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Številka 45
Uradni list RS, št. 45/1999 z dne 11. 6. 1999
Uradni list

Uradni list RS, št. 45/1999 z dne 11. 6. 1999

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48. Zakon o ratifikaciji Konvencije o varstvu otrok in sodelovanju pri meddržavnih posvojitvah (MKVO), stran 597.

Na podlagi druge alinee prvega odstavka 107. člena in prvega odstavka 91. člena Ustave Republike Slovenije izdajam
U K A Z
O RAZGLASITVI ZAKONA O RATIFIKACIJI KONVENCIJE O VARSTVU OTROK IN SODELOVANJU PRI MEDDRŽAVNIH POSVOJITVAH (MKVO)
Razglašam Zakon o ratifikaciji Konvencije o varstvu otrok in sodelovanju pri meddržavnih posvojitvah (MKVO), ki ga je sprejel Državni zbor Republike Slovenije na seji 20. maja 1999.
Št. 001-22-81/99
Ljubljana, dne 28. maja 1999
Predsednik
Republike Slovenije
Milan Kučan l. r.
Z A K O N
O RATIFIKACIJI KONVENCIJE O VARSTVU OTROK IN SODELOVANJU PRI MEDDRŽAVNIH POSVOJITVAH (MKVO)
1. člen
Ratificira se Konvencije o varstvu otrok in sodelovanju pri meddržavnih posvojitvah, sprejeta dne 29. maja 1993 v Haagu.
2. člen
Konvencija se v izvirniku v angleškem jeziku in v prevodu v slovenskem jeziku glasi:
C O N V E N T I O N
ON PROTECTION OF CHILDREN AND CO-OPERATION IN RESPECT OF INTERCOUNTRY ADOPTION
The States signatory to the present Convention,
Recognizing that the child, for the full and harmonious development of his or her personality, should grow up in a family environment, in an atmosphere of happiness, love and understanding,
Recalling that each State should take, as a matter of priority, appropriate measures to enable the child to remain in the care of his or her family of origin,
Recognizing that intercountry adoption may offer the advantage of a permanent family to a child for whom a suitable family cannot be found in his or her State of origin,
Convinced of the necessity to take measures to ensure that intercountry adoptions are made in the best interests of the child and with respect for his or her fundamental rights, and to prevent the abduction, the sale of, or traffic in children,
Desiring to establish common provisions to this effect, taking into account the principles set forth in international instruments, in particular the United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child, of 20 November 1989, and the United Nations Declaration on Social and Legal Principles relating to the Protection and Welfare of Children, with Special Reference to Foster Placement and Adoption Nationally and Internationally (General Assembly Resolution 41/85, of 3 December 1986),
Have agreed upon the following provisions:
CHAPTER I – SCOPE OF THE CONVENTION
Article 1
The objects of the present Convention are:
a) to establish safeguards to ensure that intercountry adoptions take place in the best interests of the child and with respect for his or her fundamental rights as recognized in international law;
b) to establish a system of co-operation amongst Contracting States to ensure that those safeguards are respected and thereby prevent the abduction, the sale of, or traffic in children;
c) to secure the recognition in Contracting States of adoptions made in accordance with the Convention.
Article 2
(1) The Convention shall apply where a child habitually resident in one Contracting State (“the State of origin“) has been, is being, or is to be moved to another Contracting State (“the receiving State“) either after his or her adoption in the State of origin by spouses or a person habitually resident in the receiving State, or for the purposes of such an adoption in the receiving State or in the State of origin.
(2) The Convention covers only adoptions which create a permanent parent-child relationship.
Article 3
The Convention ceases to apply if the agreements mentioned in Article 17, sub-paragraph c, have not been given before the child attains the age of eighteen years.
CHAPTER II – REQUIREMENTS FOR INTERCOUNTRY ADOPTIONS
Article 4
An adoption within the scope of the Convention shall take place only if the competent authorities of the State of origin:
a) have established that the child is adoptable;
b) have determined, after possibilities for placement of the child within the State of origin have been given due consideration, that an intercountry adoption is in the child’s best interests;
c) have ensured that
(1) the persons, institutions and authorities whose consent is necessary for adoption, have been counselled as may be necessary and duly informed of the effects of their consent, in particular whether or not an adoption will result in the termination of the legal relationship between the child and his or her family of origin,
(2) such persons, institutions and authorities have given their consent freely, in the required legal form, and expressed or evidenced in writing,
(3) the consents have not been induced by payment or compensation of any kind and have not been withdrawn, and
(4) the consent of the mother, where required, has been given only after the birth of the child; and
d) have ensured, having regard to the age and degree of maturity of the child, that
(1) he or she has been counselled and duly informed of the effects of the adoption and of his or her consent to the adoption, where such consent is required,
(2) consideration has been given to the child’s wishes and opinions,
(3) the child’s consent to the adoption, where such consent is required, has been given freely, in the required legal form, and expressed or evidenced in writing, and
(4) such consent has not been induced by payment or compensation of any kind.
Article 5
An adoption within the scope of the Convention shall take place only if the competent authorities of the receiving State:
a) have determined that the prospective adoptive parents are eligible and suited to adopt;
b) have ensured that the prospective adoptive parents have been counselled as may be necessary; and
c) have determined that the child is or will be authorized to enter and reside permanently in that State.
CHAPTER III – CENTRAL AUTHORITIES AND ACCREDITED BODIES
Article 6
(1) A Contracting State shall designate a Central Authority to discharge the duties which are imposed by the Convention upon such authorities.
(2) Federal States, States with more than one system of law or States having autonomous territorial units shall be free to appoint more than one Central Authority and to specify the territorial or personal extent of their functions. Where a State has appointed more than one Central Authority, it shall designate the Central Authority to which any communication may be addressed for transmission to the appropriate Central Authority within that State.
Article 7
(1) Central Authorities shall co-operate with each other and promote co-operation amongst the competent authorities in their States to protect children and to achieve the other objects of the Convention.
(2) They shall take directly all appropriate measures to–
a) provide information as to the laws of their States concerning adoption and other general information, such as statistics and standard forms;
b) keep one another informed about the operation of the Convention and, as far as possible, eliminate any obstacles to its application.
Article 8
Central Authorities shall take, directly or through public authorities, all appropriate measures to prevent improper financial or other gain in connection with an adoption and to deter all practices contrary to the objects of the Convention.
Article 9
Central Authorities shall take, directly or through public authorities or other bodies duly accredited in their State, all appropriate measures, in particular to –
a) collect, preserve and exchange information about the situation of the child and the prospective adoptive parents, so far as is necessary to complete the adoption;
b facilitate, follow and expedite proceedings with a view to obtaining the adoption;
c) promote the development of adoption counselling and post-adoption services in their States;
d) provide each other with general evaluation reports about experience with intercountry adoption;
e) reply, in so far as is permitted by the law of their State, to justified requests from other Central Authorities or public authorities for information about a particular adoption situation.
Article 10
Accreditation shall only be granted to and maintained by bodies demonstrating their competence to carry out properly the tasks with which they may be entrusted.
Article 11
An accredited body shall:
a) pursue only non-profit objectives according to such conditions and within such limits as may be established by the competent authorities of the State of accreditation;
b) be directed and staffed by persons qualified by their ethical standards and by training or experience to work in the field of intercountry adoption; and
c) be subject to supervision by competent authorities of that State as to its composition, operation and financial situation.
Article 12
A body accredited in one Contracting State may act in another Contracting State only if the competent authorities of both States have authorized it to do so.
Article 13
The designation of the Central Authorities and, where appropriate, the extent of their functions, as well as the names and addresses of the accredited bodies shall be communicated by each Contracting State to the Permanent Bureau of the Hague Conference on Private International Law.
CHAPTER IV – PROCEDURAL REQUIREMENTS IN INTERCOUNTRY ADOPTION
Article 14
Persons habitually resident in a Contracting State, who wish to adopt a child habitually resident in another Contracting State, shall apply to the Central Authority in the State of their habitual residence.
Article 15
(1) If the Central Authority of the receiving State is satisfied that the applicants are eligible and suited to adopt, it shall prepare a report including information about their identity, eligibility and suitability to adopt, background, family and medical history, social environment, reasons for adoption, ability to undertake an intercountry adoption, as well as the characteristics of the children for whom they would be qualified to care.
(2) It shall transmit the report to the Central Authority of the State of origin.
Article 16
(1) If the Central Authority of the State of origin is satisfied that the child is adoptable, it shall:
a) prepare a report including information about his or her identity, adoptability, background, social environment, family history, medical history including that of the child’s family, and any special needs of the child;
b) give due consideration to the child’s upbringing and to his or her ethnic, religious and cultural background;
c) ensure that consents have been obtained in accordance with Article 4; and
d) determine, on the basis in particular of the reports relating to the child and the prospective adoptive parents, whether the envisaged placement is in the best interests of the child.
(2) It shall transmit to the Central Authority of the receiving State its report on the child, proof that the necessary consents have been obtained and the reasons for its determination on the placement, taking care not to reveal the identity of the mother and the father if, in the State of origin, these identities may not be disclosed.
Article 17
Any decision in the State of origin that a child should be entrusted to prospective adoptive parents may only be made if:
a) the Central Authority of that State has ensured that the prospective adoptive parents agree;
b) the Central Authority of the receiving State has approved such decision, where such approval is required by the law of that State or by the Central Authority of the State of origin;
c) the Central Authorities of both States have agreed that the adoption may proceed; and
d) it has been determined, in accordance with Article 5, that the prospective adoptive parents are eligible and suited to adopt and that the child is or will be authorized to enter and reside permanently in the receiving State.
Article 18
The Central Authorities of both States shall take all necessary steps to obtain permission for the child to leave the State of origin and to enter and reside permanently in the receiving State.
Article 19
(1) The transfer of the child to the receiving State may only be carried out if the requirements of Article 17 have been satisfied.
(2) The Central Authorities of both States shall ensure that this transfer takes place in secure and appropriate circumstances and, if possible, in the company of the adoptive or prospective adoptive parents.
(3) If the transfer of the child does not take place, the reports referred to in Articles 15 and 16 are to be sent back to the authorities who forwarded them.
Article 20
The Central Authorities shall keep each other informed about the adoption process and the measures taken to complete it, as well as about the progress of the placement if a probationary period is required.
Article 21
(1) Where the adoption is to take place after the transfer of the child to the receiving State and it appears to the Central Authority of that State that the continued placement of the child with the prospective adoptive parents is not in the child’s best interests, such Central Authority shall take the measures necessary to protect the child, in particular:
a) to cause the child to be withdrawn from the prospective adoptive parents and to arrange temporary care;
b) in consultation with the Central Authority of the State of origin, to arrange without delay a new placement of the child with a view to adoption or, if this is not appropriate, to arrange alternative long-term care; an adoption shall not take place until the Central Authority of the State of origin has been duly informed concerning the new prospective adoptive parents;
c) as a last resort, to arrange the return of the child, if his or her interests so require.
(2) Having regard in particular to the age and degree of maturity of the child, he or she shall be consulted and, where appropriate, his or her consent obtained in relation to measures to be taken under this Article.
Article 22
(1) The functions of a Central Authority under this Chapter may be performed by public authorities or by bodies accredited under Chapter III, to the extent permitted by the law of its State.
(2) Any Contracting State may declare to the depositary of the Convention that the functions of the Central Authority under Articles 15 to 21 may be performed in that State, to the extent permitted by the law and subject to the supervision of the competent authorities of that State, also by bodies or persons who:
a) meet the requirements of integrity, professional competence, experience and accountability of that State; and
b) are qualified by their ethical standards and by training or experience to work in the field of intercountry adoption.
(3) A Contracting State which makes the declaration provided for in paragraph 2 shall keep the Permanent Bureau of the Hague Conference on Private International Law informed of the names and addresses of these bodies and persons.
(4) Any Contracting State may declare to the depositary of the Convention that adoptions of children habitually resident in its territory may only take place if the functions of the Central Authorities are performed in accordance with paragraph 1.
(5) Notwithstanding any declaration made under paragraph 2, the reports provided for in Articles 15 and 16 shall, in every case, be prepared under the responsibility of the Central Authority or other authorities or bodies in accordance with paragraph 1.
CHAPTER V – RECOGNITION AND EFFECTS OF THE ADOPTION
Article 23
(1) An adoption certified by the competent authority of the State of the adoption as having been made in accordance with the Convention shall be recognized by operation of law in the other Contracting States. The certificate shall specify when and by whom the agreements under Article 17, sub-paragraph c), were given.
(2) Each Contracting State shall, at the time of signature, ratification, acceptance, approval or accession, notify the depositary of the Convention of the identity and the functions of the authority or the authorities which, in that State, are competent to make the certification. It shall also notify the depositary of any modification in the designation of these authorities.
Article 24
The recognition of an adoption may be refused in a Contracting State only if the adoption is manifestly contrary to its public policy, taking into account the best interests of the child.
Article 25
Any Contracting State may declare to the depositary of the Convention that it will not be bound under this Convention to recognize adoptions made in accordance with an agreement concluded by application of Article 39, paragraph 2.
Article 26
(1) The recognition of an adoption includes recognition of
a) the legal parent-child relationship between the child and his or her adoptive parents;
b) parental responsibility of the adoptive parents for the child;
c) the termination of a pre-existing legal relationship between the child and his or her mother and father, if the adoption has this effect in the Contracting State where it was made.
(2) In the case of an adoption having the effect of terminating a pre-existing legal parent-child relationship, the child shall enjoy in the receiving State, and in any other Contracting State where the adoption is recognized, rights equivalent to those resulting from adoptions having this effect in each such State.
(3) The preceding paragraphs shall not prejudice the application of any provision more favourable for the child, in force in the Contracting State which recognizes the adoption.
Article 27
(1) Where an adoption granted in the State of origin does not have the effect of terminating a pre-existing legal parent-child relationship, it may, in the receiving State which recognizes the adoption under the Convention, be converted into an adoption having such an effect –
a) if the law of the receiving State so permits; and
b) if the consents referred to in Article 4, sub-paragraphs c and d, have been or are given for the purpose of such an adoption.
(2) Article 23 applies to the decision converting the adoption.
CHAPTER VI – GENERAL PROVISIONS
Article 28
The Convention does not affect any law of a State of origin which requires that the adoption of a child habitually resident within that State take place in that State or which prohibits the child’s placement in, or transfer to, the receiving State prior to adoption.
Article 29
There shall be no contact between the prospective adoptive parents and the child’s parents or any other person who has care of the child until the requirements of Article 4, sub-paragraphs a) to c), and Article 5, sub-paragraph a), have been met, unless the adoption takes place within a family or unless the contact is in compliance with the conditions established by the competent authority of the State of origin.
Article 30
(1) The competent authorities of a Contracting State shall ensure that information held by them concerning the child’s origin, in particular information concerning the identity of his or her parents, as well as the medical history, is preserved.
(2) They shall ensure that the child or his or her representative has access to such information, under appropriate guidance, in so far as is permitted by the law of that State.
Article 31
Without prejudice to Article 30, personal data gathered or transmitted under the Convention, especially data referred to in Articles 15 and 16, shall be used only for the purposes for which they were gathered or transmitted.
Article 32
(1) No one shall derive improper financial or other gain from an activity related to an intercountry adoption.
(2) Only costs and expenses, including reasonable professional fees of persons involved in the adoption, may be charged or paid.
(3) The directors, administrators and employees of bodies involved in an adoption shall not receive remuneration which is unreasonably high in relation to services rendered.
Article 33
A competent authority which finds that any provision of the Convention has not been respected or that there is a serious risk that it may not be respected, shall immediately inform the Central Authority of its State. This Central Authority shall be responsible for ensuring that appropriate measures are taken.
Article 34
If the competent authority of the State of destination of a document so requests, a translation certified as being in conformity with the original must be furnished. Unless otherwise provided, the costs of such translation are to be borne by the prospective adoptive parents.
Article 35
The competent authorities of the Contracting States shall act expeditiously in the process of adoption.
Article 36
In relation to a State which has two or more systems of law with regard to adoption applicable in different territorial units:
a) any reference to habitual residence in that State shall be construed as referring to habitual residence in a territorial unit of that State;
b) any reference to the law of that State shall be construed as referring to the law in force in the relevant territorial unit;
c) any reference to the competent authorities or to the public authorities of that State shall be construed as referring to those authorized to act in the relevant territorial unit;
d) any reference to the accredited bodies of that State shall be construed as referring to bodies accredited in the relevant territorial unit.
Article 37
In relation to a State which with regard to adoption has two or more systems of law applicable to different categories of persons, any reference to the law of that State shall be construed as referring to the legal system specified by the law of that State.
Article 38
A State within which different territorial units have their own rules of law in respect of adoption shall not be bound to apply the Convention where a State with a unified system of law would not be bound to do so.
Article 39
(1) The Convention does not affect any international instrument to which Contracting States are Parties and which contains provisions on matters governed by the Convention, unless a contrary declaration is made by the States Parties to such instrument.
(2) Any Contracting State may enter into agreements with one or more other Contracting States, with a view to improving the application of the Convention in their mutual relations. These agreements may derogate only from the provisions of Articles 14 to 16 and 18 to 21. The States which have concluded such an agreement shall transmit a copy to the depositary of the Convention.
Article 40
No reservation to the Convention shall be permitted.
Article 41
The Convention shall apply in every case where an application pursuant to Article 14 has been received after the Convention has entered into force in the receiving State and the State of origin.
Article 42
The Secretary General of the Hague Conference on Private International Law shall at regular intervals convene a Special Commission in order to review the practical operation of the Convention.
CHAPTER VII – FINAL CLAUSES
Article 43
(1) The Convention shall be open for signature by the States which were Members of the Hague Conference on Private International Law at the time of its Seventeenth Session and by the other States which participated in that Session.
(2) It shall be ratified, accepted or approved and the instruments of ratification, acceptance or approval shall be deposited with the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of the Kingdom of the Netherlands, depositary of the Convention.
Article 44
(1) Any other State may accede to the Convention after it has entered into force in accordance with Article 46, paragraph 1.
(2) The instrument of accession shall be deposited with the depositary.
(3) Such accession shall have effect only as regards the relations between the acceding State and those Contracting States which have not raised an objection to its accession in the six months after the receipt of the notification referred to in sub-paragraph b) of Article 48. Such an objection may also be raised by States at the time when they ratify, accept or approve the Convention after an accession. Any such objection shall be notified to the depositary.
Article 45
(1) If a State has two or more territorial units in which different systems of law are applicable in relation to matters dealt with in the Convention, it may at the time of signature, ratification, acceptance, approval or accession declare that this Convention shall extend to all its territorial units or only to one or more of them and may modify this declaration by submitting another declaration at any time.
(2) Any such declaration shall be notified to the depositary and shall state expressly the territorial units to which the Convention applies.
(3) If a State makes no declaration under this Article, the Convention is to extend to all territorial units of that State.
Article 46
(1) The Convention shall enter into force on the first day of the month following the expiration of three months after the deposit of the third instrument of ratification, acceptance or approval referred to in Article 43.
(2) Thereafter the Convention shall enter into force:
a) for each State ratifying, accepting or approving it subsequently, or acceding to it, on the first day of the month following the expiration of three months after the deposit of its instrument of ratification, acceptance, approval or accession;
b) for a territorial unit to which the Convention has been extended in conformity with Article 45, on the first day of the month following the expiration of three months after the notification referred to in that Article.
Article 47
(1) A State Party to the Convention may denounce it by a notification in writing addressed to the depositary.
(2) The denunciation takes effect on the first day of the month following the expiration of twelve months after the notification is received by the depositary. Where a longer period for the denunciation to take effect is specified in the notification, the denunciation takes effect upon the expiration of such longer period after the notification is received by the depositary.
Article 48
The depositary shall notify the States Members of the Hague Conference on Private International Law, the other States which participated in the Seventeenth Session and the States which have acceded in accordance with Article 44, of the following:
a) the signatures, ratifications, acceptances and approvals referred to in Article 43;
b) the accessions and objections raised to accessions referred to in Article 44;
c) the date on which the Convention enters into force in accordance with Article 46;
d) the declarations and designations referred to in Articles 22, 23, 25 and 45;
e) the agreements referred to in Article 39;
f) the denunciations referred to in Article 47.
In witness whereof the undersigned, being duly authorized thereto, have signed this Convention.
Done at The Hague, on the 29th day of May 1993, in the English and French languages, both texts being equally authentic, in a single copy which shall be deposited in the archives of the Government of the Kingdom of the Netherlands, and of which a certified copy shall be sent, through diplomatic channels, to each of the States Members of the Hague Conference on Private International Law at the date of its Seventeenth Session and to each of the other States which participated in that Session.
K O N V E N C I J A
O VARSTVU OTROK IN SODELOVANJU PRI MEDDRŽAVNIH POSVOJITVAH
Države podpisnice te konvencije so se
s priznavanjem, naj bi za skladen osebnostni razvoj otrok odraščal v srečnem, ljubečem in razumevajočem družinskem okolju,
ob spoznanju, da bi morala vsaka država kot prednostno nalogo sprejeti ustrezne ukrepe, ki omogočajo otroku varstvo in vzgojo v njegovi matični družini,
s priznavanjem, da je lahko prednost meddržavne posvojitve omogočiti, da otrok, ki mu ni mogoče najti ustrezne družine v matični državi, živi v stalni družini,
v prepričanju, da so potrebni ukrepi s katerimi se zagotovi, da so meddržavne posvojitve v otrokovo korist, in da se spoštujejo njegove temeljne pravice ter da se preprečijo ugrabitve, prodaja ali trgovina z otroki,
v želji, da bi v ta namen pripravili skupne določbe ob upoštevanju načel mednarodnih instrumentov, posebej Konvencije Združenih narodov o otrokovih pravicah z dne 20. novembra 1989 ter Deklaracije Združenih narodov o družbenih in pravnih načelih varstva in blaginje otrok s posebnim poudarkom na rejništvu in posvojitvi na državni in mednarodni ravni (Resolucija Generalne skupščine št. 41/85 z dne 3. decembra 1986),
dogovorile:
I. POGLAVJE — OBSEG KONVENCIJE
1. člen
Cilji te konvencije so:
a) določiti zaščitne ukrepe, ki bodo zagotavljali, da so meddržavne posvojitve v otrokovo korist in da se spoštujejo njegove temeljne pravice, priznane v mednarodnem pravu,
b) vzpostaviti tak sistem sodelovanja med državami pogodbenicami, ki bo zagotavljal spoštovanje zaščitnih ukrepov, in s tem preprečiti ugrabitve, prodajo ali trgovino z otroki;
c) zagotoviti, da bodo države pogodbenice priznavale posvojitve, izvedene v skladu s to konvencijo.
2. člen
1. Konvencija se uporablja za otroka, ki prebiva v eni državi pogodbenici (“matična država“) in je bil, je ali bo preseljen v drugo državo pogodbenico (“država sprejema“), ker sta ga v matični državi posvojila zakonca ali oseba, ki prebiva v državi sprejema, ali pa z namenom, da bo posvojen v državi sprejema ali v matični državi.
2. Konvencija vključuje posvojitve, pri katerih nastane trajno razmerje starši – otrok.
3. člen
Konvencija se preneha uporabljati, če soglasja, navedena v pododstavku c) 17. člena, niso bila dana do dne, ko otrok dopolni osemnajst let.
II. POGLAVJE – ZAHTEVE ZA MEDDRŽAVNE POSVOJITVE
4. člen
Posvojitev se po tej konvenciji izvede, le če so pristojni organi matične države:
a) ugotovili, da se otrok lahko posvoji;
b) ugotovili, potem ko so ustrezno preučili možnosti za namestitev otroka v matični državi, da je meddržavna posvojitev v korist otroka;
c) se prepričali,
1. da so bile osebe, institucije in organi, katerih soglasje je potrebno za posvojitev, deležni posvetovanja, če je to potrebno, ter da so bili ustrezno obveščeni o posledicah njihovega soglasja, še posebej o tem, ali bo posvojitev povzročila prenehanje pravnega razmerja med otrokom in njegovo matično družino ali ne;
2. da so te osebe, institucije in organi dali to soglasje prostovoljno, v zahtevani pravni obliki ter pisno izraženo ali potrjeno;
3. da soglasje ni bilo pridobljeno s plačilom ali kakršnim koli nadomestilom ter da ni bilo umaknjeno in
4. da je mati, če se to zahteva, dala svoje soglasje šele po rojstvu otroka, ter
d) se prepričali, upoštevaje starost in stopnjo zrelosti otroka,
1. da je bil otrok deležen posvetovanja in ustreznih informacij o posledicah posvojitve in njegovega soglasja za posvojitev, če se tako soglasje zahteva,
2. da so bile upoštevane otrokove želje in mnenja,
3. da je bilo otrokovo soglasje za posvojitev, če se to zahteva, dano prostovoljno, v zahtevani pravni obliki ter pisno izraženo ali potrjeno ter
4. da soglasje ni bilo pridobljeno s plačilom ali kakršnim koli nadomestilom.
5. člen
Posvojitev po tej konvenciji se izvede, če so pristojni organi države sprejema:
a) ugotovili, da so predvideni posvojitelji ustrezni in izpolnjujejo pogoje za posvojitev;
b) se prepričali, da so bili predvideni posvojitelji deležni ustreznega svetovanja, ter
c) ugotovili, da otrok ima ali bo dobil dovoljenje za vstop v to državo in stalno prebivališče v njej.
III. POGLAVJE – OSREDNJI IN POOBLAŠČENI ORGANI
6. člen
1. Država pogodbenica določi osrednji organ za opravljanje dolžnosti, ki jih organom nalaga konvencija.
2. Zvezne države, države z več pravnimi sistemi ali države z avtonomnimi ozemlji smejo določiti več osrednjih organov in določiti ozemeljski obseg njihovih nalog. Če je država določila več kot en osrednji organ, določi tisti osrednji organ, na katerega se naslavljajo vsa sporočila, da jih prenese pristojnemu osrednjemu organu v tej državi.
7. člen
1. Osrednji organi sodelujejo in spodbujajo sodelovanje med pristojnimi organi v svojih državah za zaščito in doseganje drugih ciljev konvencije.
2. Neposredno ukrenejo vse, da
a) zagotavljajo informacije o posvojitveni zakonodaji svoje države in druge splošne informacije, kot so statistični podatki in standardni obrazci;
b) se medsebojno obveščajo o izvajanju te konvencije, in če je to mogoče, odstranjujejo ovire za njeno izvajanje.
8. člen
Osrednji organi izvajajo neposredno ali preko organov z javnimi pooblastili ustrezne ukrepe za preprečitev nezakonitih finančnih ali drugih koristi v zvezi s posvojitvijo ter zatirajo vse dejavnosti, ki so v nasprotju s cilji te konvencije.
9. člen
Osrednji organi izvajajo neposredno ali preko organov z javnimi pooblastili ali drugih organizacij v svoji državi vse ustrezne ukrepe, še posebej:
a) zbirajo, hranijo in izmenjujejo informacije o razmerah otroka in predvidenih posvojiteljih v takem obsegu, kot je potreben za izvedbo posvojitve;
b) olajšujejo, spremljajo in pospešujejo postopke za posvojitve;
c) spodbujajo razvoj svetovalnih služb za posvojitev in spremljanje posvojitev v državi;
d) izmenjujejo splošna poročila z ocenami izkušenj pri meddržavnih posvojitvah;
e) v obsegu, ki ga dovoljuje njihova notranja zakonodaja ugodijo upravičenim zahtevam drugim osrednjih ali javnih organov za informacije o posameznih posvojitvenih primerih.
10. člen
Pooblastilo lahko dobijo in ohranijo le organi, ki dokažejo, da so sposobni ustrezno opravljati naloge, ki so jim bile zaupane.
11. člen
Pooblaščeni organ:
a) deluje nepridobitno v skladu s pogoji in omejitvami, ki jih določijo pristojni organi države, ki je izdala pooblastilo;
b) ima tako vodstveno in drugo osebje, ki je po etičnih standardih, izobrazbi ali delovnih izkušnjah usposobljeno za delo pri meddržavnih posvojitvah, ter
c) je pod nadzorom pristojnih državnih organov glede sestave, delovanja in finančnega stanja.
12. člen
Pooblaščeni organ iz ene države pogodbenice sme delovati v drugi državi pogodbenici, le če sta ga za to pooblastila pristojna organa obeh držav.
13. člen
Vsaka država pogodbenica obvesti Stalni urad Haaške konference o zasebnem mednarodnem pravu o določitvi osrednjih organov ter obsegu njihovih nalog, nazivih in naslovih pooblaščenih organov.
IV. POGLAVJE – ZAHTEVE PRAVILA POSTOPKA PRI MEDDRŽAVNI POSVOJITVI
14. člen
Osebe, ki prebivajo v državi pogodbenici in želijo posvojiti otroka s prebivališčem v drugi državi pogodbenici, vložijo prošnjo pri osrednjem organu države, v kateri prebivajo.
15. člen
1. Če se osrednji organ države sprejema prepriča, da so prosilci ustrezni in izpolnjujejo pogoje za posvojitev, pripravi poročilo s podatki o njihovi identiteti, izpolnjevanju pogojev za posvojitev, poreklu, družinski in zdravstveni anamnezi, družbenem okolju, razlogih za posvojitev, možnosti za izvedbo meddržavne posvojitve ter z značilnostmi otrok, za katere bi bili primerni skrbeti.
2. To poročilo je treba poslati osrednjemu organu matične države.
16. člen
1. Če se osrednji organ matične države prepriča, da se otrok lahko posvoji:
a) pripravi poročilo s podatki o otrokovi identiteti, primernosti za posvojitev, poreklu, družbenem okolju, družinski in zdravstveni anamnezi otroka in njegove družine, ter o vseh posebnih potrebah otroka;
b) ustrezno upošteva otrokovo vzgojo in etnično, versko ali kulturno poreklo;
c) zagotovi, da so bila vsa soglasja pridobljena v skladu s 4. členom, ter
d) odloči, predvsem na podlagi poročil o otroku in o predvidenih posvojiteljih, da je predvidena namestitev v korist otroka.
2. Osrednjemu organu države sprejema pošlje svoje poročilo o otroku, dokazila, da so bila potrebna soglasja pridobljena, ter utemeljitev svoje odločitve o namestitvi, paziti pa mora, da identitete matere in očeta ne razkrije, če se v matični državi ti podatki ne smejo razkriti.
17. člen
Odločitev o tem, ali naj se otrok zaupa predvidenim posvojiteljem, sme matična država sprejeti le:
a) če je osrednji organ te države zagotovil soglasje predvidenih posvojiteljev;
b) če je osrednji organ države sprejema tako odločitev odobril, kadar tako odobritev zahteva zakonodaja te države ali osrednji organ matične države;
c) če se osrednja organa obeh držav strinjata, da se posvojitev lahko izvede, ter
d) je bilo v skladu s 5. členom ugotovljeno, da so predvideni posvojitelji ustrezni in izpolnjujejo pogoje za posvojitev in da otrok ima ali da bo dobil dovoljenje za vstop in stalno prebivališče v državi sprejema.
18. člen
Osrednja organa obeh držav morata ukreniti vse potrebno, da pridobita za otroka dovoljenje, da zapusti matično državo, in dovoljenje za vstop in stalno prebivališče v državi sprejema.
19. člen
1. Otrok se sme premestiti v državo sprejema, le če so bili izpolnjeni vsi pogoji iz 17. člena.
2. Osrednja organa obeh držav zagotovita, da se ta premestitev izvede v varnih in primernih okoliščinah in po možnosti v spremstvu posvojiteljev ali predvidenih posvojiteljev.
3. Če otrok ni premeščen, je treba poročila, omenjena v 15. in 16. členu, vrniti organom, ki so jih poslali.
20. člen
Osrednja organa se medsebojno obveščata o poteku posvojitve in ukrepih za njeno izvedbo in o tem, kako napreduje namestitev, če se zahteva poskusna doba.
21. člen
1. Če naj bi bil otrok posvojen po premestitivi otroka v državo sprejema in osrednji organ te države meni, da ni v otrokovo korist, da ostane pri predvidenih posvojiteljih, mora ta osrednji organ ukreniti vse potrebno, da zaščiti otroka, natančneje pa:
a) poskrbeti, da se otrok odvzame predvidenim posvojiteljem in se zanj uredita začasna vzgoja in varstvo;
b) v posvetovanju z osrednjim organom matične države brez odlašanja oskrbeti za novo nastanitev otroka z namenom posvojitve ali če to ni ustrezno, poskrbeti za drugo dolgoročno vzgojo in varstvo; posvojitev ne sme biti izvedena, dokler osrednji organ matične države ni ustrezno obveščen o novih predvidenih posvojiteljih;
c) poskrbeti za otrokovo vrnitev, če je to v njegovo korist, kot zadnjo možnost.
2. Z otrokom se je treba, upoštevaje njegovo starost in zrelost, posvetovati, in če je to primerno, pridobiti njegovo soglasje glede ukrepov, ki jih je treba sprejeti po tem členu.
22. člen
1. Naloge osrednjega organa lahko v skladu s tem poglavjem opravljajo organi z javnimi pooblastili ali pooblaščeni organi v skladu s III. poglavjem v mejah, ki jih dovoljuje zakon posamezne države.
2. Vsaka država pogodbenica lahko depozitarju konvencije da izjavo, da se v tej državi lahko opravljajo naloge osrednjega organa iz 15. do 21. člena v mejah, ki jih dovoljuje zakon, in pod nadzorom pristojnih organov te države tudi organom ali osebam, ki:
a) izpolnjujejo zahteve po poštenosti, strokovnosti, izkušenosti in odgovornosti, ki veljajo v tej državi, ter
b) so po svojih etičnih normah, izobrazbi ali izkušnjah usposobljeni za delo pri meddržavnih posvojitvah.
3. Država pogodbenica, ki da izjavo, predvideno v drugem odstavku, Stalni urad Haaške konference o zasebnem mednarodnem pravu stalno obvešča o nazivih in naslovih teh organov in oseb.
4. Vsaka država pogodbenica lahko depozitarju konvencije da izjavo, da se lahko posvojijo otroci s prebivališčem na njenem ozemlju, le če se naloge osrednjega organa opravljajo v skladu s prvim odstavkom.
5. Ne glede na izjavo dano po drugem odstavku, odgovornost za pripravo poročil, predvidenih v 15. in 16. členu, v vseh primerih prevzame osrednji organ ali drugi organi v skladu s prvim odstavkom.
V. POGLAVJE – PRIZNANJE IN VELJAVNOST POSVOJITVE
23. člen
1. Posvojitev, za katero pristojni organi države, v kateri je bila posvojitev opravljena, potrdijo, da je bila izvedena v skladu s konvencijo, se polnopravno prizna v drugih državah pogodbenicah. V potrdilu mora biti navedeno, kdaj in kdo je dal soglasja, predvidena v pododstavku c) 17. člena.
2. Vsaka država pogodbenica ob podpisu, ratifikaciji, sprejetju, odobritvi ali pristopu obvesti depozitarja konvencije o identiteti in nalogah organa ali organov, ki so v tej državi pristojni za izdajo teh potrditev. Depozitarja prav tako obvesti o vseh spremembah o določitvah teh organov.
24. člen
Država pogodbenica sme odkloniti priznanje posvojitve, le če je posvojitev v očitnem nasprotju z njenim javnim redom, upoštevaje pri tem korist otroka.
25. člen
Vsaka država pogodbenica lahko da depozitarju konvencije izjavo, da je ta konvencija ne obvezuje priznavati posvojitev v skladu s sporazumom, sklenjenim po drugem odstavku 39. člena.
26. člen
1. Priznanje posvojitve obsega priznanje:
a) pravnega razmerja starši otrok med otrokom in posvojitelji;
b) starševske odgovornosti posvojiteljev do otroka;
c) prekinitev predhodnega pravnega razmerja med otrokom in njegovo materjo in očetom, če ima posvojitev tak učinek v državi pogodbenici, v kateri je bila izvedena.
2. Pri posvojitvi, s katero se prekine predhodno pravno razmerje med otrokom in njegovo materjo in očetom, otrok uživa v državi sprejema ter v vseh drugih državah pogodbenicah, v katerih je posvojitev priznana, enake pravice, kot nastanejo pri posvojitvah, ki imajo tak učinek v vsaki od teh držav.
3. Prejšnji odstavki ne vplivajo na uporabo za otroka ugodnejših določb, ki veljajo v državi pogodbenici, ki prizna posvojitev.
27. člen
1. Če posvojitev, odobrena v matični državi, ne prekine predhodnega pravnega razmerja med otrokom in starši, se ta lahko v državi sprejema, ki priznava posvojitev po tej konvenciji, spremeni v posvojitev s takim učinkom:
a) če je to dovoljeno po zakonu države sprejema ter
b) če so bila soglasja iz pododstavkov c) in d) 4. člena dana za tako posvojitev.
2. Za odločitev o spremembi narave posvojitve se uporablja 23. člen.
VI. POGLAVJE – SPLOŠNE DOLOČBE
28. člen
Konvencija ne vpliva na zakon matične države, ki zahteva, da se otrok s prebivališčem v tej državi posvoji v tej državi, ali ki prepoveduje otrokovo namestitev ali premestitev v državo sprejema pred posvojitvijo.
29. člen
Med predvidenimi posvojitelji in otrokovimi naravnimi starši ali drugo osebo, ki skrbi za otroka, ne sme priti do stika, dokler zahteve iz pododstavkov a) do c) 4. člena in iz pododstavka a) 5. člena niso izpolnjene, razen če se posvojitev izvede znotraj družine ali če je tak stik v skladu s pogoji, ki jih postavi pristojni organ matične države.
30. člen
1. Pristojni organi države pogodbenice zagotovijo, da se hranijo pri njih zbrani podatki o otrokovem poreklu, posebej podatki o identiteti njegovih staršev ter o njegovi zdravstveni anamnezi.
2. Zagotoviti morajo, da ima otrok ali njegov predstavnik dostop do teh podatkov, če je to dovoljeno po zakonu te države, vendar ob ustreznem svetovanju.
31. člen
Ne glede na določbe 30. člena se osebni podatki, zbrani ali poslani v skladu s to konvencijo, posebej podatki, omenjeni v 15. in 16. členu, uporabijo izključno za namen, za katerega so bili zbrani ali poslani.
32. člen
1. Z meddržavno posvojitvijo ne sme nihče pridobiti nepoštene finančne ali druge koristi.
2. Zaračunajo ali plačajo se lahko samo dejanski stroški in izdatki, ki vključujejo razumno plačilo za delo oseb, ki sodelujejo pri posvojitvi.
3. Direktorji, upravniki in uslužbenci organov, ki se ukvarjajo s posvojitvami, ne smejo dobivati plačil, ki bi bila glede na opravljene storitve nerazumno visoka.
33. člen
Pristojni organ, ki ugotovi, da katera od določb konvencije ni bila spoštovana ali da je resna nevarnost, da bo kršena, o tem nemudoma obvesti osrednji organ v svoji državi. Osrednji organ zagotovi, da se izvedejo ustrezni ukrepi.
34. člen
Če pristojni organ države, v katero je namenjen dokument, to zahteva, mora biti dostavljen overjen prevod dokumenta, skladen z izvirnikom. Če ni drugače določeno, stroške za prevod krijejo predvideni posvojitelji.
35. člen
Pristojni organi držav pogodbenic v postopku posvojitve ukrepajo hitro.
36. člen
V državi, ki ima dva ali več pravnih sistemov glede posvojitev, ki se uporabljajo v različnih ozemeljskih enotah:
a) se vsaka navedba prebivališča v tej državi nanaša na prebivališče v ozemeljski enoti te države;
b) vsako sklicevanje na zakon te države se nanaša na zakon, ki velja v ustrezni ozemeljski enoti;
c) vsako sklicevanje na pristojne organe ali organe z javnimi pooblastili te države se nanaša na tiste organe, ki so pooblaščeni za delovanje v določeni ozemeljski enoti;
d) vsako sklicevanje na pooblaščene organe te države se nanaša na organe, ki so pooblaščeni v tej ozemeljski enoti.
37. člen
V državi, ki ima za posvojitev dva ali več pravnih sistemov, ki se uporabljajo za različne kategorije oseb, se vsako sklicevanje na zakon te države razlaga kot sklicevanje na pravni sistem, določen z zakonom te države.
38. člen
Država, v kateri imajo različne ozemeljske enote za posvojitev svoja pravna pravila, ni zavezana uporabljati te konvencije, če država z enotnim pravnim sistemom ni zavezana uporabljati te konvencije.
39. člen
1. Konvencija ne vpliva na mednarodne instrumente, katerih članice so države pogodbenice in ki vsebujejo določbe o zadevah, ki jih ureja konvencija, razen če države pogodbenice dajo v zvezi s takim instrumentom nasprotno izjavo.
2. Država pogodbenica lahko sklepa sporazume z eno ali več drugimi pogodbenicami, da se izboljšajo izvajanje konvencije in njihovi medsebojni odnosi. Ti sporazumi lahko odstopajo le od določb 14. do 16. člena in 18. do 21. člena. Države, ki so sklenile tak sporazum, pošljejo eno kopijo sporazuma depozitarju konvencije.
40. člen
K tej konvenciji niso dovoljeni pridržki.
41. člen
Ta konvencija se uporablja v vseh primerih prejema prošnje v skladu s 14. členom, potem ko je konvencija začela veljati v državi sprejema in v matični državi.
42. člen
Generalni sekretar Haaške konference o zasebnem mednarodnem pravu v rednih časovnih presledkih sklicuje Posebno komisijo, ki preverja praktično izvajanje konvencije.
VII. POGLAVJE – KONČNE DOLOČBE
43. člen
1. Ta konvencija je na voljo za podpis vsem državam, ki so bile v času sedemnajstega zasedanja Haaške konference o zasebnem mednarodnem pravu njene članice, in vsem drugim državam, ki so sodelovale na tem zasedanju.
2. To konvencijo je treba ratificirati, sprejeti ali odobriti in listine o ratifikaciji, sprejetju ali odobritvi se deponirajo pri Ministrstvu za zunanje zadeve Kraljevine Nizozemske, ki je depozitar konvencije.
44. člen
1. Vsaka druga država lahko pristopi h konvenciji, po tem ko je začela veljati v skladu s prvim odstavkom 46. člena.
2. Pristopna listina se deponira pri depozitarju.
3. Tak pristop velja le za odnose med državo, ki je pristopila, in tistimi državami pogodbenicami, ki k temu pristopu niso dale ugovora v šestih mesecih od prejema uradnega obvestila, omenjenega v pododstavku b) 48. člena. Ugovor lahko dajo tudi države po pristopu, ob ratifikaciji, sprejetju ali odobritvi konvencije. O vsakem ugovoru je treba obvestiti depozitarja.
45. člen
1. Če ima država dve ali več ozemeljskih enot z različnimi pravnimi sistemi glede zadev, ki jih obravnava konvencija, lahko ob podpisu, ratifikaciji, sprejetju, odobritvi ali pristopu da izjavo, da se konvencija razširi na vse ozemeljske enote ali samo na eno ali več ozemeljskih enot ter sme to izjavo kadar koli spremeniti tako, da da drugo izjavo.
2. O vsaki taki izjavi je treba depozitarja uradno obvestiti in v njej morajo biti izrecno navedene ozemeljske enote, za katere se uporablja konvencija.
3. Če država v skladu s tem členom ne da izjave, se konvencija razširi na vse ozemeljske enote te države.
46. člen
1. Konvencija začne veljati prvi dan meseca po izteku trimesečnega obdobja po deponiranju tretje listine o ratifikaciji, sprejetju ali odobritvi v skladu s 43. členom.
2. Nadalje začne konvencija veljati:
a) za države, ki jo ratificirajo, sprejmejo ali odobrijo kasneje ali k njej pristopijo, prvi dan meseca po izteku trimesečnega obdobja po deponiranju njihove listine o ratifikaciji, sprejetju, odobritvi ali pristopu;
b) za ozemeljsko enoto, na katero se je konvencija razširila v skladu s 45. členom, prvi dan meseca po izteku trimesečnega obdobja po uradnem obvestilu, navedenem v omenjenem členu.
47. člen
1. Država pogodbenica konvencije jo lahko odpove z uradnim pisnim obvestilom depozitarju.
2. Odpoved začne veljati prvi dan meseca po izteku dvanajstmesečnega obdobja, potem ko je depozitar prejel uradno obvestilo. Če je v uradnem obvestilu naveden daljši rok za veljavnost odpovedi, začne odpoved veljati ob izteku tega obdobja od datuma, ko je depozitar prejel uradno obvestilo.
48. člen
Depozitar obvesti vse države članice Haaške konference o zasebnem mednarodnem pravu, druge države, ki so sodelovale na sedemnajstem zasedanju, in države, ki so pristopile v skladu s 44. členom, o:
a) podpisih, ratifikacijah, sprejetjih in odobritvah v skladu s 43. členom;
b) pristopih in ugovorih k pristopom v skladu s 44. členom;
c) datumu začetka veljavnosti konvencije v skladu s 46. členom;
d) izjavah in imenovanjih v skladu z 22., 23., 25. in 45. členom;
e) sporazumih v skladu z 39. členom;
f) odpovedih v skladu s 47. členom.
Da bi to potrdili, so pravilno pooblaščeni podpisniki podpisali to konvencijo.
Sestavljeno v Haagu dne 29. maja 1993 v angleškem in francoskem jeziku, pri čemer sta besedili enako verodostojni, v enem izvodu, ki se hrani v arhivu vlade Kraljevine Nizozemske, ena overjena kopija pa se po diplomatski poti pošlje vsaki državi, ki je bila v času sedemnajstega zasedanja Haaške konference o zasebnem mednarodnem pravu njena članica, ter vsaki drugi državi, ki je sodelovala na tem zasedanju.
3. člen
Osrednji organ v smislu 6. člena konvencije je Ministrstvo za delo, družino in socialne zadeve.
4. člen
Za izvajanje konvencije skrbi Ministrstvo za delo, družino in socialne zadeve v sodelovanju z Ministrstvom za notranje zadeve.
5. člen
Ta zakon začne veljati naslednji dan po objavi v Uradnem listu Republike Slovenije – Mednarodne pogodbe.
Št. 542-03/99-1/1
Ljubljana, dne 20. maja 1999
Predsednik
Državnega zbora
Republike Slovenije
Janez Podobnik, dr. med. l. r.