ki so prisotne in glasujejo. Sprejeti amandma sekretariat sporoči depozitarju, ki ga razpošlje v sprejem vsem pogodbenicam.
4. Listine o sprejemu amandmaja so deponirane pri depozitarju. Amandma, sprejet v skladu s tretjim odstavkom tega člena, začne veljati za tiste pogodbenice, ki so ga sprejele, devetdeseti dan od dne, ko je depozitar prejel listino o sprejemu vsaj od treh četrtin pogodbenic konvencije.
5. Za vse druge pogodbenice začne amandma veljati devetdeseti dan od dne, ko pogodbenica deponira pri depozitarju svojo listino o sprejemu tega amandmaja.
6. Za namene tega člena pomeni “pogodbenice, ki so prisotne in glasujejo” pogodbenice, ki so prisotne in glasujejo za ali proti.
16. člen
SPREJEMANJE IN DOPOLNJEVANJE ANEKSOV H KONVENCIJI
1. Aneksi h konvenciji so njen sestavni del in če ni izrecno drugače določeno, je sklicevanje na konvencijo obenem tudi sklicevanje na njene anekse. Ne glede na določbe v točki (b) drugega odstavka in v sedmem odstavku 14. člena so ti aneksi omejeni na sezname, obrazce in drugo opisno gradivo znanstvene, tehnične, postopkovne ali upravne narave.
2. Aneksi h konvenciji se predlagajo in sprejmejo v skladu s postopki iz drugega, tretjega in četrtega odstavka 15. člena.
3. Aneks, sprejet v skladu z drugim odstavkom tega člena, začne veljati za vse pogodbenice konvencije šest mesecev od dne, ko jih depozitar obvesti o sprejemu aneksa, razen za tiste pogodbenice, ki v tem roku pisno obvestijo depozitarja o tem, da aneksa ne sprejemajo. Za pogodbenice, ki svojo notifikacijo o nesprejetju prekličejo, začne aneks veljati devetdeseti dan po tem, ko depozitar prejme preklic notifikacije o nesprejetju.
4. Amandmaji k aneksom h konvenciji so predlagani, sprejeti in začnejo veljati po enakem postopku, kot velja za predlaganje, sprejem in začetek veljavnosti aneksov h konvenciji, v skladu z drugim in tretjim odstavkom tega člena.
5. Če je za sprejem aneksa ali amandmaja k aneksu potreben amandma h konvenciji, tak aneks ali amandma k aneksu ne začne veljati, dokler ne začne veljati tudi amandma h konvenciji.
17. člen
PROTOKOLI
1. Konferenca pogodbenic lahko na katerem koli rednem zasedanju sprejme protokole h konvenciji.
2. Besedilo katerega koli predlaganega protokola sekretariat predloži pogodbenicam najkasneje šest mesecev pred takšnim zasedanjem.
3. Pogoji za začetek veljavnosti katerega koli protokola so določeni v tem protokolu.
4. Samo pogodbenice konvencije so lahko pogodbenice protokola.
5. Odločitve iz posameznega protokola lahko sprejemajo samo pogodbenice tega protokola.
18. člen
PRAVICA DO GLASOVANJA
1. Vsaka pogodbenica konvencije ima en glas, razen izjeme iz drugega odstavka tega člena.
2. Regionalna organizacija za gospodarsko povezovanje lahko o zadevah v svoji pristojnosti uveljavlja pravico do glasovanja s številom glasov, ki je enako številu njenih držav članic, ki so pogodbenice konvencije. Takšna organizacija ne more uveljavljati svoje pravice do glasovanja, če katera koli njena država članica uveljavlja svojo pravico, in obratno.
19. člen
DEPOZITAR
Depozitar konvencije in protokolov, sprejetih v skladu s 17. členom, je generalni sekretar Združenih narodov.
20. člen
PODPIS
Ta konvencija je na voljo za podpis državam članicam Združenih narodov ali katere koli njenih specializiranih agencij ali pogodbenicam Statuta Meddržavnega sodišča ali regionalnim organizacijam za gospodarsko povezovanje v Riu de Janeiru med Konferenco Združenih narodov o okolju in razvoju in kasneje na sedežu Združenih narodov v New Yorku od 20. junija 1992 do 19. junija 1993.
21. člen
ZAČASNA UREDITEV
1. Naloge sekretariata iz 8. člena opravlja do konca prvega zasedanja Konference pogodbenic začasno sekretariat, ki ga je ustanovila Generalna skupščina Združenih narodov s svojo resolucijo 45/212 z dne 21. decembra 1990.
2. Vodja začasnega sekretariata iz prejšnjega odstavka tesno sodeluje z Medvladno skupino strokovnjakov za spremembo podnebja, da se skupina lahko odzove potrebi po objektivnem znanstvenem in tehničnem svetovanju. Posvetuje se lahko tudi z drugimi ustreznimi znanstvenimi telesi.
3. Globalni sklad za okolje Programa Združenih narodov za razvoj, Program Združenih narodov za okolje ter Mednarodna banka za obnovo in razvoj sestavljajo mednarodni subjekt, ki mu je začasno zaupano upravljanje finančnega mehanizma iz 11. člena. Glede na to naj se Globalni sklad za okolje ustrezno reorganizira, članstvo v njem pa naj postane univerzalno, da bo lahko izpolnjeval zahteve iz 11. člena.
22. člen
RATIFIKACIJA, SPREJEM, ODOBRITEV ALI PRISTOP
1. Konvencijo morajo države in regionalne organizacije za gospodarsko povezovanje ratificirati, sprejeti, odobriti ali k njej pristopiti. Pristop je mogoč od naslednjega dne po datumu, ko je končano podpisovanje konvencije. Listine o ratifikaciji, sprejemu, odobritvi ali pristopu se deponirajo pri depozitarju.
2. Če postane pogodbenica konvencije regionalna organizacija za gospodarsko povezovanje, ne da bi bila pogodbenica katera od njenih držav članic, veljajo zanjo vse obveznosti iz konvencije. V primeru teh organizacij, katerih ena ali več držav članic so pogodbenice konvencije, se organizacija in njene države članice odločijo o svojih odgovornostih za izpolnjevanje obveznosti iz konvencije. V takšnih primerih organizacija in njene države članice ne morejo hkrati uresničevati pravic iz konvencije.
3. V svojih listinah o ratifikaciji, sprejemu, odobritvi ali pristopu regionalne organizacije za gospodarsko povezovanje izjavijo, kakšen je obseg njihovih pristojnosti v zadevah, ki jih ureja konvencija. Te organizacije so tudi dolžne obvestiti depozitarja, ki nato obvesti pogodbenice o vsaki pomembnejši spremembi obsega njihovih pristojnosti.
23. člen
ZAČETEK VELJAVNOSTI
1. Konvencija začne veljati devetdeseti dan po deponiranju petdesete listine o ratifikaciji, sprejemu, odobritvi ali pristopu.
2. Za vsako državo ali regionalno organizacijo za gospodarsko povezovanje, ki ratificira, sprejme ali odobri konvencijo ali pristopi k njej po deponiranju petdesete listine o ratifikaciji, sprejemu, odobritvi ali pristopu, začne konvencija veljati devetdeseti dan po datumu deponiranja listine o ratifikaciji, sprejemu, odobritvi ali pristopu te države ali regionalne organizacije za gospodarsko povezovanje.
3. Za namene prvega in drugega odstavka tega člena se noben instrument, ki ga deponira regionalna organizacija za gospodarsko povezovanje, ne šteje kot dodan k tistim, ki jih deponirajo države članice organizacije.
24. člen
PRIDRŽKI
H konvenciji niso dopustni nobeni pridržki.
25. člen
ODPOVED
1. Kadar koli po treh letih od dne, ko je za pogodbenico konvencija začela veljati, jo lahko ta pogodbenica odpove s pisno notifikacijo depozitarju.
2. Vsaka taka odpoved začne veljati po poteku enega leta od dne prejema pisne notifikacije o odpovedi pri depozitarju ali na kasnejši datum, ki je lahko naveden v notifikaciji o odpovedi.
3. Za vsako pogodbenico, ki odpove konvencijo, se šteje, da odpove tudi vse protokole, katerih pogodbenica je.
26. člen
VERODOSTOJNA BESEDILA
Izvirnik te konvencije z verodostojnimi besedili v arabskem, kitajskem, angleškem, francoskem, ruskem in španskem jeziku je deponiran pri generalnem sekretarju Združenih narodov.
V POTRDITEV TEGA so podpisani, ki so bili za to pravilno pooblaščeni, podpisali to konvencijo.
Sestavljeno v New Yorku devetega maja tisoč devetsto dvaindevetdeset.
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Poljska(a/)
Portugalska
Romunija(a/)
Ruska federacija(a/)
Španija
Švedska
Švica
Turčija
Ukrajina(a/)
Združeno kraljestvo Velike Britanije in Severne Irske
Združene države Amerike
ANEKS II
Avstralija
Avstrija
Belgija
Kanada
Danska
Evropska gospodarska skupnost
Finska
Francija
Nemčija
Grčija
Islandija
Irska
Italija
Japonska
Luksemburg
Nizozemska
Nova Zelandija
Norveška
Portugalska
Španija
Švedska
Švica
Turčija
Združeno kraljestvo Velike Britanije in Severne Irske
Združene države Amerike
1* Naslovi členov so dodani le v pomoč bralcu.
1 To vključuje politike in ukrepe, ki so jih sprejele regionalne organizacije za gospodarsko povezovanje.
a/ Države, ki so na prehodu v tržno gospodarstvo.
3. člen
Za izvajanje te konvencije skrbi Ministrstvo za okolje in prostor v sodelovanju z Ministrstvom za promet in zveze, Ministrstvom za kmetijstvo, gozdarstvo in prehrano in Ministrstvom za gospodarske dejavnosti.
4. člen
Ta zakon začne veljati naslednji dan po objavi v Uradnem listu Republike Slovenije – Mednarodne pogodbe.
Št. 801-08/95-4/1
Ljubljana, dne 29. septembra 1995
Predsednik
Državnega zbora
Republike Slovenije
Jožef Školč l. r.