Uradni list

Številka 7
Uradni list RS, št. 7/1999 z dne 5. 2. 1999
Uradni list

Uradni list RS, št. 7/1999 z dne 5. 2. 1999

Kazalo

4. Zakon ratifikaciji Skupne konvencije o varnosti ravnanja z izrabljenim gorivom in varnosti ravnanja z radioaktivnimi odpadki (MKVIGRO), stran 21.

Na podlagi druge alinee prvega odstavka 107. člena in prvega odstavka 91. člena Ustave Republike Slovenije izdajam
U K A Z
o razglasitvi Zakona o ratifikaciji Skupne konvencije o varnosti ravnanja z izrabljenim gorivom in varnosti ravnanja z radioaktivnimi odpadki (MKVIGRO)
Razglašam Zakon o ratifikaciji Skupne konvencije o varnosti ravnanja z izrabljenim gorivom in varnosti ravnanja z radioaktivnimi odpadki (MKVIGRO), ki ga je sprejel Državni zbor Republike Slovenije na seji 19. januarja 1999.
Št. 001-22-2/99
Ljubljana, dne 27. januarja 1999
Predsednik
Republike Slovenije
Milan Kučan l. r.
Z A K O N
O RATIFIKACIJI SKUPNE KONVENCIJE O VARNOSTI RAVNANJA Z IZRABLJENIM GORIVOM IN VARNOSTI RAVNANJA Z RADIOAKTIVNIMI ODPADKI (MKVIGRO)
1. člen
Ratificira se Skupna konvencija o varnosti ravnanja z izrabljenim gorivom in varnosti ravnanja z radioaktivnimi odpadki, sprejeta 5. septembra 1997 na Dunaju.
2. člen
Konvencija se v izvirniku v angleškem jeziku in v prevodu v slovenskem jeziku glasi:
JOINT CONVENTION
ON THE SAFETY OF SPENT FUEL MANAGEMENT AND ON THE SAFETY OF RADIOACTIVE WASTE MANAGEMENT
PREAMBLE
The Contracting Parties
(i) Recognizing that the operation of nuclear reactors generates spent fuel and radioactive waste and that other applications of nuclear technologies also generate radioactive waste;
(ii) Recognizing that the same safety objectives apply both to spent fuel and radioactive waste management;
(iii) Reaffirming the importance to the international community of ensuring that sound practices are planned and implemented for the safety of spent fuel and radioactive waste management;
(iv) Recognizing the importance of informing the public on issues regarding the safety of spent fuel and radioactive waste management;
(v) Desiring to promote an effective nuclear safety culture worldwide;
(vi) Reaffirming that the ultimate responsibility for ensuring the safety of spent fuel and radioactive waste management rests with the State;
(vii) Recognizing that the definition of a fuel cycle policy rests with the State, some States considering spent fuel as a valuable resource that may be reprocessed, others electing to dispose of it;
(viii) Recognizing that spent fuel and radioactive waste excluded from the present Convention because they are within military or defence programmes should be managed in accordance with the objectives stated in this Convention;
(ix) Affirming the importance of international co-operation in enhancing the safety of spent fuel and radioactive waste management through bilateral and multilateral mechanisms, and through this incentive Convention;
(x) Mindful of the needs of developing countries, and in particular the least developed countries, and of States with economies in transition and of the need to facilitate existing mechanisms to assist in the fulfillment of their rights and obligations set out in this incentive Convention;
(xi) Convinced that radioactive waste should, as far as is compatible with the safety of the management of such material, be disposed of in the State in which it was generated, whilst recognizing that, in certain circumstances, safe and efficient management of spent fuel and radioactive waste might be fostered through agreements among Contracting Parties to use facilities in one of them for the benefit of the other Parties, particularly where waste originates from joint projects;
(xii) Recognizing that any State has the right to ban import into its territory of foreign spent fuel and radioactive waste;
(xiii) Keeping in mind the Convention on Nuclear Safety (1994), the Convention on Early Notification of a Nuclear Accident (1986), the Convention on Assistance in the Case of a Nuclear Accident or Radiological Emergency (1986), the Convention on the Physical Protection of Nuclear Material (1980), the Convention on the Prevention of Marine Pollution by Dumping of Wastes and Other Matter as amended (1994) and other relevant international instruments;
(xiv) Keeping in mind the principles contained in the interagency “International Basic Safety Standards for Protection against Ionizing Radiation and for the Safety of Radiation Sources“ (1996), in the IAEA Safety Fundamentals entitled “The Principles of Radioactive Waste Management“ (1995), and in the existing international standards relating to the safety of the transport of radioactive materials;
(xv) Recalling Chapter 22 of Agenda 21 by the United Nations Conference on Environment and Development in Rio de Janeiro adopted in 1992, which reaffirms the paramount importance of the safe and environmentally sound management of radioactive waste;
(xvi) Recognizing the desirability of strengthening the international control system applying specifically to radioactive materials as referred to in Article 1(3) of the Basel Convention on the Control of Transboundary Movements of Hazardous Wastes and Their Disposal (1989);
Have agreed as follows:
Chapter 1. OBJECTIVES, DEFINITIONS AND SCOPE OF APPLICATION
Article 1. OBJECTIVES
The objectives of this Convention are:
(i) to achieve and maintain a high level of safety worldwide in spent fuel and radioactive waste management, through the enhancement of national measures and international co-operation, including where appropriate, safety-related technical co-operation;
(ii) to ensure that during all stages of spent fuel and radioactive waste management there are effective defenses against potential hazards so that individuals, society and the environment are protected from harmful effects of ionizing radiation, now and in the future, in such a way that the needs and aspirations of the present generation are met without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their needs and aspirations;
(iii) to prevent accidents with radiological consequences and to mitigate their consequences should they occur during any stage of spent fuel or radioactive waste management.
Article 2. DEFINITIONS
For the purposes of this Convention:
(a) “closure“ means the completion of all operations at some time after the emplacement of spent fuel or radioactive waste in a disposal facility. This includes the final engineering or other work required to bring the facility to a condition that will be safe in the long term;
(b) “decommissioning“ means all steps leading to the release of a nuclear facility, other than a disposal facility, from regulatory control. These steps include the processes of decontamination and dismantling;
(c) “discharges“ means planned and controlled releases into the environment, as a legitimate practice, within limits authorized by the regulatory body, of liquid or gaseous radioactive materials that originate from regulated nuclear facilities during normal operation;
(d) “disposal“ means the emplacement of spent fuel or radioactive waste in an appropriate facility without the intention of retrieval;
(e) “licence“ means any authorization, permission or certification granted by a regulatory body to carry out any activity related to management of spent fuel or of radioactive waste;
(f) “nuclear facility“ means a civilian facility and its associated land, buildings and equipment in which radioactive materials are produced, processed, used, handled, stored or disposed of on such a scale that consideration of safety is required;
(g) “operating lifetime“ means the period during which a spent fuel or a radioactive waste management facility is used for its intended purpose. In the case of a disposal facility, the period begins when spent fuel or radioactive waste is first emplaced in the facility and ends upon closure of the facility;
(h) “radioactive waste“ means radioactive material in gaseous, liquid or solid form for which no further use is foreseen by the Contracting Party or by a natural or legal person whose decision is accepted by the Contracting Party, and which is controlled as radioactive waste by a regulatory body under the legislative and regulatory framework of the Contracting Party;
(i) “radioactive waste management“ means all activities, including decommissioning activities, that relate to the handling, pretreatment, treatment, conditioning, storage, or disposal of radioactive waste, excluding off-site transportation. It may also involve discharges;
(j) “radioactive waste management facility“ means any facility or installation the primary purpose of which is radioactive waste management, including a nuclear facility in the process of being decommissioned only if it is designated by the Contracting Party as a radioactive waste management facility;
(k) “regulatory body“ means any body or bodies given the legal authority by the Contracting Party to regulate any aspect of the safety of spent fuel or radioactive waste management including the granting of licences;
(l) “reprocessing“ means a process or operation, the purpose of which is to extract radioactive isotopes from spent fuel for further use;
(m) “sealed source“ means radioactive material that is permanently sealed in a capsule or closely bonded and in a solid form, excluding reactor fuel elements;
(n) “spent fuel“ means nuclear fuel that has been irradiated in and permanently removed from a reactor core;
(o) “spent fuel management“ means all activities that relate to the handling or storage of spent fuel, excluding off-site transportation. It may also involve discharges;
(p) “spent fuel management facility“ means any facility or installation the primary purpose of which is spent fuel management;
(q) “State of destination“ means a State to which a transboundary movement is planned or takes place;
(r) “State of origin“ means a State from which a transboundary movement is planned to be initiated or is initiated;
(s) “State of transit“ means any State, other than a State of origin or a State of destination, through whose territory a transboundary movement is planned or takes place;
(t) “storage“ means the holding of spent fuel or of radioactive waste in a facility that provides for its containment, with the intention of retrieval;
(u) “transboundary movement“ means any shipment of spent fuel or of radioactive waste from a State of origin to a State of destination.
Article 3. SCOPE OF APPLICATION
1. This Convention shall apply to the safety of spent fuel management when the spent fuel results from the operation of civilian nuclear reactors. Spent fuel held at reprocessing facilities as part of a reprocessing activity is not covered in the scope of this Convention unless the Contracting Party declares reprocessing to be part of spent fuel management.
2. This Convention shall also apply to the safety of radioactive waste management when the radioactive waste results from civilian applications. However, this Convention shall not apply to waste that contains only naturally occurring radioactive materials and that does not originate from the nuclear fuel cycle, unless it constitutes a disused sealed source or it is declared as radioactive waste for the purposes of this Convention by the Contracting Party.
3. This Convention shall not apply to the safety of management of spent fuel or radioactive waste within military or defence programmes, unless declared as spent fuel or radioactive waste for the purposes of this Convention by the Contracting Party. However, this Convention shall apply to the safety of management of spent fuel and radioactive waste from military or defence programmes if and when such materials are transferred permanently to and managed within exclusively civilian programmes.
4. This Convention shall also apply to discharges as provided for in Articles 4, 7, 11, 14, 24 and 26.
Chapter 2 SAFETY OF SPENT FUEL MANAGEMENT
Article 4. GENERAL SAFETY REQUIREMENTS
Each Contracting Party shall take the appropriate steps to ensure that at all stages of spent fuel management, individuals, society and the environment are adequately protected against radiological hazards.
In so doing, each Contracting Party shall take the appropriate steps to:
(i) ensure that criticality and removal of residual heat generated during spent fuel management are adequately addressed;
(ii) ensure that the generation of radioactive waste associated with spent fuel management is kept to the minimum practicable, consistent with the type of fuel cycle policy adopted;
(iii) take into account interdependencies among the different steps in spent fuel management;
(iv) provide for effective protection of individuals, society and the environment, by applying at the national level suitable protective methods as approved by the regulatory body, in the framework of its national legislation which has due regard to internationally endorsed criteria and standards;
(v) take into account the biological, chemical and other hazards that may be associated with spent fuel management;
(vi) strive to avoid actions that impose reasonably predictable impacts on future generations greater than those permitted for the current generation;
(vii) aim to avoid imposing undue burdens on future generations.
Article 5. EXISTING FACILITIES
Each Contracting Party shall take the appropriate steps to review the safety of any spent fuel management facility existing at the time the Convention enters into force for that Contracting Party and to ensure that, if necessary, all reasonably practicable improvements are made to upgrade the safety of such a facility.
Article 6. SITING OF PROPOSED FACILITIES
1. Each Contracting Party shall take the appropriate steps to ensure that procedures are established and implemented for a proposed spent fuel management facility:
(i) to evaluate all relevant site-related factors likely to affect the safety of such a facility during its operating lifetime;
(ii) to evaluate the likely safety impact of such a facility on individuals, society and the environment;
(iii) to make information on the safety of such a facility available to members of the public;
(iv) to consult Contracting Parties in the vicinity of such a facility, insofar as they are likely to be affected by that facility, and provide them, upon their request, with general data relating to the facility to enable them to evaluate the likely safety impact of the facility upon their territory.
2. In so doing, each Contracting Party shall take the appropriate steps to ensure that such facilities shall not have unacceptable effects on other Contracting Parties by being sited in accordance with the general safety requirements of Article 4.
Article 7. DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION OF FACILITIES
Each Contracting Party shall take the appropriate steps to ensure that:
(i) the design and construction of a spent fuel management facility provide for suitable measures to limit possible radiological impacts on individuals, society and the environment, including those from discharges or uncontrolled releases;
(ii) at the design stage, conceptual plans and, as necessary, technical provisions for the decommissioning of a spent fuel management facility are taken into account;
(iii) the technologies incorporated in the design and construction of a spent fuel management facility are supported by experience, testing or analysis.
Article 8. ASSESSMENT OF SAFETY OF FACILITIES
Each Contracting Party shall take the appropriate steps to ensure that:
(i) before construction of a spent fuel management facility, a systematic safety assessment and an environmental assessment appropriate to the hazard presented by the facility and covering its operating lifetime shall be carried out;
(ii) before the operation of a spent fuel management facility, updated and detailed versions of the safety assessment and of the environmental assessment shall be prepared when deemed necessary to complement the assessments referred to in paragraph (i).
Article 9. OPERATION OF FACILITIES
Each Contracting Party shall take the appropriate steps to ensure that:
(i) the licence to operate a spent fuel management facility is based upon appropriate assessments as specified in Article 8 and is conditional on the completion of a commissioning programme demonstrating that the facility, as constructed, is consistent with design and safety requirements;
(ii) operational limits and conditions derived from tests, operational experience and the assessments, as specified in Article 8, are defined and revised as necessary;
(iii) operation, maintenance, monitoring, inspection and testing of a spent fuel management facility are conducted in accordance with established procedures;
(iv) engineering and technical support in all safety-related fields are available throughout the operating lifetime of a spent fuel management facility;
(v) incidents significant to safety are reported in a timely manner by the holder of the licence to the regulatory body;
(vi) programmes to collect and analyse relevant operating experience are established and that the results are acted upon, where appropriate;
(vii) decommissioning plans for a spent fuel management facility are prepared and updated, as necessary, using information obtained during the operating lifetime of that facility, and are reviewed by the regulatory body.
Article 10. DISPOSAL OF SPENT FUEL
If, pursuant to its own legislative and regulatory framework, a Contracting Party has designated spent fuel for disposal, the disposal of such spent fuel shall be in accordance with the obligations of Chapter 3 relating to the disposal of radioactive waste.
Chapter 3 SAFETY OF RADIOACTIVE WASTE MANAGEMENT
Article 11. GENERAL SAFETY REQUIREMENTS
Each Contracting Party shall take the appropriate steps to ensure that at all stages of radioactive waste management individuals, society and the environment are adequately protected against radiological and other hazards.
In so doing, each Contracting Party shall take the appropriate steps to:
(i) ensure that criticality and removal of residual heat generated during radioactive waste management are adequately addressed;
(ii) ensure that the generation of radioactive waste is kept to the minimum practicable;
(iii) take into account interdependencies among the different steps in radioactive waste management;
(iv) provide for effective protection of individuals, society and the environment, by applying at the national level suitable protective methods as approved by the regulatory body, in the framework of its national legislation which has due regard to internationally endorsed criteria and standards;
(v) take into account the biological, chemical and other hazards that may be associated with radioactive waste management;
(vi) strive to avoid actions that impose reasonably predictable impacts on future generations greater than those permitted for the current generation;
(vii) aim to avoid imposing undue burdens on future generations.
Article 12. EXISTING FACILITIES AND PAST PRACTICES
Each Contracting Party shall in due course take the appropriate steps to review:
(i) the safety of any radioactive waste management facility existing at the time the Convention enters into force for that Contracting Party and to ensure that, if necessary, all reasonably practicable improvements are made to upgrade the safety of such a facility;
(ii) the results of past practices in order to determine whether any intervention is needed for reasons of radiation protection bearing in mind that the reduction in detriment resulting from the reduction in dose should be sufficient to justify the harm and the costs, including the social costs, of the intervention.
Article 13. SITING OF PROPOSED FACILITIES
1. Each Contracting Party shall take the appropriate steps to ensure that procedures are established and implemented for a proposed radioactive waste management facility:
(i) to evaluate all relevant site-related factors likely to affect the safety of such a facility during its operating lifetime as well as that of a disposal facility after closure;
(ii) to evaluate the likely safety impact of such a facility on individuals, society and the environment, taking into account possible evolution of the site conditions of disposal facilities after closure;
(iii) to make information on the safety of such a facility available to members of the public;
(iv) to consult Contracting Parties in the vicinity of such a facility, insofar as they are likely to be affected by that facility, and provide them, upon their request, with general data relating to the facility to enable them to evaluate the likely safety impact of the facility upon their territory.
2. In so doing, each Contracting Party shall take the appropriate steps to ensure that such facilities shall not have unacceptable effects on other Contracting Parties by being sited in accordance with the general safety requirements of Article 11.
Article 14. DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION OF FACILITIES
Each Contracting Party shall take the appropriate steps to ensure that:
(i) the design and construction of a radioactive waste management facility provide for suitable measures to limit possible radiological impacts on individuals, society and the environment, including those from discharges or uncontrolled releases;
(ii) at the design stage, conceptual plans and, as necessary, technical provisions for the decommissioning of a radioactive waste management facility other than a disposal facility are taken into account;
(iii) at the design stage, technical provisions for the closure of a disposal facility are prepared;
(iv) the technologies incorporated in the design and construction of a radioactive waste management facility are supported by experience, testing or analysis.
Article 15. ASSESSMENT OF SAFETY OF FACILITIES
Each Contracting Party shall take the appropriate steps to ensure that:
(i) before construction of a radioactive waste management facility, a systematic safety assessment and an environmental assessment appropriate to the hazard presented by the facility and covering its operating lifetime shall be carried out;
(ii) in addition, before construction of a disposal facility, a systematic safety assessment and an environmental assessment for the period following closure shall be carried out and the results evaluated against the criteria established by the regulatory body;
(iii) before the operation of a radioactive waste management facility, updated and detailed versions of the safety assessment and of the environmental assessment shall be prepared when deemed necessary to complement the assessments referred to in paragraph (i).
Article 16. OPERATION OF FACILITIES
Each Contracting Party shall take the appropriate steps to ensure that:
(i) the licence to operate a radioactive waste management facility is based upon appropriate assessments as specified in Article 15 and is conditional on the completion of a commissioning programme demonstrating that the facility, as constructed, is consistent with design and safety requirements;
(ii) operational limits and conditions, derived from tests, operational experience and the assessments as specified in Article 15 are defined and revised as necessary;
(iii) operation, maintenance, monitoring, inspection and testing of a radioactive waste management facility are conducted in accordance with established procedures. For a disposal facility the results thus obtained shall be used to verify and to review the validity of assumptions made and to update the assessments as specified in Article 15 for the period after closure;
(iv) engineering and technical support in all safety-related fields are available throughout the operating lifetime of a radioactive waste management facility;
(v) procedures for characterization and segregation of radioactive waste are applied;
(vi) incidents significant to safety are reported in a timely manner by the holder of the licence to the regulatory body;
(vii) programmes to collect and analyse relevant operating experience are established and that the results are acted upon, where appropriate;
(viii) decommissioning plans for a radioactive waste management facility other than a disposal facility are prepared and updated, as necessary, using information obtained during the operating lifetime of that facility, and are reviewed by the regulatory body;
(ix) plans for the closure of a disposal facility are prepared and updated, as necessary, using information obtained during the operating lifetime of that facility and are reviewed by the regulatory body.
Article 17. INSTITUTIONAL MEASURES AFTER CLOSURE
Each Contracting Party shall take the appropriate steps to ensure that after closure of a disposal facility:
(i) records of the location, design and inventory of that facility required by the regulatory body are preserved;
(ii) active or passive institutional controls such as monitoring or access restrictions are carried out, if required; and
(iii) if, during any period of active institutional control, an unplanned release of radioactive materials into the environment is detected, intervention measures are implemented, if necessary.
Chapter 4 GENERAL SAFETY PROVISIONS
Article 18. IMPLEMENTING MEASURES
Each Contracting Party shall take, within the framework of its national law, the legislative, regulatory and administrative measures and other steps necessary for implementing its obligations under this Convention.
Article 19. LEGISLATIVE AND REGULATORY FRAMEWORK
1. Each Contracting Party shall establish and maintain a legislative and regulatory framework to govern the safety of spent fuel and radioactive waste management.
2. This legislative and regulatory framework shall provide for:
(i) the establishment of applicable national safety requirements and regulations for radiation safety;
(ii) a system of licensing of spent fuel and radioactive waste management activities;
(iii) a system of prohibition of the operation of a spent fuel or radioactive waste management facility without a licence;
(iv) a system of appropriate institutional control, regulatory inspection and documentation and reporting;
(v) the enforcement of applicable regulations and of the terms of the licences;
(vi) a clear allocation of responsibilities of the bodies involved in the different steps of spent fuel and of radioactive waste management.
3. When considering whether to regulate radioactive materials as radioactive waste, Contracting Parties shall take due account of the objectives of this Convention.
Article 20. REGULATORY BODY
1. Each Contracting Party shall establish or designate a regulatory body entrusted with the implementation of the legislative and regulatory framework referred to in Article 19, and provided with adequate authority, competence and financial and human resources to fulfill its assigned responsibilities.
2. Each Contracting Party, in accordance with its legislative and regulatory framework, shall take the appropriate steps to ensure the effective independence of the regulatory functions from other functions where organizations are involved in both spent fuel or radioactive waste management and in their regulation.
Article 21. RESPONSIBILITY OF THE LICENCE HOLDER
1. Each Contracting Party shall ensure that prime responsibility for the safety of spent fuel or radioactive waste management rests with the holder of the relevant licence and shall take the appropriate steps to ensure that each such licence holder meets its responsibility.
2. If there is no such licence holder or other responsible party, the responsibility rests with the Contracting Party which has jurisdiction over the spent fuel or over the radioactive waste.
Article 22. HUMAN AND FINANCIAL RESOURCES
Each Contracting Party shall take the appropriate steps to ensure that:
(i) qualified staff are available as needed for safety-related activities during the operating lifetime of a spent fuel and a radioactive waste management facility;
(ii) adequate financial resources are available to support the safety of facilities for spent fuel and radioactive waste management during their operating lifetime and for decommissioning;
(iii) financial provision is made which will enable the appropriate institutional controls and monitoring arrangements to be continued for the period deemed necessary following the closure of a disposal facility.
Article 23. QUALITY ASSURANCE
Each Contracting Party shall take the necessary steps to ensure that appropriate quality assurance programmes concerning the safety of spent fuel and radioactive waste management are established and implemented.
Article 24. OPERATIONAL RADIATION PROTECTION
1. Each Contracting Party shall take the appropriate steps to ensure that during the operating lifetime of a spent fuel or radioactive waste management facility:
(i) the radiation exposure of the workers and the public caused by the facility shall be kept as low as reasonably achievable, economic and social factors being taken into account;
(ii) no individual shall be exposed, in normal situations, to radiation doses which exceed national prescriptions for dose limitation which have due regard to internationally endorsed standards on radiation protection; and
(iii) measures are taken to prevent unplanned and uncontrolled releases of radioactive materials into the environment.
2. Each Contracting Party shall take appropriate steps to ensure that discharges shall be limited:
(i) to keep exposure to radiation as low as reasonably achievable, economic and social factors being taken into account; and
(ii) so that no individual shall be exposed, in normal situations, to radiation doses which exceed national prescriptions for dose limitation which have due regard to internationally endorsed standards on radiation protection.
3. Each Contracting Party shall take appropriate steps to ensure that during the operating lifetime of a regulated nuclear facility, in the event that an unplanned or uncontrolled release of radioactive materials into the environment occurs, appropriate corrective measures are implemented to control the release and mitigate its effects.
Article 25. EMERGENCY PREPAREDNESS
1. Each Contracting Party shall ensure that before and during operation of a spent fuel or radioactive waste management facility there are appropriate on-site and, if necessary, off-site emergency plans. Such emergency plans should be tested at an appropriate frequency.
2. Each Contracting Party shall take the appropriate steps for the preparation and testing of emergency plans for its territory insofar as it is likely to be affected in the event of a radiological emergency at a spent fuel or radioactive waste management facility in the vicinity of its territory.
Article 26. DECOMMISSIONING
Each Contracting Party shall take the appropriate steps to ensure the safety of decommissioning of a nuclear facility. Such steps shall ensure that:
(i) qualified staff and adequate financial resources are available;
(ii) the provisions of Article 24 with respect to operational radiation protection, discharges and unplanned and uncontrolled releases are applied;
(iii) the provisions of Article 25 with respect to emergency preparedness are applied; and
(iv) records of information important to decommissioning are kept.
Chapter 5 MISCELLANEOUS PROVISIONS
Article 27. TRANSBOUNDARY MOVEMENT
1. Each Contracting Party involved in transboundary movement shall take the appropriate steps to ensure that such movement is undertaken in a manner consistent with the provisions of this Convention and relevant binding international instruments.
In so doing:
(i) a Contracting Party which is a State of origin shall take the appropriate steps to ensure that transboundary movement is authorized and takes place only with the prior notification and consent of the State of destination;
(ii) transboundary movement through States of transit shall be subject to those international obligations which are relevant to the particular modes of transport utilized;
(iii) a Contracting Party which is a State of destination shall consent to a transboundary movement only if it has the administrative and technical capacity, as well as the regulatory structure, needed to manage the spent fuel or the radioactive waste in a manner consistent with this Convention;
(iv) a Contracting Party which is a State of origin shall authorize a transboundary movement only if it can satisfy itself in accordance with the consent of the State of destination that the requirements of subparagraph (iii) are met prior to transboundary movement;
(v) a Contracting Party which is a State of origin shall take the appropriate steps to permit re-entry into its territory, if a transboundary movement is not or cannot be completed in conformity with this Article, unless an alternative safe arrangement can be made.
2. A Contracting Party shall not licence the shipment of its spent fuel or radioactive waste to a destination south of latitude 60 degrees South for storage or disposal.
3. Nothing in this Convention prejudices or affects:
(i) the exercise, by ships and aircraft of all States, of maritime, river and air navigation rights and freedoms, as provided for in international law;
(ii) rights of a Contracting Party to which radioactive waste is exported for processing to return, or provide for the return of, the radioactive waste and other products after treatment to the State of origin;
(iii) the right of a Contracting Party to export its spent fuel for reprocessing;
(iv) rights of a Contracting Party to which spent fuel is exported for reprocessing to return, or provide for the return of, radioactive waste and other products resulting from reprocessing operations to the State of origin.
Article 28. DISUSED SEALED SOURCES
1. Each Contracting Party shall, in the framework of its national law, take the appropriate steps to ensure that the possession, remanufacturing or disposal of disused sealed sources takes place in a safe manner.
2. A Contracting Party shall allow for reentry into its territory of disused sealed sources if, in the framework of its national law, it has accepted that they be returned to a manufacturer qualified to receive and possess the disused sealed sources.
Chapter 6 MEETINGS OF THE CONTRACTING PARTIES
Article 29. PREPARATORY MEETING
1. A preparatory meeting of the Contracting Parties shall be held not later than six months after the date of entry into force of this Convention.
2. At this meeting, the Contracting Parties shall:
(i) determine the date for the first review meeting as referred to in Article 30. This review meeting shall be held as soon as possible, but not later than thirty months after the date of entry into force of this Convention;
(ii) prepare and adopt by consensus Rules of Procedure and Financial Rules;
(iii) establish in particular and in accordance with the Rules of Procedure:
(a) guidelines regarding the form and structure of the national reports to be submitted pursuant to Article 32;
(b) a date for the submission of such reports;
(c) the process for reviewing such reports.
3. Any State or regional organization of an integration or other nature which ratifies, accepts, approves, accedes to or confirms this Convention and for which the Convention is not yet in force, may attend the preparatory meeting as if it were a Party to this Convention.
Article 30. REVIEW MEETINGS
1. The Contracting Parties shall hold meetings for the purpose of reviewing the reports submitted pursuant to Article 32.
2. At each review meeting the Contracting Parties:
(i) shall determine the date for the next such meeting, the interval between review meetings not exceeding three years;
(ii) may review the arrangements established pursuant to paragraph 2 of Article 29, and adopt revisions by consensus unless otherwise provided for in the Rules of Procedure. They may also amend the Rules of Procedure and Financial Rules by consensus.
3. At each review meeting each Contracting Party shall have a reasonable opportunity to discuss the reports submitted by other Contracting Parties and to seek clarification of such reports.
Article 31. EXTRAORDINARY MEETINGS
An extraordinary meeting of the Contracting Parties shall be held:
(i) if so agreed by a majority of the Contracting Parties present and voting at a meeting; or
(ii) at the written request of a Contracting Party, within six months of this request having been communicated to the Contracting Parties and notification having been received by the secretariat referred to in Article 37 that the request has been supported by a majority of the Contracting Parties.
Article 32. REPORTING
1. In accordance with the provisions of Article 30, each Contracting Party shall submit a national report to each review meeting of Contracting Parties. This report shall address the measures taken to implement each of the obligations of the Convention. For each Contracting Party the report shall also address its:
(i) spent fuel management policy;
(ii) spent fuel management practices;
(iii) radioactive waste management policy;
(iv) radioactive waste management practices;
(v) criteria used to define and categorize radioactive waste.
2. This report shall also include:
(i) a list of the spent fuel management facilities subject to this Convention, their location, main purpose and essential features;
(ii) an inventory of spent fuel that is subject to this Convention and that is being held in storage and of that which has been disposed of. This inventory shall contain a description of the material and, if available, give information on its mass and its total activity;
(iii) a list of the radioactive waste management facilities subject to this Convention, their location, main purpose and essential features;
(iv) an inventory of radioactive waste that is subject to this Convention that:
(a) is being held in storage at radioactive waste management and nuclear fuel cycle facilities;
(b) has been disposed of; or
(c) has resulted from past practices.
This inventory shall contain a description of the material and other appropriate information available, such as volume or mass, activity and specific radionuclides;
(v) a list of nuclear facilities in the process of being decommissioned and the status of decommissioning activities at those facilities.
Article 33. ATTENDANCE
1. Each Contracting Party shall attend meetings of the Contracting Parties and be represented at such meetings by one delegate, and by such alternates, experts and advisers as it deems necessary.
2. The Contracting Parties may invite, by consensus, any intergovernmental organization which is competent in respect of matters governed by this Convention to attend, as an observer, any meeting, or specific sessions thereof. Observers shall be required to accept in writing, and in advance, the provisions of Article 36.
Article 34. SUMMARY REPORTS
The Contracting Parties shall adopt, by consensus, and make available to the public a document addressing issues discussed and conclusions reached during meetings of the Contracting Parties.
Article 35. LANGUAGES
1. The languages of meetings of the Contracting Parties shall be Arabic, Chinese, English, French, Russian and Spanish unless otherwise provided in the Rules of Procedure.
2. Reports submitted pursuant to Article 32 shall be prepared in the national language of the submitting Contracting Party or in a single designated language to be agreed in the Rules of Procedure. Should the report be submitted in a national language other than the designated language, a translation of the report into the designated language shall be provided by the Contracting Party.
3. Notwithstanding the provisions of paragraph 2, the secretariat, if compensated, will assume the translation of reports submitted in any other language of the meeting into the designated language.
Article 36. CONFIDENTIALITY
1. The provisions of this Convention shall not affect the rights and obligations of the Contracting Parties under their laws to protect information from disclosure. For the purposes of this article, “information“ includes, inter alia, information relating to national security or to the physical protection of nuclear materials, information protected by intellectual property rights or by industrial or commercial confidentiality, and personal data.
2. When, in the context of this Convention, a Contracting Party provides information identified by it as protected as described in paragraph 1, such information shall be used only for the purposes for which it has been provided and its confidentiality shall be respected.
3. With respect to information relating to spent fuel or radioactive waste falling within the scope of this Convention by virtue of paragraph 3 of Article 3, the provisions of this Convention shall not affect the exclusive discretion of the Contracting Party concerned to decide:
(i) whether such information is classified or otherwise controlled to preclude release;
(ii) whether to provide information referred to in sub-paragraph (i) above in the context of the Convention; and
(iii) what conditions of confidentiality are attached to such information if it is provided in the context of this Convention.
4. The content of the debates during the reviewing of the national reports at each review meeting held pursuant to Article 30 shall be confidential.
Article 37. SECRETARIAT
1. The International Atomic Energy Agency, (hereinafter referred to as “the Agency“) shall provide the secretariat for the meetings of the Contracting Parties.
2. The secretariat shall:
(i) convene, prepare and service the meetings of the Contracting Parties referred to in Articles 29, 30 and 31;
(ii) transmit to the Contracting Parties information received or prepared in accordance with the provisions of this Convention.
The costs incurred by the Agency in carrying out the functions referred to in sub-paragraphs (i) and (ii) above shall be borne by the Agency as part of its regular budget.
3. The Contracting Parties may, by consensus, request the Agency to provide other services in support of meetings of the Contracting Parties. The Agency may provide such services if they can be undertaken within its programme and regular budget. Should this not be possible, the Agency may provide such services if voluntary funding is provided from another source.
Chapter 7. FINAL CLAUSES AND OTHER PROVISIONS
Article 38. RESOLUTION OF DISAGREEMENTS
In the event of a disagreement between two or more Contracting Parties concerning the interpretation or application of this Convention, the Contracting Parties shall consult within the framework of a meeting of the Contracting Parties with a view to resolving the disagreement. In the event that the consultations prove unproductive, recourse can be made to the mediation, conciliation and arbitration mechanisms provided for in international law, including the rules and practices prevailing within the IAEA.
Article 39. SIGNATURE, RATIFICATION, ACCEPTANCE, APPROVAL, ACCESSION
1. This Convention shall be open for signature by all States at the Headquarters of the Agency in Vienna from 29 September 1997 until its entry into force.
2. This Convention is subject to ratification, acceptance or approval by the signatory States.
3. After its entry into force, this Convention shall be open for accession by all States.
4. (i) This Convention shall be open for signature subject to confirmation, or accession by regional organizations of an integration or other nature, provided that any such organization is constituted by sovereign States and has competence in respect of the negotiation, conclusion and application of international agreements in matters covered by this Convention.
(ii) In matters within their competence, such organizations shall, on their own behalf, exercise the rights and fulfil the responsibilities which this Convention attributes to States Parties.
(iii) When becoming party to this Convention, such an organization shall communicate to the Depositary referred to in Article 43, a declaration indicating which States are members thereof, which Articles of this Convention apply to it, and the extent of its competence in the field covered by those articles.
(iv) Such an organization shall not hold any vote additional to those of its Member States.
5. Instruments of ratification, acceptance, approval, accession or confirmation shall be deposited with the Depositary.
Article 40. ENTRY INTO FORCE
1. This Convention shall enter into force on the ninetieth day after the date of deposit with the Depositary of the twenty-fifth instrument of ratification, acceptance or approval, including the instruments of fifteen States each having an operational nuclear power plant.
2. For each State or regional organization of an integration or other nature which ratifies, accepts, approves, accedes to or confirms this Convention after the date of deposit of the last instrument required to satisfy the conditions set forth in paragraph 1, this Convention shall enter into force on the ninetieth day after the date of deposit with the Depositary of the appropriate instrument by such a State or organization.
Article 41. AMENDMENTS TO THE CONVENTION
1. Any Contracting Party may propose an amendment to this Convention. Proposed amendments shall be considered at a review meeting or at an extraordinary meeting.
2. The text of any proposed amendment and the reasons for it shall be provided to the Depositary who shall communicate the proposal to the Contracting Parties at least ninety days before the meeting for which it is submitted for consideration. Any comments received on such a proposal shall be circulated by the Depositary to the Contracting Parties.
3. The Contracting Parties shall decide after consideration of the proposed amendment whether to adopt it by consensus, or, in the absence of consensus, to submit it to a Diplomatic Conference. A decision to submit a proposed amendment to a Diplomatic Conference shall require a two-thirds majority vote of the Contracting Parties present and voting at the meeting, provided that at least one half of the Contracting Parties are present at the time of voting.
4. The Diplomatic Conference to consider and adopt amendments to this Convention shall be convened by the Depositary and held no later than one year after the appropriate decision taken in accordance with paragraph 3 of this article. The Diplomatic Conference shall make every effort to ensure amendments are adopted by consensus. Should this not be possible, amendments shall be adopted with a two-thirds majority of all Contracting Parties.
5. Amendments to this Convention adopted pursuant to paragraphs 3 and 4 above shall be subject to ratification, acceptance, approval, or confirmation by the Contracting Parties and shall enter into force for those Contracting Parties which have ratified, accepted, approved or confirmed them on the ninetieth day after the receipt by the Depositary of the relevant instruments of at least two thirds of the Contracting Parties. For a Contracting Party which subsequently ratifies, accepts, approves or confirms the said amendments, the amendments will enter into force on the ninetieth day after that Contracting Party has deposited its relevant instrument.
Article 42. DENUNCIATION
1. Any Contracting Party may denounce this Convention by written notification to the Depositary.
2. Denunciation shall take effect one year following the date of the receipt of the notification by the Depositary, or on such later date as may be specified in the notification.
Article 43. DEPOSITARY
1. The Director General of the Agency shall be the Depositary of this Convention.
2. The Depositary shall inform the Contracting Parties of:
(i) the signature of this Convention and of the deposit of instruments of ratification, acceptance, approval, accession or confirmation in accordance with Article 39;
(ii) the date on which the Convention enters into force, in accordance with Article 40;
(iii) the notifications of denunciation of the Convention and the date thereof, made in accordance with Article 42;
(iv) the proposed amendments to this Convention submitted by Contracting Parties, the amendments adopted by the relevant Diplomatic Conference or by the meeting of the Contracting Parties, and the date of entry into force of the said amendments, in accordance with Article 41.
Article 44. AUTHENTIC TEXTS
The original of this Convention of which the Arabic, Chinese, English, French, Russian and Spanish texts are equally authentic, shall be deposited with the Depositary, who shall send certified copies thereof to the Contracting Parties.
IN WITNESS WHEREOF THE UNDERSIGNED, BEING DULY AUTHORIZED TO THAT EFFECT, HAVE SIGNED THIS CONVENTION.
Done at Vienna on the fifth day of September, one thousand nine hundred and ninetyseven.
SKUPNA KONVENCIJA
O VARNOSTI RAVNANJA Z IZRABLJENIM GORIVOM IN VARNOSTI RAVNANJA Z RADIOAKTIVNIMI ODPADKI
UVOD
Pogodbenice
(i) priznavajo, da pri obratovanju jedrskih reaktorjev nastaja izrabljeno gorivo in radioaktivni odpadki ter da tudi pri drugih načinih uporabe jedrskih tehnologij nastajajo radioaktivni odpadki;
(ii) priznavajo, da se enaki varnostni cilji nanašajo tako na ravnanje z izrabljenim gorivom kot na ravnanje z radioaktivnimi odpadki;
(iii) ponovno potrjujejo, da je za mednarodno skupnost pomembno zagotoviti, da se načrtujejo in uresničujejo dobro premišljeni postopki za varnost ravnanja z izrabljenim gorivom in radioaktivnimi odpadki;
(iv) priznavajo, da je obveščanje javnosti o zadevah v zvezi z varnostjo ravnanja z izrabljenim gorivom in radioaktivnimi odpadki pomembno;
(v) želijo pospešiti učinkovito kulturo jedrske varnosti po svetu;
(vi) ponovno potrjujejo, da je za zagotavljanje varnosti ravnanja z izrabljenim gorivom in radioaktivnimi odpadki najodgovornejša država;
(vii) priznavajo, da je opredelitev politike gorivnega ciklusa v rokah države, saj nekatere države menijo, da je izrabljeno gorivo dragocen vir, ki ga je mogoče predelati, druge pa se odločijo, da ga bodo odložile;
(viii) priznavajo, da bi bilo treba z izrabljenim gorivom in radioaktivnimi odpadki, ki so izključeni iz te konvencije, ker so del vojaških ali obrambnih programov, ravnati v skladu s cilji, določenimi v tej konvenciji;
(ix) potrjujejo, da je mednarodno sodelovanje z dvostranskimi in mnogostranskimi mehanizmi in s to konvencijo pomembno za povečanje varnosti ravnanja z izrabljenim gorivom in radioaktivnimi odpadki;
(x) posvečajo pozornost potrebam držav v razvoju, predvsem pa nerazvitim državam, in državam z gospodarstvi v prehodu ter potrebi po pospeševanju obstoječih mehanizmov v podporo uresničevanju njihovih pravic in obveznosti, določenih v tej konvenciji;
(xi) so prepričane, da bi bilo treba radioaktivne odpadke, če je to skladno z varnostjo ravnanja s takšnim materialom, odlagati v državi, v kateri so nastali, medtem ko priznavajo, da se v določenih okoliščinah varno in učinkovito ravnanje z izrabljenim gorivom in radioaktivnimi odpadki lahko pospešuje s sporazumi med pogodbenicami za uporabo objektov v eni od njih v korist drugih pogodbenic, še posebej, kadar so odpadki rezultat skupnih projektov;
(xii) priznavajo, da ima vsaka država pravico prepovedati uvoz tujega izrabljenega goriva in radioaktivnih odpadkov na svoje ozemlje;
(xiii) upoštevajo Konvencijo o jedrski varnosti (1994) , Konvencijo o zgodnjem obveščanju o jedrskih nesrečah (1986) , Konvencijo o pomoči v primeru jedrskih nesreč ali radiološke nevarnosti (1986) , Konvencijo o fizičnem varovanju jedrskega materiala (1980), Konvencijo o preprečevanju onesnaževanja morij z odlaganjem odpadkov in drugega materiala, kot je bila dopolnjena 1994, in druge ustrezne mednarodne listine;
(xiv) upoštevajo načela, ki jih vsebujejo medagencijski “Mednarodni temeljni varnostni standardi za varstvo pred ionizirajočim sevanjem in za varnost virov radioaktivnega sevanja“ (1996) , temeljna varnostna načela Mednarodne agencije za atomsko energijo z naslovom “Načela ravnanja z radioaktivnimi odpadki“ (1995), in obstoječi mednarodni standardi, ki se nanašajo na varnost prevoza radioaktivnega materiala;
(xv) upoštevajo 22. poglavje Agende 21 Konference Združenih narodov o okolju in razvoju v Riu de Janeiru, sprejete leta 1992, ki ponovno potrjuje, da je najpomembnejše varno in okoljsko dobro premišljeno ravnanje z radioaktivnimi odpadki;
(xvi) priznavajo, da je zaželena krepitev mednarodnega sistema nadzora, ki bi veljal posebej za radioaktivni material, kot je omenjeno v tretjem odstavku 1. člena Baselske konvencije o nadzoru prehoda nevarnih odpadkov preko meja in njihovega odstranjevanja (1989);
in so se dogovorile:
1. poglavje: CILJI, OPREDELITEV POJMOV IN PODROČJE UPORABE
1. člen: CILJI
Cilji te konvencije so:
(i) doseči in vzdrževati visoko raven varnosti ravnanja z izrabljenim gorivom in radioaktivnimi odpadki po vsem svetu s krepitvijo državnih ukrepov ter mednarodnega sodelovanja, vključno s tehničnim sodelovanjem, povezanim z varnostjo, kjer je to primerno;
(ii) v vseh fazah ravnanja z izrabljenim gorivom in radioaktivnimi odpadki zagotoviti učinkovite obrambne mehanizme proti možnim nevarnostim, da bodo posamezniki, družba in okolje zaščiteni pred škodljivimi učinki ionizirajočega sevanja tako zdaj kot v prihodnosti, tako da bodo zadovoljene potrebe in prizadevanja sedanje generacije, ne da bi ogrozili zmožnosti prihodnjih generacij za zadovoljevanje njihovih potreb in prizadevanj;
(iii) preprečevati nesreče z radiološkimi posledicami in ublažiti njihove posledice, če bi do njih prišlo, v kateri koli fazi ravnanja z izrabljenim gorivom ali radioaktivnimi odpadki.
2. člen: OPREDELITEV POJMOV
V tej konvenciji:
(a) “zaprtje“ pomeni dokončanje vseh operacij določen čas po odložitvi izrabljenega goriva ali radioaktivnih odpadkov v odlagališče. To vključuje zaključni inženiring ali drugo delo, ki je potrebno, da bo objekt dolgoročno varen;
(b) “razgradnja“ pomeni vse korake, ki vodijo k prenehanju upravnega nadzora nad jedrskim objektom, ki ni odlagališče. Ti koraki vključujejo postopke dekontaminacije in demontaže;
(c) “izpust“ pomeni načrtovano in nadzirano izpuščanje tekočega ali plinastega radioaktivnega materiala v okolje, ki je posledica normalnega obratovanja nadzorovanih jedrskih objektov, kot zakonite prakse v mejah, ki jih določi upravni organ;
(d) “odlaganje“ pomeni namestitev izrabljenega goriva ali radioaktivnih odpadkov v ustrezen objekt brez namena ponovne pridobitve;
(e) “dovoljenje“ pomeni katero koli pooblastilo, dovoljenje ali potrdilo, ki ga izda upravni organ za izvajanje katere koli dejavnosti v zvezi z ravnanjem z izrabljenim gorivom ali radioaktivnimi odpadki;
(f) “jedrski objekt“ pomeni civilni objekt in njemu pripadajoče zemljišče, stavbe in opremo, v katerem se izdeluje, obdeluje, uporablja, se z njim ravna, se shranjuje ali odlaga radioaktivni material v takšnem obsegu, da to zahteva upoštevanje o varnosti;
(g) “obratovalna življenjska doba“ pomeni obdobje, v katerem se objekt za ravnanje z izrabljenim gorivom ali radioaktivnimi odpadki uporablja v predvidene namene. Če gre za odlagališče, se to obdobje začne s prvo odložitvijo izrabljenega goriva ali radioaktivnega materiala v objekt in se konča z zaprtjem objekta;
(h) “radioaktivni odpadek“ pomeni radioaktivni material v plinasti, tekoči ali trdni obliki, za katerega pogodbenica ali fizična oziroma pravna oseba, katere odločitve pogodbenica sprejema, ni predvidela nadaljnje uporabe in ga upravni organ v skladu z zakoni in predpisi pogodbenice nadzira kot radioaktivni odpadek;
(i) “ravnanje z radioaktivnimi odpadki“ pomeni vse dejavnosti, vključno z dejavnostmi razgradnje, v zvezi z ravnanjem, predhodno obdelavo, obdelavo, prilagajanjem, shranjevanjem ali odstranjevanjem radioaktivnih odpadkov, razen prevoza zunaj same lokacije. Lahko vključuje tudi izpuste;
(j) “objekt za ravnanje z radioaktivnimi odpadki“ pomeni kateri koli objekt ali napravo, katerega osnovni namen je ravnanje z radioaktivnimi odpadki, vključno z jedrskim objektom, ki je v postopku razgradnje, le če ga je pogodbenica določila kot objekt za ravnanje z radioaktivnimi odpadki;
(k) “upravni organ“ pomeni kateri koli organ ali organe, ki jih je pogodbenica pravno pooblastila za urejanje katerega koli varnostnega vidika ravnanja z izrabljenim gorivom ali radioaktivnimi odpadki, vključno z izdajanjem dovoljenj;
(l) “predelava“ pomeni postopek ali dejavnost, katere namen je iz izrabljenega goriva izločiti radioaktivne izotope za nadaljnjo uporabo;
(m) “zaprti vir“ pomeni radioaktivni material, ki je trajno zaprt v kapsuli ali skrbno shranjen in v trdni obliki, razen reaktorskih gorivnih elementov;
(n) “izrabljeno gorivo“ pomeni jedrsko gorivo, ki je bilo obsevano v reaktorski sredici in trajno odstranjeno iz nje;
(o) “ravnanje z izrabljenim gorivom“ pomeni vse dejavnosti v zvezi z ravnanjem ali shranjevanjem izrabljenega goriva, razen prevoza zunaj same lokacije. To lahko vključuje tudi izpuste;
(p) “objekt za ravnanje z izrabljenim gorivom“ pomeni katero koli napravo ali objekt, katere osnovni namen je ravnanje z izrabljenim gorivom;
(q) “namembna država“ pomeni državo, ki je cilj načrtovanega ali odvijajočega se prehoda čez mejo;
(r) “država izvora“ pomeni državo, iz katere se načrtuje prehod čez mejo oziroma je bil začet;
(s) “tranzitna država“ pomeni katero koli državo, ki ni država izvora ali namembna država, čez ozemlje katere se načrtuje oziroma izvaja čezmejni promet;
(t) “shranjevanje“ pomeni hranjenje izrabljenega goriva ali radioaktivnih odpadkov v objektu, ki je primeren za njihovo skladiščenje, z namenom da se ponovno uporabi;
(u) “čezmejni promet“ pomeni kakršno koli pošiljko izrabljenega goriva ali radioaktivnih odpadkov iz države izvora v namembno državo.
3. člen: PODROČJE UPORABE
1. Ta konvencija se nanaša na varnost ravnanja z izrabljenim gorivom, kadar je izrabljeno gorivo rezultat obratovanja civilnih jedrskih reaktorjev. Na izrabljeno gorivo v predelovalnih objektih kot del predelovalnih dejavnosti se ta konvencija ne nanaša, razen če pogodbenica ne določi, da je predelava sestavni del ravnanja z izrabljenim gorivom.
2. Ta konvencija se nanaša tudi na varnost ravnanja z radioaktivnimi odpadki, kadar so radioaktivni odpadki rezultat civilne uporabe. Vendar pa se ta konvencija ne nanaša na odpadke, ki vsebujejo le radioaktivni material, ki se pojavlja v naravi, in ki ne izvira iz jedrskega gorivnega ciklusa, če ni del zaprtega vira, ki se ne uporablja, ali če jih pogodbenica ne navede kot radioaktivne odpadke za namene te konvencije.
3. Ta konvencija se ne nanaša na varnost ravnanja z izrabljenim gorivom ali radioaktivnimi odpadki v vojaških ali obrambnih programih, če jih pogodbenica za namene te konvencije ne navede kot izrabljeno gorivo ali radioaktivne odpadke. Vendar pa se ta konvencija nanaša na varnost ravnanja z izrabljenim gorivom in radioaktivnimi odpadki iz vojaških ali obrambnih programov, če in kadar je takšen material trajno prenesen izključno v civilne programe in upravljan znotraj njih.
4. Ta konvencija se nanaša tudi na izpuste, kot so predvideni v 4., 7., 11., 14., 24. in 26. členu.
2. poglavje: VARNOST RAVNANJA Z IZRABLJENIM GORIVOM
4. člen: SPLOŠNE VARNOSTNE ZAHTEVE
Vsaka pogodbenica sprejme potrebne ukrepe za zagotovitev ustrezne zaščite posameznikov, družbe in okolja pred radiološkimi nevarnostmi v vseh fazah ravnanja z izrabljenim gorivom.
Pri tem vsaka pogodbenica sprejme primerne ukrepe, da:
(i) zagotovi ustrezno obravnavanje kritičnosti in odvajanja zaostale toplote, ki nastane med ravnanjem z izrabljenim gorivom;
(ii) zagotovi, da se nastajanje radioaktivnih odpadkov, ki so povezani z ravnanjem z izrabljenim gorivom, ohranja v kar najmanjšem možnem okviru v skladu z vrsto sprejete politike gorivnega ciklusa;
(iii) upošteva medsebojne odvisnosti med različnimi fazami ravnanja z izrabljenim gorivom;
(iv) omogoča učinkovito zaščito posameznikov, družbe in okolja z uporabo primernih zaščitnih metod, kot jih je odobril upravni organ, na državni ravni v okviru svoje zakonodaje, ki pravilno upošteva mednarodno odobrena merila in standarde;
(v) upošteva biološke, kemične in druge nevarnosti, ki so lahko povezane z ravnanjem z izrabljenim gorivom;
(vi) si prizadeva, da bi se izognila ravnanju, katerega vplive na prihodnje generacije je mogoče logično napovedati in so večji od dovoljenih za sedanjo generacijo;
(vii) se izogne prelaganju pretiranih bremen na prihodnje generacije.
5. člen: OBSTOJEČI OBJEKTI
Vsaka pogodbenica sprejme primerne ukrepe za pregled varnosti kakršnega koli objekta za ravnanje z izrabljenim gorivom, ki obstaja ob začetku veljavnosti te konvencije za to pogodbenico, in primerne ukrepe za zagotovitev, če je treba, da se opravijo vse razumno izvedljive izboljšave za nadgradnjo varnosti takšnega objekta.
6. člen: IZBIRA LOKACIJE PREDLAGANIH OBJEKTOV
1. Vsaka pogodbenica sprejme primerne ukrepe, s katerimi zagotovi, da se določijo in izvedejo postopki za predlagani objekt za ravnanje z izrabljenim gorivom:
(i) za ovrednotenje vseh bistvenih dejavnikov v zvezi z lokacijo, ki bi lahko vplivali na varnost takšnega objekta med njegovo obratovalno življenjsko dobo;
(ii) za ovrednotenje verjetnega varnostnega vpliva takšnega objekta na posameznike, družbo in okolje;
(iii) za omogočanje dostopa javnosti do podatkov o varnosti takšnega objekta;
(iv) za svetovanje pogodbenicam v bližini takšnega objekta, če bi takšen objekt nanje morda lahko vplival, in za zagotavljanje splošnih podatkov o objektu na njihovo zahtevo, da se jim omogoči, da ovrednotijo možni varnostni vpliv objekta na njihovo ozemlje.
2. Pri tem vsaka pogodbenica sprejme primerne ukrepe za zagotovitev, da takšni objekti nimajo nesprejemljivih učinkov na druge pogodbenice, ker so locirani v skladu s splošnimi varnostnimi zahtevami 4. člena.
7. člen: PROJEKTIRANJE IN GRADNJA OBJEKTOV
Vsaka pogodbenica sprejme primerne ukrepe, s katerimi zagotovi, da:
(i) projekt in gradnja objektov za ravnanje z izrabljenim gorivom zagotavljata ustrezne ukrepe za omejitev možnih radioloških vplivov na posameznike, družbo in okolje, vključno s posledicami odvajanj ali nenadzorovanih izpustov;
(ii) so v fazi projektiranja upoštevani konceptualni načrti, in če je treba, tehnični ukrepi za razgradnjo objektov za ravnanje z izrabljenim gorivom;
(iii) so tehnologije, vključene v projekt in gradnjo objektov za ravnanje z izrabljenim gorivom, podprte z izkušnjami, preizkušanjem ali analizo.
8. člen: PRESOJA VARNOSTI OBJEKTOV
Vsaka pogodbenica sprejme primerne ukrepe, s katerimi zagotovi, da:
(i) se pred gradnjo objekta za ravnanje z izrabljenim gorivom opravita sistematična varnostna in okoljska presoja, primerni glede na nevarnost, ki jo pomeni objekt, in ki pokrivata obratovalno življenjsko dobo objektov;
(ii) se pred začetkom obratovanja objekta za ravnanje z izrabljenim gorivom pripravijo z novimi podatki dopolnjene in podrobne različice varnostne in okoljske presoje, kadar je to potrebno za dopolnitev ocen, omenjenih v točki (i) .
9. člen: OBRATOVANJE OBJEKTOV
Vsaka pogodbenica sprejme primerne ukrepe, s katerimi zagotovi, da:
(i) dovoljenje za obratovanje objekta za ravnanje z izrabljenim gorivom temelji na primernih presojah, kot je natančno navedeno v 8. členu, in da je odvisno od dokončanja programa za razgradnjo, ki kaže, da je objekt, tako kot je zgrajen, skladen s projektnimi in varnostnimi zahtevami;
(ii) so obratovalni pogoji in omejitve, ki izhajajo iz preizkusov, obratovalnih izkušenj in presoj, kot je natančno navedeno v 8. členu, določeni in po potrebi revidirani;
(iii) se obratovanje, vzdrževanje, nadzorovanje, pregledi in preizkušanje objektov za ravnanje z izrabljenim gorivom izvajajo v skladu z uveljavljenimi postopki;
(iv) se preskrbita inženiring in tehnična podpora na vseh področjih, povezanih z varnostjo, med celotno obratovalno življenjsko dobo objekta za ravnanje z izrabljenim gorivom;
(v) imetnik ustreznega dovoljenja pravočasno poroča upravnemu organu o nesrečah, pomembnih za varnost;
(vi) se določijo programi za zbiranje in analizo obratovalnih izkušenj in da se, če je primerno, ukrepa na podlagi rezultatov;
(vii) se pripravijo in z novimi podatki dopolnijo načrti za razgradnjo objektov za ravnanje z izrabljenim gorivom, če je potrebno, ob uporabi informacij, pridobljenih med obratovalno življenjsko dobo določenega objekta, ter da jih pregleda upravni organ.
10. člen: ODLAGANJE IZRABLJENEGA GORIVA
Če je pogodbenica v skladu s svojimi zakoni in predpisi izrabljeno gorivo določila za odložitev, mora biti odložitev takšnega izrabljenega goriva skladna z obveznostmi 3. poglavja v zvezi z odlaganjem radioaktivnih odpadkov.
3. poglavje: VARNOST RAVNANJA Z RADIOAKTIVNIMI ODPADKI
11. člen: SPLOŠNE VARNOSTNE ZAHTEVE
Vsaka pogodbenica sprejme potrebne ukrepe za zagotovitev ustrezne zaščite posameznikov, družbe in okolja pred radiološkimi in drugimi nevarnostmi v vseh fazah ravnanja z radioaktivnimi odpadki.
Pri tem vsaka pogodbenica sprejme potrebne ukrepe, da:
(i) zagotovi ustrezno obravnavanje kritičnosti in odvajanje zaostale toplote, ki nastane med ravnanjem z radioaktivnimi odpadki;
(ii) zagotovi, da se nastajanje radioaktivnih odpadkov ohranja v kar najmanjšem možnem okviru;
(iii) upošteva medsebojne odvisnosti med različnimi fazami ravnanja z radioaktivnimi odpadki;
(iv) omogoča učinkovito zaščito posameznikov, družbe in okolja z uporabo primernih zaščitnih metod, kot jih je odobril upravni organ, na državni ravni v okviru svoje zakonodaje, ki pravilno upošteva mednarodno odobrena merila in standarde;
(v) upošteva biološke, kemične in druge nevarnosti, ki so lahko povezane z ravnanjem z radioaktivnimi odpadki;
(vi) si prizadeva, da bi se izognila ravnanju, katerega vplive na prihodnje generacije je mogoče logično napovedati in so večji od tistih, ki so dovoljeni za sedanjo generacijo;
(vii) se izogne prelaganju pretiranih bremen na prihodnje generacije.
12. člen: OBSTOJEČI OBJEKTI IN PRETEKLA PRAKSA
Vsaka pogodbenica pravočasno sprejme primerne ukrepe za pregled:
(i) varnosti kakršnega koli objekta za ravnanje z radioaktivnimi odpadki, ki obstaja, ko začne konvencija veljati za to pogodbenico, in primerne ukrepe za zagotovitev, če je treba, da se opravijo vse razumno izvedljive izboljšave za nadgradnjo varnosti takšnega objekta;
(ii) posledic pretekle prakse, da bi določila, ali je zaradi zaščite pred sevanjem potreben kakršen koli poseg, ob upoštevanju, naj bi bilo zmanjšanje škode, ki izhaja iz zmanjšanja doze, zadostno da upraviči škodo in stroške posega, vključno s socialnimi stroški.
13. člen: IZBIRA LOKACIJE PREDLAGANIH OBJEKTOV
1. Vsaka pogodbenica sprejme primerne ukrepe, s katerimi zagotovi, da se določijo in izvedejo postopki za predlagani objekt za ravnanje z radioaktivnimi odpadki:
(i) za ovrednotenje vseh bistvenih dejavnikov v zvezi z lokacijo, ki lahko vplivajo na varnost takšnega objekta med njegovo obratovalno življenjsko dobo, kot tudi v zvezi z odlagališčem po zaprtju;
(ii) za ovrednotenje verjetnih varnostnih učinkov takšnega objekta na posameznike, družbo in okolje ob upoštevanju možnega razvoja pogojev na lokaciji odlagališča po zaprtju;
(iii) za omogočanje dostopa javnosti do podatkov o varnosti takšnega objekta;
(iv) za svetovanje pogodbenicam v bližini takšnega objekta, če bi takšen objekt nanje morda lahko vplival, in za zagotavljanje splošnih podatkov o objektu na njihovo zahtevo, da se jim omogoči, da ovrednotijo možni varnostni vpliv objekta na njihovo ozemlje.
2. Pri tem vsaka pogodbenica sprejme primerne ukrepe za zagotovitev, da takšni objekti nimajo nesprejemljivih učinkov na druge pogodbenice, ker so locirani v skladu s splošnimi varnostnimi zahtevami 11. člena.
14. člen: PROJEKTIRANJE IN GRADNJA OBJEKTOV
Vsaka pogodbenica sprejme primerne ukrepe, s katerimi zagotovi, da:
(i) projekt in gradnja objekta za ravnanje z radioaktivnimi odpadki zagotavljata ustrezne ukrepe za omejitev možnih radioloških vplivov na posameznike, družbo in okolje, vključno s posledicami nadzorovanih ali nenadzorovanih izpustov;
(ii) so v fazi projektiranja upoštevani konceptualni načrti, in če je treba, tehnični ukrepi za razgradnjo objekta za ravnanje z radioaktivnimi odpadki, ki ni odlagališče odpadkov;
(iii) so v fazi projektiranja pripravljeni tehnični ukrepi za zaprtje odlagališča;
(iv) so tehnologije, vključene v projekt in gradnjo objekta za ravnanje z radioaktivnimi odpadki, podprte z izkušnjami, preizkušanjem ali analizo.
15. člen: PRESOJA VARNOSTI OBJEKTOV
Vsaka pogodbenica sprejme primerne ukrepe, s katerimi zagotovi, da:
(i) se pred gradnjo objekta za ravnanje z radioaktivnimi odpadki opravita sistematična varnostna in okoljska presoja, ki sta primerni glede na nevarnost, ki jo pomeni objekt, in ki pokrivata obratovalno življenjsko dobo objekta;
(ii) se poleg tega pred začetkom gradnje odlagališča opravita sistematična varnostna in okoljska presoja za obdobje po zaprtju in se rezultati ovrednotijo po merilih, ki jih določi upravni organ;
(iii) se pred začetkom obratovanja objekta za ravnanje z radioaktivnimi odpadki pripravijo z novimi podatki dopolnjene in podrobne različice varnostne in okoljske presoje, kadar se zdi potrebno za dopolnitev presoj, omenjenih v pododstavku (i) .
16. člen: OBRATOVANJE OBJEKTOV
Vsaka pogodbenica sprejme primerne ukrepe, s katerimi zagotovi, da:
(i) dovoljenje za obratovanje objekta za ravnanje z radioaktivnimi odpadki temelji na primernih presojah, kot je natančno navedeno v 15. členu, in da je odvisno od dokončanja programa za razgradnjo, ki kaže, da je objekt, tako kot je zgrajen, skladen s projektnimi in varnostnimi zahtevami;
(ii) so obratovalni pogoji in omejitve, ki izhajajo iz preizkusov, obratovalnih izkušenj in presoj, kot je natančno navedeno v 15. členu, določeni in po potrebi revidirani;
(iii) se obratovanje, vzdrževanje, nadzorovanje, pregledi in preizkušanje objekta za ravnanje z radioaktivnimi odpadki izvajajo v skladu z uveljavljenimi postopki. Za odlagališče se tako pridobljeni rezultati uporabijo za preverjanje in pregled veljavnosti oblikovanih predpostavk ter za dopolnjevanje presoj, kot so natančno navedene v 15. členu, za obdobje po zaprtju;
(iv) se preskrbita inženiring in tehnična podpora na vseh področjih, povezanih z varnostjo, med celotno obratovalno življenjsko dobo objekta za ravnanje z radioaktivnimi odpadki;
(v) se uporabijo postopki za označevanje in ločevanje radioaktivnih odpadkov;
(vi) imetnik ustreznega dovoljenja pravočasno poroča upravnemu organu o nesrečah, pomembnih za varnost;
(vii) se določijo programi za zbiranje in analizo obratovalnih izkušenj in da se, če je primerno, ukrepa na podlagi rezultatov;
(viii) se pripravijo in dopolnijo načrti za razgradnjo objekta za ravnanje z radioaktivnimi odpadki, kjer je treba, ob uporabi informacij, pridobljenih med obratovalno življenjsko dobo določenega objekta, ter da jih pregleda upravni organ;
(ix) se pripravijo in dopolnijo načrti za zaprtje odlagališča, če je treba, ob uporabi informacij, pridobljenih med obratovalno življenjsko dobo določenega objekta, ter da jih pregleda upravni organ.
17. člen: INSTITUCIONALNI UKREPI PO ZAPRTJU
Vsaka pogodbenica sprejme primerne ukrepe, s katerimi zagotovi, da se po zaprtju odlagališča:
(i) ohrani dokumentacija o lokaciji, projektu in inventarju tega objekta, ki jih zahteva upravni organ;
(ii) izvede aktivni ali pasivni institucionalni nadzor, kot so nadzorovanje ali omejitve dostopa, če je potrebno, in
(iii) če se ob aktivnem institucionalnem nadzoru odkrije nepredvideni izpust radioaktivnih snovi v okolje se, če je potrebno, izvajajo intervencijski ukrepi.
4. poglavje: SPLOŠNE VARNOSTNE DOLOČBE
18. člen: UKREPI ZA IZVAJANJE
Vsaka pogodbenica sprejme v okviru svojega notranjega prava zakone, predpise ter upravne in druge ukrepe, potrebne za izvajanje svojih obveznosti po tej konvenciji.
19. člen: ZAKONI IN PREDPISI
1. Vsaka pogodbenica sprejme in izvaja zakone in predpise za urejanje varnosti ravnanja z izrabljenim gorivom in radioaktivnimi odpadki.
2. Ti zakoni in predpisi zagotavljajo:
(i) določitev primernih državnih varnostnih zahtev in predpisov glede varstva pred sevanjem;
(ii) sistem izdajanja dovoljenj za ravnanje z izrabljenim gorivom in radioaktivnimi odpadki;
(iii) sistem prepovedi obratovanja objekta za ravnanje z izrabljenim gorivom ali radioaktivnimi odpadki brez dovoljenja;
(iv) sistem primernega institucionalnega nadzora, predpisanega pregledovanja ter dokumentiranja in poročanja;
(v) zagotavljanje spoštovanja ustreznih predpisov in pogojev dovoljenj;
(vi) jasno dodelitev odgovornosti organizacijam, vključenim v različne faze ravnanja z izrabljenim gorivom in radioaktivnimi odpadki.
3. Kadar presojajo o tem, ali naj radioaktivne snovi obravnavajo kot radioaktivne odpadke, pogodbenice upoštevajo cilje te konvencije.
20. člen: UPRAVNI ORGAN
1. Vsaka pogodbenica ustanovi ali imenuje upravni organ, ki se mu poveri uresničevanje zakonov in predpisov iz 19. člena; dodeli se mu primerna pooblastila, pristojnosti ter finančna sredstva in kadri za izpolnjevanje dodeljenih nalog.
2. Vsaka pogodbenica v skladu s svojimi zakoni in predpisi sprejme primerne ukrepe, s katerimi zagotovi učinkovito neodvisnost upravnih funkcij od drugih funkcij, kadar so organizacije vključene v ravnanje z izrabljenim gorivom ali radioaktivnimi odpadki in njihovo urejanje s predpisi.
21. člen: ODGOVORNOST IMETNIKA DOVOLJENJA
1. Vsaka pogodbenica zagotavlja, da je za varnost ravnanja z izrabljenim gorivom ali radioaktivnimi odpadki primarno odgovoren imetnik ustreznega dovoljenja in da sprejme primerne ukrepe, s katerimi zagotavlja, da vsak tak imetnik izpolnjuje svojo obveznost.
2. Če takšnega imetnika dovoljenja ali druge stranke ni, je za to odgovorna pogodbenica, pristojna za izrabljeno gorivo ali radioaktivne odpadke.
22. člen: KADRI IN FINANČNI VIRI
Vsaka pogodbenica sprejme primerne ukrepe, s katerimi zagotovi, da:
(i) je na voljo usposobljeno osebje, potrebno za dejavnosti, povezane z varnostjo med obratovalno življenjsko dobo objekta za ravnanje z izrabljenim gorivom in radioaktivnimi odpadki;
(ii) so na voljo ustrezni finančni viri, potrebni za zagotavljanje varnosti objektov za ravnanje z izrabljenim gorivom in radioaktivnimi odpadki med njihovo obratovalno življenjsko dobo ter za njihovo razgradnjo;
(iii) se oblikuje finančna določba, ki bo omogočila nadaljevanje primernega institucionalnega nadzora in ukrepov nadziranja za obdobje, ki se zdi po zaprtju odlagališča potrebno.
23. člen: ZAGOTAVLJANJE KAKOVOSTI
Vsaka pogodbenica sprejme potrebne ukrepe, s katerimi zagotovi, da se določijo in izvajajo primerni programi zagotavljanja kakovosti v zvezi z varnostjo ravnanja z izrabljenim gorivom in radioaktivnimi odpadki.
24. člen: VARSTVO PRED SEVANJEM MED OBRATOVANJEM
1. Vsaka pogodbenica sprejme potrebne ukrepe, s katerimi zagotovi, da med obratovalno življenjsko dobo objekta za ravnanje z izrabljenim gorivom ali radioaktivnimi odpadki:
(i) bo izpostavljenost delavcev in javnosti sevanju zaradi objekta na tako nizki ravni, kot je to še razumno doseči, ob upoštevanju ekonomskih in socialnih dejavnikov in
(ii) noben posameznik v normalnih razmerah ne bo izpostavljen sevanju, ki je večje od doze, ki jo predpisuje država, ki pravilno upošteva mednarodno odobrene standarde o varstvu pred sevanjem.
(iii) se preprečijo nenačrtovani in nekontrolirani izpusti radioaktivnih snovi v okolje.
2. Vsaka pogodbenica sprejme primerne ukrepe, s katerimi zagotovi omejitev izpustov:
(i) da ohrani izpostavljenost sevanju na tako nizki ravni, kot je to še mogoče razumno doseči, ob upoštevanju ekonomskih in socialnih dejavnikov;
(ii) da noben posameznik v normalnih razmerah ni izpostavljen sevanju, ki je večje od doze, ki jo predpiše država, ki pravilno upošteva mednarodno odobrene standarde o varstvu pred sevanjem.
3. Vsaka pogodbenica sprejme primerne ukrepe, s katerimi zagotovi, da se med obratovalno življenjsko dobo upravljanega jedrskega objekta, če pride do nenačrtovanega ali nenadzorovanega izpusta radioaktivnih snovi v okolje, izvajajo sanacijski ukrepi za nadzor izpusta in ublažitev njegovih učinkov.
25. člen: PRIPRAVLJENOST NA IZREDNE RAZMERE
1. Vsaka pogodbenica zagotovi, da pred in med obratovanjem objekta za ravnanje z izrabljenim gorivom ali radioaktivnimi odpadki obstajajo primerni načrti za izredne razmere na lokaciji sami, in če je treba, zunaj nje. Takšne načrte za izredne razmere naj bi preizkušali primerno pogosto.
2. Vsaka pogodbenica sprejme primerne ukrepe za pripravo in preizkus načrtov za izredne razmere za svoje ozemlje, če je verjetno, da bo prizadeta zaradi radioloških izrednih razmer v objektu za ravnanje z izrabljenim gorivom ali radioaktivnimi odpadki v bližini njenega ozemlja.
26. člen: RAZGRADNJA
Vsaka pogodbenica sprejme primerne ukrepe, s katerimi zagotovi varnost razgradnje jedrskega objekta. Takšni ukrepi zagotovijo, da:
(i) je na voljo usposobljeno osebje in ustrezni finančni viri;
(ii) se upoštevajo določbe 24. člena glede varstva pred sevanjem med obratovanjem, izpusti ter nenačrtovanimi in nenadzorovanimi izpusti;
(iii) se upoštevajo določbe 25. člena glede pripravljenosti na izredne razmere in
(iv) se hrani dokumentacija z informacijami, pomembnimi za razgradnjo.
5. poglavje: RAZLIČNE DOLOČBE
27. člen: ČEZMEJNI PROMET
1. Vsaka pogodbenica, ki je vključena v čezmejni promet, sprejme primerne ukrepe, s katerimi zagotovi, da takšen promet poteka v skladu z določbami te konvencije in ustreznimi obvezujočimi mednarodnimi instrumenti.
Pri tem:
(i) pogodbenica, ki je država izvora, sprejme primerne ukrepe, s katerimi zagotovi, da je čezmejni promet odobren in da se zgodi le na podlagi predhodnega uradnega obvestila in odobritve namembne države;
(ii) čezmejni promet skozi tranzitne države mora biti skladen s tistimi mednarodnimi obveznostmi, ki ustrezajo posameznim oblikam uporabljenega prevoza;
(iii) pogodbenica, ki je namembna država, odobri čezmejni promet le, če ima upravno in tehnično zmožnost kot tudi predpise, potrebne za ravnanje z izrabljenim gorivom ali radioaktivnimi odpadki v skladu s to konvencijo;
(iv) pogodbenica, ki je država izvora, odobri čezmejni promet le, če se v skladu z odobritvijo namembne države lahko prepriča, da so zahteve pododstavka (iii) izpolnjene pred prehodom čez mejo;
(v) pogodbenica, ki je država izvora, sprejme primerne ukrepe, s katerimi dovoli ponoven vstop na svoje ozemlje, če čezmejni promet ni ali ne more biti dokončan v skladu s tem členom in če ni mogoče skleniti alternativnega varnostnega dogovora.
2. Pogodbenica ne sme dovoliti pošiljanja svojega izrabljenega goriva ali radioaktivnih odpadkov zaradi shranjevanja ali odstranitve v namembni kraj, ki leži južno od 60 stopinje južne zemljepisne širine.
3. Nič v tej konvenciji ne prejudicira oziroma ne vpliva na:
(i) uresničevanje, z ladjami in letali vseh držav, pomorskih rečnih ali zračnih navigacijskih pravic in svoboščin, kot so določene v mednarodnem pravu;
(ii) pravice pogodbenice, v katero se radioaktivni odpadki uvažajo zaradi obdelave, da po končanem postopku radioaktivne odpadke in druge proizvode vrne ali poskrbi za njihovo vrnitev v državo izvora;
(iii) pravice pogodbenice, da izvozi svoje izrabljeno gorivo zaradi predelave;
(iv) pravice pogodbenice, v katero se izrabljeno gorivo uvozi zaradi predelave, da vrne ali poskrbi za vrnitev radioaktivnih odpadkov in drugih proizvodov, ki so rezultat predelovalnih postopkov, v državo izvora.
28. člen: ZAPRTI VIRI, KI SE NE UPORABLJAJO VEČ
1. Vsaka pogodbenica v skladu s svojim notranjim pravom sprejme primerne ukrepe, s katerimi zagotovi, da posedovanje, ponovna izdelava ali odstranjevanje zaprtih virov potekajo varno.
2. Pogodbenica dovoli ponoven vstop zaprtih virov, ki se ne uporabljajo več, na svoje ozemlje, če je v okviru svojega notranjega prava privolila, da bodo vrnjeni proizvajalcu, ki je usposobljen za sprejem in posedovanje zaprtih virov, ki se ne uporabljajo več.
6. poglavje: SESTANKI POGODBENIC
29. člen: PRIPRAVLJALNI SESTANEK
1. Pripravljalni sestanek pogodbenic se organizira najkasneje šest mesecev po datumu začetka veljavnosti te konvencije.
2. Na tem sestanku pogodbenice:
(i) določijo datum prvega pregledovalnega sestanka, kot je omenjeno v 30. členu. Ta pregledovalni sestanek se organizira čim prej, vendar najkasneje trideset mesecev po datumu začetka veljavnosti te konvencije;
(ii) pripravijo in s konsenzom sprejmejo poslovnik in finančna pravila;
(iii) določijo posebej in v skladu s poslovnikom:
(a) smernice glede oblike in strukture državnih poročil, ki jih je treba predložiti na podlagi 32. člena;
(b) datum predložitve takšnih poročil;
(c) postopek pregledovanja takšnih poročil.
3. Katera koli država ali regionalna organizacija povezovalne ali druge narave, ki ratificira, sprejme, odobri, potrdi to konvencijo ali k njej pristopi in za katero ta konvencija še ne velja, se lahko udeleži pripravljalnega sestanka, kot če bi bila podpisnica te konvencije.
30. člen: PREGLEDOVALNI SESTANKI
1. Pogodbenice imajo sestanke zaradi pregleda poročil, predloženih na podlagi 32. člena.
2. Pogodbenice na vsakem pregledovalnem sestanku:
(i) določijo datum naslednjega takšnega sestanka, tako da časovni presledek med pregledovalnimi sestanki ni večji od treh let;
(ii) lahko pregledajo ureditve, vzpostavljene na podlagi druge točke 29. člena in s konsenzom sprejmejo spremembe, če poslovnik ne določa drugače. S konsenzom lahko tudi dopolnijo poslovnik in finančna pravila.
3. Na vsakem pregledovalnem sestanku ima vsaka pogodbenica v razumni meri možnost, da obravnava predložena poročila drugih pogodbenic in zaprosi za pojasnila o teh poročilih.
31. člen: IZREDNI SESTANKI
Izredni sestanek pogodbenic se skliče:
(i) če se o tem sporazume večina pogodbenic, ki so prisotne in glasujejo na sestanku; ali
(ii) na pisno zahtevo pogodbenice v šestih mesecih od dneva, ko se ta zahteva sporoči pogodbenicam in ko sekretariat, omenjen v 37. členu, prejme uradno obvestilo, da je večina pogodbenic podprla zahtevo.
32. člen: POROČANJE
1. V skladu z določbami 30. člena vsaka pogodbenica predloži državno poročilo na vsakem pregledovalnem sestanku pogodbenic. To poročilo se nanaša na sprejete ukrepe za izvedbo vsake obveznosti iz te konvencije. Poročilo vsake pogodbenice se nanaša tudi na:
(i) njeno politiko ravnanja z izrabljenim gorivom;
(ii) njeno prakso ravnanja z izrabljenim gorivom;
(iii) njeno politiko ravnanja z radioaktivnimi odpadki;
(iv) njeno prakso ravnanja z radioaktivnimi odpadki;
(v) njena merila za določitev in razvrščanje radioaktivnih odpadkov.
2. To poročilo vključuje tudi:
(i) seznam objektov za ravnanje z izrabljenim gorivom pod pogoji te konvencije, njihovo lokacijo, glavni namen in bistvene značilnosti;
(ii) popis izrabljenega goriva, za katero velja ta konvencija in ki se hrani, ter izrabljenega goriva, ki je bilo odloženo. Ta popis vključuje opis materiala, in če so na voljo, daje informacije o njegovi masi in njegovi skupni aktivnosti;
(iii) seznam objektov za ravnanje z radioaktivnimi odpadki pod pogoji te konvencije, njihovo lokacijo, glavni namen in bistvene značilnosti;
(iv) popis radioaktivnih odpadkov, za katere velja ta konvencija, ki
(a) se hranijo v objektih za ravnanje z radioaktivnimi odpadki in v objektih jedrskega gorivnega ciklusa,
(b) so bili odloženi, ali
(c) so rezultat preteklih dejavnosti.
Ta popis vsebuje opis materiala in druge primerne podatke, kot so prostornina, masa, aktivnost in podatki o specifičnih radionuklidih.
(v) seznam jedrskih objektov v postopku razgradnje in stanje dejavnosti razgradnje v teh objektih.
33. člen: PRISOTNOST
1. Vsaka pogodbenica se udeleži sestankov pogodbenic, na katerih jo zastopajo delegat ter toliko namestnikov, strokovnjakov in svetovalcev, kot se ji zdi potrebno.
2. Pogodbenice lahko s konsenzom povabijo katero koli medvladno organizacijo, pristojno za zadeve, urejene s to konvencijo, da se kot opazovalka udeleži katerega koli sestanka ali posebnega zasedanja takega sestanka. Opazovalke morajo pisno in vnaprej sprejeti določbe 36. člena.
34. člen: ZBIRNA POROČILA
Pogodbenice sprejmejo s konsenzom in dajo na voljo javnosti dokument, ki se nanaša na obravnavane zadeve in sprejete sklepe na sestankih pogodbenic.
35. člen: JEZIKI
1. Jeziki sestankov pogodbenic so: arabski, kitajski, angleški, francoski, ruski in španski, če ni drugače določeno v poslovniku.
2. Poročila, predložena v skladu z 32. členom, se pripravijo v jeziku pogodbenice, ki ga predloži, ali pa v enem samem določenem jeziku, o katerem se je treba dogovoriti v poslovniku. Če pogodbenica predloži poročilo v svojem jeziku, ki ni določen jezik, mora zagotoviti prevod poročila v določeni jezik.
3. Ne glede na določbe drugega odstavka sekretariat prevzame v prevod poročila, predložena v katerem koli drugem jeziku sestanka, v določeni jezik, če za to prejme plačilo.
36. člen: ZAUPNOST
1. Določbe te konvencije ne vplivajo na pravice in obveznosti pogodbenic, da v skladu s svojo zakonodajo zavarujejo podatke pred razkritjem. V tem členu obsegajo “podatki“ med drugim podatke, ki se nanašajo na državno varnost ali na fizično varovanje jedrskega materiala, podatke, zavarovane s pravicami intelektualne lastnine ali z industrijsko ali poslovno tajnostjo, in osebne podatke.
2. Kadar v povezavi s to konvencijo pogodbenica preskrbi podatke, ki jih opredeli kot zavarovane po prvi točki, se taki podatki uporabljajo samo v namene, za katere so bili dani, njihova zaupnost pa se spoštuje.
3. Glede podatkov v zvezi z izrabljenim gorivom ali radioaktivnimi odpadki, ki spadajo na področje te konvencije na podlagi tretjega odstavka 3. člena, določbe te konvencije ne vplivajo na izključno pravico pogodbenice, da odloči:
(i) ali so takšni podatki zaupni ali drugače nadzorovani, da bi preprečili njihovo razkritje;
(ii) ali naj priskrbijo podatke, omenjene v pododstavku (i) , v smislu besedila te konvencije in
(iii) kateri pogoji zaupnosti so povezani s takšnimi podatki, če so ti priskrbljeni v smislu besedila te konvencije.
4. Vsebina razprav med pregledom državnih poročil na vsakem pregledovalnem sestanku, organiziranem v skladu s 30. členom, je zaupna.
37. člen: SEKRETARIAT
1. Mednarodna agencija za atomsko energijo (v nadaljnjem besedilu Agencija) zagotovi storitve sekretariata za sestanke pogodbenic.
2. Sekretariat:
(i) sklicuje, pripravlja in skrbi za potek sestankov pogodbenic, omenjenih v 29., 30. in 31. členu;
(ii) razpošilja pogodbenicam informacije, prejete ali pripravljene v skladu z določbami te konvencije.
Stroške, ki jih ima Agencija pri opravljanju nalog iz pododstavkov (i) in (ii) , krije iz svojega rednega proračuna.
3. Pogodbenice lahko s konsenzom zahtevajo, da Agencija zagotovi druge storitve v podporo njihovim sestankom. Agencija lahko zagotovi take storitve, če so izvedljive v sklopu njenega programa in rednega proračuna. Če to ni možno, lahko Agencija zagotovi take storitve, če preskrbi prostovoljno financiranje iz drugega vira.
7. poglavje: KONČNE IN DRUGE DOLOČBE
38. člen: REŠEVANJE NESOGLASIJ
Če pride do nesoglasja med dvema ali več pogodbenicami v zvezi z razlago ali uporabo te konvencije, se pogodbenice posvetujejo na sestanku pogodbenic z namenom, da ga razrešijo. Če se posvetovanja pokažejo za neuspešna, lahko uporabijo posredovanje, spravo in druge arbitražne mehanizme, ki jih določa mednarodno pravo in vključujejo pravila prakse Agencije.
39. člen: PODPIS, RATIFIKACIJA, SPREJETJE, ODOBRITEV, PRISTOP
1. Ta konvencija je na voljo za podpis vsem državam na sedežu Agencije na Dunaju od 29. septembra 1997 do začetka njene veljavnosti.
2. Države podpisnice to konvencijo ratificirajo, sprejmejo ali odobrijo.
3. Po začetku njene veljavnosti bo ta konvencija na voljo za pristop vsem državam.
4. (i) Ta konvencija je na voljo za podpis s pridržkom potrditve ali pristopa regionalnih organizacij povezovalne ali druge narave pod pogojem, da tako organizacijo ustanovijo suverene države in da ima pristojnosti za pogajanja, sklenitev in uporabo mednarodnih sporazumov o zadevah, ki jih vključuje ta konvencija.
(ii) Take organizacije v zadevah iz svoje pristojnosti v svojem imenu uresničujejo pravice in izpolnjujejo obveznosti, ki jih ta konvencija pripisuje državam pogodbenicam.
(iii) Ko taka organizacija postane pogodbenica te konvencije, pošlje depozitarju iz 43. člena izjavo, iz katere je razvidno, katere države so njene članice, kateri členi te konvencije se nanjo nanašajo ter obseg njenih pristojnosti na področju, ki ga ti členi pokrivajo.
(iv) Taka organizacija poleg glasov svojih držav članic nima dodatnega glasu.
5. Listine o ratifikaciji, sprejetju, odobritvi, pristopu ali potrditvi se deponirajo pri depozitarju.
40. člen: ZAČETEK VELJAVNOSTI
1. Ta konvencija začne veljati devetdeseti dan po datumu deponiranja petindvajsete listine o ratifikaciji, sprejemu ali odobritvi pri depozitarju, vključno z listinami petnajstih držav, od katerih ima vsaka eno jedrsko elektrarno, ki obratuje.
2. Za vsako državo ali regionalno organizacijo povezovalne ali druge narave, ki ratificira, sprejme, odobri, potrdi to konvencijo ali k njej pristopi po dnevu deponiranja zadnje listine, potrebne, da se izpolnijo pogoji, določeni v prvem odstavku, začne ta konvencija veljati devetdeseti dan po datumu deponiranja ustrezne listine take države ali organizacije pri depozitarju.
41. člen: SPREMEMBE KONVENCIJE
1. Vsaka pogodbenica lahko predlaga spremembe te konvencije. Predlagane spremembe se obravnavajo na pregledovalnem ali izrednem sestanku.
2. Besedilo vsake predlagane spremembe ter razloge zanjo je treba dostaviti depozitarju, ki sporoči predlog pogodbenicam vsaj devetdeset dni pred sestankom, na katerem se bo obravnavala. Depozitar razpošlje pogodbenicam vse pripombe, prejete k takemu predlogu.
3. Pogodbenice se po obravnavi predlagane spremembe odločijo, da jo sprejmejo s konsenzom ali pa jo, če konsenza ni, predložijo diplomatski konferenci. Za odločitev, da se predlagana sprememba predloži diplomatski konferenci, je potrebna dvotretjinska večina pogodbenic, ki so na sestanku prisotne in glasujejo, pod pogojem, da je med glasovanjem prisotna najmanj polovica pogodbenic.
4. Depozitar skliče diplomatsko konferenco za obravnavo in sprejem sprememb te konvencije, ki se izvede najkasneje eno leto po ustrezni odločitvi, sprejeti v skladu s tretjim odstavkom tega člena. Diplomatska konferenca si po najboljših močeh prizadeva zagotoviti, da so spremembe sprejete s konsenzom. Če pa to ni mogoče, se spremembe sprejmejo z dvotretjinsko večino vseh pogodbenic.
5. Spremembe te konvencije, sprejete v skladu s tretjim in četrtim odstavkom, pogodbenice ratificirajo, sprejmejo, odobrijo ali potrdijo, začele pa bodo veljati za tiste pogodbenice, ki so jih ratificirale, sprejele, odobrile ali potrdile, devetdeseti dan po tem, ko je depozitar prejel ustrezne listine najmanj dveh tretjin pogodbenic. Za pogodbenico, ki pozneje ratificira, sprejme, odobri ali potrdi omenjene spremembe, bodo te začele veljati devetdeseti dan po deponiranju ustrezne listine te pogodbenice.
42. člen: ODPOVED
1. Vsaka pogodbenica lahko to konvencijo odpove s pisnim uradnim obvestilom depozitarju.
2. Odpoved začne veljati eno leto po dnevu, ko je depozitar prejel uradno obvestilo, ali na kasnejši dan, ki je določen v uradnem obvestilu.
43. člen: DEPOZITAR
1. Generalni direktor Agencije je depozitar te konvencije.
2. Depozitar obvesti pogodbenice o:
(i) podpisu te konvencije in o deponiranju listin o ratifikaciji, sprejetju, odobritvi, pristopu ali potrditvi v skladu z 39. členom;
(ii) datumu začetka veljavnosti te konvencije v skladu s 40. členom;
(iii) uradnih obvestilih o odpovedi konvencije in njihovih datumih v skladu z 42. členom;
(iv) predlaganih spremembah te konvencije, ki so jih predložile pogodbenice, o spremembah, sprejetih na ustrezni diplomatski konferenci ali na sestanku pogodbenic, ter o datumu začetka veljavnosti omenjenih sprememb v skladu z 41. členom.
44. člen: VERODOSTOJNA BESEDILA
Izvirnik te konvencije, katere besedila v arabskem, kitajskem, angleškem, francoskem, ruskem in španskem jeziku so enako verodostojna, je shranjen pri depozitarju, ki pošlje overjene kopije pogodbenicam.
DA BI TO POTRDILI, SO PODPISANI, ZA TO PRAVILNO POOBLAŠČENI, PODPISALI TO KONVENCIJO.
Sklenjeno na Dunaju, petega septembra tisoč devetsto sedemindevetdeset.
3. člen
Za izvajanje konvencije skrbi Ministrstvo za okolje in prostor – Uprava Republike Slovenije za jedrsko varnost.
4. člen
Ta zakon začne veljati naslednji dan po objavi v Uradnem listu Republike Slovenije – Mednarodne pogodbe.
Št. 801-10/98-13/1
Ljubljana, dne 19. januarja 1999
Predsednik
Državnega zbora
Republike Slovenije
Janez Podobnik, dr. med., l. r.