Uradni list

Številka 100
Uradni list RS, št. 100/2005 z dne 10. 11. 2005
Uradni list

Uradni list RS, št. 100/2005 z dne 10. 11. 2005

Kazalo

63. Zakon o ratifikaciji Mednarodne pogodbe o rastlinskih genskih virih za prehrano in kmetijstvo (MPRGV), stran 1233.

Na podlagi druge alinee prvega odstavka 107. člena in prvega odstavka 91. člena Ustave Republike Slovenije izdajam
U K A Z
o razglasitvi Zakona o ratifikaciji Mednarodne pogodbe o rastlinskih genskih virih za prehrano in kmetijstvo (MPRGV)
Razglašam Zakon o ratifikaciji Mednarodne pogodbe o rastlinskih genskih virih za prehrano in kmetijstvo (MPRGV), ki ga je sprejel Državni zbor Republike Slovenije na seji 29. septembra 2005.
Št. 001-22-98/05
Ljubljana, dne 7. oktobra 2005
dr. Janez Drnovšek l.r.
Predsednik
Republike Slovenije
Z A K O N
O RATIFIKACIJI MEDNARODNE POGODBE O RASTLINSKIH GENSKIH VIRIH ZA PREHRANO IN KMETIJSTVO (MPRGV)
1. člen
Ratificira se Mednarodna pogodba o rastlinskih genskih virih za prehrano in kmetijstvo, sestavljena v Rimu 3. novembra 2001.
2. člen
Besedilo pogodbe se v izvirniku v angleškem jeziku ter v prevodu v slovenskem jeziku glasi:
I N T E R N A T I O N A L T R E A T Y
ON PLANT GENETIC RESOURCES FOR FOOD AND AGRICULTURE
PREAMBLE
The Contracting Parties,
Convinced of the special nature of plant genetic resources for food and agriculture, their distinctive features and problems needing distinctive solutions;
Alarmed by the continuing erosion of these resources;
Cognizant that plant genetic resources for food and agriculture are a common concern of all countries, in that all countries depend very largely on plant genetic resources for food and agriculture that originated elsewhere;
Acknowledging that the conservation, exploration, collection, characterization, evaluation and documentation of plant genetic resources for food and agriculture are essential in meeting the goals of the Rome Declaration on World Food Security and the World Food Summit Plan of Action and for sustainable agricultural development for this and future generations, and that the capacity of developing countries and countries with economies in transition to undertake such tasks needs urgently to be reinforced;
Noting that the Global Plan of Action for the Conservation and Sustainable Use of Plant Genetic Resources for Food and Agriculture is an internationally agreed framework for such activities;
Acknowledging further that plant genetic resources for food and agriculture are the raw material indispensable for crop genetic improvement, whether by means of farmers’ selection, classical plant breeding or modern biotechnologies, and are essential in adapting to unpredictable environmental changes and future human needs;
Affirming that the past, present and future contributions of farmers in all regions of the world, particularly those in centres of origin and diversity, in conserving, improving and making available these resources, is the basis of Farmers’ Rights;
Affirming also that the rights recognized in this Treaty to save, use, exchange and sell farm-saved seed and other propagating material, and to participate in decision-making regarding, and in the fair and equitable sharing of the benefits arising from, the use of plant genetic resources for food and agriculture, are fundamental to the realization of Farmers’ Rights, as well as the promotion of Farmers’ Rights at national and international levels;
Recognizing that this Treaty and other international agreements relevant to this Treaty should be mutually supportive with a view to sustainable agriculture and food security;
Affirming that nothing in this Treaty shall be interpreted as implying in any way a change in the rights and obligations of the Contracting Parties under other international agreements;
Understanding that the above recital is not intended to create a hierarchy between this Treaty and other international agreements;
Aware that questions regarding the management of plant genetic resources for food and agriculture are at the meeting point between agriculture, the environment and commerce, and convinced that there should be synergy among these sectors;
Aware of their responsibility to past and future generations to conserve the World’s diversity of plant genetic resources for food and agriculture;
Recognizing that, in the exercise of their sovereign rights over their plant genetic resources for food and agriculture, states may mutually benefit from the creation of an effective multilateral system for facilitated access to a negotiated selection of these resources and for the fair and equitable sharing of the benefits arising from their use; and
Desiring to conclude an international agreement within the framework of the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, hereinafter referred to as FAO, under Article XIV of the FAO Constitution;
Have agreed as follows:
PART I – INTRODUCTION
Article 1 – Objectives
1.1 The objectives of this Treaty are the conservation and sustainable use of plant genetic resources for food and agriculture and the fair and equitable sharing of the benefits arising out of their use, in harmony with the Convention on Biological Diversity, for sustainable agriculture and food security.
1.2 These objectives will be attained by closely linking this Treaty to the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations and to the Convention on Biological Diversity.
Article 2 – Use of terms
For the purpose of this Treaty, the following terms shall have the meanings hereunder assigned to them. These definitions are not intended to cover trade in commodities:
“In situ conservation” means the conservation of ecosystems and natural habitats and the maintenance and recovery of viable populations of species in their natural surroundings and, in the case of domesticated or cultivated plant species, in the surroundings where they have developed their distinctive properties.
“Ex situ conservation” means the conservation of plant genetic resources for food and agriculture outside their natural habitat.
“Plant genetic resources for food and agriculture” means any genetic material of plant origin of actual or potential value for food and agriculture.
“Genetic material” means any material of plant origin, including reproductive and vegetative propagating material, containing functional units of heredity.
“Variety” means a plant grouping, within a single botanical taxon of the lowest known rank, defined by the reproducible expression of its distinguishing and other genetic characteristics.
“Ex situ collection” means a collection of plant genetic resources for food and agriculture maintained outside their natural habitat.
“Centre of origin” means a geographical area where a plant species, either domesticated or wild, first developed its distinctive properties.
“Centre of crop diversity” means a geographic area containing a high level of genetic diversity for crop species in in situ conditions.
Article 3 – Scope
This Treaty relates to plant genetic resources for food and agriculture.
PART II – GENERAL PROVISIONS
Article 4 – General Obligations
Each Contracting Party shall ensure the conformity of its laws, regulations and procedures with its obligations as provided in this Treaty.
Article 5 – Conservation, Exploration, Collection, Characterization, Evaluation and Documentation of Plant Genetic Resources for Food and Agriculture
5.1 Each Contracting Party shall, subject to national legislation, and in cooperation with other Contracting Parties where appropriate, promote an integrated approach to the exploration, conservation and sustainable use of plant genetic resources for food and agriculture and shall in particular, as appropriate:
(a) Survey and inventory plant genetic resources for food and agriculture, taking into account the status and degree of variation in existing populations, including those that are of potential use and, as feasible, assess any threats to them;
(b) Promote the collection of plant genetic resources for food and agriculture and relevant associated information on those plant genetic resources that are under threat or are of potential use;
(c) Promote or support, as appropriate, farmers and local communities’ efforts to manage and conserve on-farm their plant genetic resources for food and agriculture;
(d) Promote in situ conservation of wild crop relatives and wild plants for food production, including in protected areas, by supporting, inter alia, the efforts of indigenous and local communities;
(e) Cooperate to promote the development of an efficient and sustainable system of ex situ conservation, giving due attention to the need for adequate documentation, characterization, regeneration and evaluation, and promote the development and transfer of appropriate technologies for this purpose with a view to improving the sustainable use of plant genetic resources for food and agriculture;
(f) Monitor the maintenance of the viability, degree of variation, and the genetic integrity of collections of plant genetic resources for food and agriculture.
5.2 The Contracting Parties shall, as appropriate, take steps to minimize or, if possible, eliminate threats to plant genetic resources for food and agriculture.
Article 6 – Sustainable Use of Plant Genetic Resources
6.1 The Contracting Parties shall develop and maintain appropriate policy and legal measures that promote the sustainable use of plant genetic resources for food and agriculture.
6.2 The sustainable use of plant genetic resources for food and agriculture may include such measures as:
(a) pursuing fair agricultural policies that promote, as appropriate, the development and maintenance of diverse farming systems that enhance the sustainable use of agricultural bio­logical diversity and other natural resources;
(b) strengthening research which enhances and conserves biological diversity by maximizing intra- and inter-specific variation for the benefit of farmers, especially those who generate and use their own varieties and apply ecological principles in maintaining soil fertility and in combating diseases, weeds and pests;
(c) promoting, as appropriate, plant breeding efforts which, with the participation of farmers, particularly in developing countries, strengthen the capacity to develop varieties particularly adapted to social, economic and ecological conditions, including in marginal areas;
(d) broadening the genetic base of crops and increasing the range of genetic diversity available to farmers;
(e) promoting, as appropriate, the expanded use of local and locally adapted crops, varieties and underutilized species;
(f) supporting, as appropriate, the wider use of diversity of varieties and species in on-farm management, conservation and sustainable use of crops and creating strong links to plant breeding and agricultural development in order to reduce crop vulnerability and genetic erosion, and promote increased world food production compatible with sustainable development; and
(g) reviewing, and, as appropriate, adjusting breeding strategies and regulations concerning variety release and seed distribution.
Article 7 – National Commitments and International Cooperation
7.1 Each Contracting Party shall, as appropriate, integrate into its agriculture and rural development policies and programmes, activities referred to in Articles 5 and 6, and cooperate with other Contracting Parties, directly or through FAO and other relevant international organizations, in the conservation and sustainable use of plant genetic resources for food and agriculture.
7.2 International cooperation shall, in particular, be directed to:
(a) establishing or strengthening the capabilities of developing countries and countries with economies in transition with respect to conservation and sustainable use of plant genetic resources for food and agriculture;
(b) enhancing international activities to promote conservation, evaluation, documentation, genetic enhancement, plant breeding, seed multiplication; and sharing, providing access to, and exchanging, in conformity with Part IV, plant genetic resources for food and agriculture and appropriate information and technology;
(c) maintaining and strengthening the institutional arrangements provided for in Part V; and
(d) implement the funding strategy of Article 18.
Article 8 – Technical Assistance
The Contracting Parties agree to promote the provision of technical assistance to Contracting Parties, especially those that are developing countries or countries with economies in transition, either bilaterally or through the appropriate international organizations, with the objective of facilitating the implementation of this Treaty.
PART III – FARMERS’ RIGHTS
Article 9 – Farmers’ Rights
9.1 The Contracting Parties recognize the enormous contribution that the local and indigenous communities and farmers of all regions of the world, particularly those in the centres of origin and crop diversity, have made and will continue to make for the conservation and development of plant genetic resources which constitute the basis of food and agriculture production throughout the world.
9.2 The Contracting Parties agree that the responsibility for realizing Farmers’ Rights, as they relate to plant genetic resources for food and agriculture, rests with national governments. In accordance with their needs and priorities, each Contracting Party should, as appropriate, and subject to its national legislation, take measures to protect and promote Farmers’ Rights, including:
(a) protection of traditional knowledge relevant to plant genetic resources for food and agriculture;
(b) the right to equitably participate in sharing benefits arising from the utilization of plant genetic resources for food and agriculture; and
(c) the right to participate in making decisions, at the national level, on matters related to the conservation and sustainable use of plant genetic resources for food and agriculture.
9.3 Nothing in this Article shall be interpreted to limit any rights that farmers have to save, use, exchange and sell farm-saved seed/propagating material, subject to national law and as appropriate.
PART IV – THE MULTILATERAL SYSTEM OF ACCESS AND BENEFIT-SHARING
Article 10 – Multilateral System of Access and
Benefit-sharing
10.1 In their relationships with other States, the Contracting Parties recognize the sovereign rights of States over their own plant genetic resources for food and agriculture, including that the authority to determine access to those resources rests with national governments and is subject to national legislation.
10.2 In the exercise of their sovereign rights, the Contracting Parties agree to establish a multilateral system, which is efficient, effective, and transparent, both to facilitate access to plant genetic resources for food and agriculture, and to share, in a fair and equitable way, the benefits arising from the utilization of these resources, on a complementary and mutually reinforcing basis.
Article 11 – Coverage of the Multilateral System
11.1 In furtherance of the objectives of conservation and sustainable use of plant genetic resources for food and agriculture and the fair and equitable sharing of benefits arising out of their use, as stated in Article 1, the Multilateral System shall cover the plant genetic resources for food and agriculture listed in Annex I, established according to criteria of food security and interdependence.
11.2 The Multilateral System, as identified in Article 11.1, shall include all plant genetic resources for food and agriculture listed in Annex I that are under the management and control of the Contracting Parties and in the public domain. With a view to achieving the fullest possible coverage of the Multilateral System, the Contracting Parties invite all other holders of the plant genetic resources for food and agriculture listed in Annex I to include these plant genetic resources for food and agriculture in the Multilateral System.
11.3 Contracting Parties also agree to take appropriate measures to encourage natural and legal persons within their jurisdiction who hold plant genetic resources for food and agriculture listed in Annex I to include such plant genetic resources for food and agriculture in the Multilateral System.
11.4 Within two years of the entry into force of the Treaty, the Governing Body shall assess the progress in including the plant genetic resources for food and agriculture referred to in paragraph 11.3 in the Multilateral System. Following this assessment, the Governing Body shall decide whether access shall continue to be facilitated to those natural and legal persons referred to in paragraph 11.3 that have not included these plant genetic resources for food and agriculture in the Multilateral System, or take such other measures as it deems appropriate.
11.5 The Multilateral System shall also include the plant genetic resources for food and agriculture listed in Annex I and held in the ex situ collections of the International Agricultural Research Centres of the Consultative Group on International Agricultural Research (CGIAR), as provided in Article 15.1a, and in other international institutions, in accordance with Article 15.5.
Article 12 – Facilitated access to plant genetic resources for food and agriculture within the Multilateral System
12.1 The Contracting Parties agree that facilitated access to plant genetic resources for food and agriculture under the Multilateral System, as defined in Article 11, shall be in accordance with the provisions of this Treaty.
12.2 The Contracting Parties agree to take the necessary legal or other appropriate measures to provide such access to other Contracting Parties through the Multilateral System. To this effect, such access shall also be provided to legal and natural persons under the jurisdiction of any Contracting Party, subject to the provisions of Article 11.4.
12.3 Such access shall be provided in accordance with the conditions below:
(a) Access shall be provided solely for the purpose of utilization and conservation for research, breeding and training for food and agriculture, provided that such purpose does not include chemical, pharmaceutical and/or other non-food/feed industrial uses. In the case of multiple-use crops (food and non-food), their importance for food security should be the determinant for their inclusion in the Multilateral System and availability for facilitated access.
(b) Access shall be accorded expeditiously, without the need to track individual accessions and free of charge, or, when a fee is charged, it shall not exceed the minimal cost involved;
(c) All available passport data and, subject to applicable law, any other associated available non-confidential descriptive information, shall be made available with the plant genetic resources for food and agriculture provided;
(d) Recipients shall not claim any intellectual property or other rights that limit the facilitated access to the plant genetic resources for food and agriculture, or their genetic parts or components, in the form received from the Multilateral System;
(e) Access to plant genetic resources for food and agriculture under development, including material being developed by farmers, shall be at the discretion of its developer, during the period of its development;
(f) Access to plant genetic resources for food and agriculture protected by intellectual and other property rights shall be consistent with relevant international agreements, and with relevant national laws;
(g) Plant genetic resources for food and agriculture accessed under the Multilateral System and conserved shall continue to be made available to the Multilateral System by the recipients of those plant genetic resources for food and agriculture, under the terms of this Treaty; and
(h) Without prejudice to the other provisions under this Article, the Contracting Parties agree that access to plant genetic resources for food and agriculture found in in situ conditions will be provided according to national legislation or, in the absence of such legislation, in accordance with such standards as may be set by the Governing Body.
12.4 To this effect, facilitated access, in accordance with Articles 12.2 and 12.3 above, shall be provided pursuant to a standard material transfer agreement (MTA), which shall be adopted by the Governing Body and contain the provisions of Articles 12.3a, d and g, as well as the benefit-sharing provisions set forth in Article 13.2d(ii) and other relevant provisions of this Treaty, and the provision that the recipient of the plant genetic resources for food and agriculture shall require that the conditions of the MTA shall apply to the transfer of plant genetic resources for food and agriculture to another person or entity, as well as to any subsequent transfers of those plant genetic resources for food and agriculture.
12.5 Contracting Parties shall ensure that an opportunity to seek recourse is available, consistent with applicable jurisdictional requirements, under their legal systems, in case of contractual disputes arising under such MTAs, recognizing that obligations arising under such MTAs rest exclusively with the parties to those MTAs.
12.6 In emergency disaster situations, the Contracting Parties agree to provide facilitated access to appropriate plant genetic resources for food and agriculture in the Multilateral System for the purpose of contributing to the re-establishment of agricultural systems, in cooperation with disaster relief co-ordinators.
Article 13 – Benefit-sharing in the Multilateral System
13.1 The Contracting Parties recognize that facilitated access to plant genetic resources for food and agriculture which are included in the Multilateral System constitutes itself a major benefit of the Multilateral System and agree that benefits accruing therefrom shall be shared fairly and equitably in accordance with the provisions of this Article.
13.2 The Contracting Parties agree that benefits arising from the use, including commercial, of plant genetic resources for food and agriculture under the Multilateral System shall be shared fairly and equitably through the following mechanisms: the exchange of information, access to and transfer of technology, capacity-building, and the sharing of the benefits arising from commercialization, taking into account the priority activity areas in the rolling Global Plan of Action, under the guidance of the Governing Body:
(a) Exchange of information:
The Contracting Parties agree to make available information which shall, inter alia, encompass catalogues and inventories, information on technologies, results of technical, scientific and socio-economic research, including characterization, evaluation and utilization, regarding those plant genetic resources for food and agriculture under the Multilateral System. Such information shall be made available, where non-confidential, subject to applicable law and in accordance with national capabilities. Such information shall be made available to all Contracting Parties to this Treaty through the information system, provided for in Article 17.
(b) Access to and transfer of technology
(i) The Contracting Parties undertake to provide and/or facilitate access to technologies for the conservation, characterization, evaluation and use of plant genetic resources for food and agriculture which are under the Multilateral System. Recognizing that some technologies can only be transferred through genetic material, the Contracting Parties shall provide and/or facilitate access to such technologies and genetic material which is under the Multilateral System and to improved varieties and genetic material developed through the use of plant genetic resources for food and agriculture under the Multilateral System, in conformity with the provisions of Article 12. Access to these technologies, improved varieties and genetic material shall be provided and/or facilitated, while respecting applicable property rights and access laws, and in accordance with national capabilities.
(ii) Access to and transfer of technology to countries, especially to developing countries and countries with economies in transition, shall be carried out through a set of measures, such as the establishment and maintenance of, and participation in, crop-based thematic groups on utilization of plant genetic resources for food and agriculture, all types of partnership in research and development and in commercial joint ventures relating to the material received, human resource development, and effective access to research facilities.
(iii) Access to and transfer of technology as referred to in (i) and (ii) above, including that protected by intellectual property rights, to developing countries that are Contracting Parties, in particular least developed countries, and countries with economies in transition, shall be provided and/or facilitated under fair and most favourable terms, in particular in the case of technologies for use in conservation as well as technologies for the benefit of farmers in developing countries, especially in least developed countries, and countries with economies in transition, including on concessional and preferential terms where mutually agreed, inter alia, through partnerships in research and development under the Multilateral System. Such access and transfer shall be provided on terms which recognize and are consistent with the adequate and effective protection of intellectual property rights.
(c) Capacity-building
Taking into account the needs of developing countries and countries with economies in transition, as expressed through the priority they accord to building capacity in plant genetic resources for food and agriculture in their plans and programmes, when in place, in respect of those plant genetic resources for food and agriculture covered by the Multilateral System, the Contracting Parties agree to give priority to (i) establishing and/or strengthening programmes for scientific and technical education and training in conservation and sustainable use of plant genetic resources for food and agriculture, (ii) developing and strengthening facilities for conservation and sustainable use of plant genetic resources for food and agriculture, in particular in developing countries, and countries with economies in transition, and (iii) carrying out scientific research preferably, and where possible, in developing countries and countries with economies in transition, in cooperation with institutions of such countries, and developing capacity for such research in fields where they are needed.
(d) Sharing of monetary and other benefits of commercialization
(i) The Contracting Parties agree, under the Multilateral System, to take measures in order to achieve commercial benefit-sharing, through the involvement of the private and public sectors in activities identified under this Article, through partnerships and collaboration, including with the private sector in developing countries and countries with economies in transition, in research and technology development;
(ii) The Contracting Parties agree that the standard Material Transfer Agreement referred to in Article 12.4 shall include a requirement that a recipient who commercializes a product that is a plant genetic resource for food and agriculture and that incorporates material accessed from the Multilateral System, shall pay to the mechanism referred to in Article 19.3f, an equitable share of the benefits arising from the commercialization of that product, except whenever such a product is available without restriction to others for further research and breeding, in which case the recipient who commercializes shall be encouraged to make such payment.
The Governing Body shall, at its first meeting, determine the level, form and manner of the payment, in line with commercial practice. The Governing Body may decide to establish different levels of payment for various categories of recipients who commercialize such products; it may also decide on the need to exempt from such payments small farmers in developing countries and in countries with economies in transition. The Governing Body may, from time to time, review the levels of payment with a view to achieving fair and equitable sharing of benefits, and it may also assess, within a period of five years from the entry into force of this Treaty, whether the mandatory payment requirement in the MTA shall apply also in cases where such commercialized products are available without restriction to others for further research and breeding.
13.3 The Contracting Parties agree that benefits arising from the use of plant genetic resources for food and agriculture that are shared under the Multilateral System should flow primarily, directly and indirectly, to farmers in all countries, especially in developing countries, and countries with economies in transition, who conserve and sustainably utilize plant genetic resources for food and agriculture.
13.4 The Governing Body shall, at its first meeting, consider relevant policy and criteria for specific assistance under the agreed funding strategy established under Article 18 for the conservation of plant genetic resources for food and agriculture in developing countries, and countries with economies in transition whose contribution to the diversity of plant genetic resources for food and agriculture in the Multilateral System is significant and/or which have special needs.
13.5 The Contracting Parties recognize that the ability to fully implement the Global Plan of Action, in particular of developing countries and countries with economies in transition, will depend largely upon the effective implementation of this Article and of the funding strategy as provided in Article 18.
13.6 The Contracting Parties shall consider modalities of a strategy of voluntary benefit-sharing contributions whereby Food Processing Industries that benefit from plant genetic resources for food and agriculture shall contribute to the Multilateral System.
PART V – SUPPORTING COMPONENTS
Article 14 – Global Plan of Action
Recognizing that the rolling Global Plan of Action for the Conservation and Sustainable Use of Plant Genetic Resources for Food and Agriculture is important to this Treaty, Contracting Parties should promote its effective implementation, including through national actions and, as appropriate, international cooperation to provide a coherent framework, inter alia, for capacity-building, technology transfer and exchange of information, taking into account the provisions of Article 13.
Article 15 – Ex Situ Collections of Plant Genetic Resources for Food and Agriculture held by the International Agricultural Research Centres of the Consultative Group on International Agricultural Research and other International Institutions
15.1 The Contracting Parties recognize the importance to this Treaty of the ex situ collections of plant genetic resources for food and agriculture held in trust by the International Agricultural Research Centres (IARCs) of the Consultative Group on International Agricultural Research (CGIAR). The Contracting Parties call upon the IARCs to sign agreements with the Governing Body with regard to such ex situ collections, in accordance with the following terms and conditions:
(a) Plant genetic resources for food and agriculture listed in Annex I of this Treaty and held by the IARCs shall be made available in accordance with the provisions set out in Part IV of this Treaty.
(b) Plant genetic resources for food and agriculture other than those listed in Annex I of this Treaty and collected before its entry into force that are held by IARCs shall be made available in accordance with the provisions of the MTA currently in use pursuant to agreements between the IARCs and the FAO. This MTA shall be amended by the Governing Body no later than its second regular session, in consultation with the IARCs, in accordance with the relevant provisions of this Treaty, especially Articles 12 and 13, and under the following conditions:
(i) The IARCs shall periodically inform the Governing Body about the MTAs entered into, according to a schedule to be established by the Governing Body;
(ii) The Contracting Parties in whose territory the plant genetic resources for food and agriculture were collected from in situ conditions shall be provided with samples of such plant genetic resources for food and agriculture on demand, without any MTA;
(iii) Benefits arising under the above MTA that accrue to the mechanism mentioned in Article 19.3f shall be applied, in particular, to the conservation and sustainable use of the plant genetic resources for food and agriculture in question, particularly in national and regional programmes in developing countries and countries with economies in transition, especially in centres of diversity and the least developed countries; and
(iv) The IARCs shall take appropriate measures, in accordance with their capacity, to maintain effective compliance with the conditions of the MTAs, and shall promptly inform the Governing Body of cases of non-compliance.
(c) IARCs recognize the authority of the Governing Body to provide policy guidance relating to ex situ collections held by them and subject to the provisions of this Treaty.
(d) The scientific and technical facilities in which such ex situ collections are conserved shall remain under the authority of the IARCs, which undertake to manage and administer these ex situ collections in accordance with internationally accepted standards, in particular the Genebank Standards as endorsed by the FAO Commission on Genetic Resources for Food and Agriculture.
(e) Upon request by an IARC, the Secretary shall endeavour to provide appropriate technical support.
(f) The Secretary shall have, at any time, right of access to the facilities, as well as right to inspect all activities performed therein directly related to the conservation and exchange of the material covered by this Article.
(g) If the orderly maintenance of these ex situ collections held by IARCs is impeded or threatened by whatever event, including force majeure, the Secretary, with the approval of the host country, shall assist in its evacuation or transfer, to the extent possible.
15.2 The Contracting Parties agree to provide facilitated access to plant genetic resources for food and agriculture in Annex I under the Multilateral System to IARCs of the CGIAR that have signed agreements with the Governing Body in accordance with this Treaty. Such Centres shall be included in a list held by the Secretary to be made available to the Contracting Parties on request.
15.3 The material other than that listed in Annex I, which is received and conserved by IARCs after the coming into force of this Treaty, shall be available for access on terms consistent with those mutually agreed between the IARCs that receive the material and the country of origin of such resources or the country that has acquired those resources in accordance with the Convention on Biological Diversity or other applicable law.
15.4 The Contracting Parties are encouraged to provide IARCs that have signed agreements with the Governing Body with access, on mutually agreed terms, to plant genetic resources for food and agriculture not listed in Annex I that are important to the programmes and activities of the IARCs.
15.5 The Governing Body will also seek to establish agreements for the purposes stated in this Article with other relevant international institutions.
Article 16 – International Plant Genetic Resources Networks
16.1 Existing cooperation in international plant genetic resources for food and agriculture networks will be encouraged or developed on the basis of existing arrangements and consistent with the terms of this Treaty, so as to achieve as complete coverage as possible of plant genetic resources for food and agriculture.
16.2 The Contracting Parties will encourage, as appropriate, all relevant institutions, including governmental, private, non-governmental, research, breeding and other institutions, to participate in the international networks.
Article 17 – The Global Information System on
Plant Genetic Resources for Food and Agriculture
17.1 The Contracting Parties shall cooperate to develop and strengthen a global information system to facilitate the exchange of information, based on existing information systems, on scientific, technical and environmental matters related to plant genetic resources for food and agriculture, with the expectation that such exchange of information will contribute to the sharing of benefits by making information on plant genetic resources for food and agriculture available to all Contracting Parties. In developing the Global Information System, cooperation will be sought with the Clearing House Mechanism of the Convention on Biological Diversity.
17.2 Based on notification by the Contracting Parties, early warning should be provided about hazards that threaten the efficient maintenance of plant genetic resources for food and agriculture, with a view to safeguarding the material.
17.3 The Contracting Parties shall cooperate with the Commission on Genetic Resources for Food and Agriculture of the FAO in its periodic reassessment of the state of the world’s plant genetic resources for food and agriculture in order to facilitate the updating of the rolling Global Plan of Action referred to in Article 14.
PART VI – FINANCIAL PROVISIONS
Article 18 – Financial Resources
18.1 The Contracting Parties undertake to implement a funding strategy for the implementation of this Treaty in accordance with the provisions of this Article.
18.2 The objectives of the funding strategy shall be to enhance the availability, transparency, efficiency and effectiveness of the provision of financial resources to implement activities under this Treaty.
18.3 In order to mobilize funding for priority activities, plans and programmes, in particular in developing countries and countries with economies in transition, and taking the Global Plan of Action into account, the Governing Body shall periodically establish a target for such funding.
18.4 Pursuant to this funding strategy:
(a) The Contracting Parties shall take the necessary and appropriate measures within the Governing Bodies of relevant international mechanisms, funds and bodies to ensure due priority and attention to the effective allocation of predictable and agreed resources for the implementation of plans and programmes under this Treaty.
(b) The extent to which Contracting Parties that are developing countries and Contracting Parties with economies in transition will effectively implement their commitments under this Treaty will depend on the effective allocation, particularly by the developed country Parties, of the resources referred to in this Article. Contracting Parties that are developing countries and Contracting Parties with economies in transition will accord due priority in their own plans and programmes to building capacity in plant genetic resources for food and agriculture.
(c) The Contracting Parties that are developed countries also provide, and Contracting Parties that are developing countries and Contracting Parties with economies in transition avail themselves of, financial resources for the implementation of this Treaty through bilateral and regional and multilateral channels. Such channels shall include the mechanism referred to in Article 19.3f.
(d) Each Contracting Party agrees to undertake, and provide financial resources for national activities for the conservation and sustainable use of plant genetic resources for food and agriculture in accordance with its national capabilities and financial resources. The financial resources provided shall not be used to ends inconsistent with this Treaty, in particular in areas related to international trade in commodities.;
(e) The Contracting Parties agree that the financial benefits arising from Article 13.2d are part of the funding strategy.
(f) Voluntary contributions may also be provided by Contracting Parties, the private sector, taking into account the provisions of Article 13, non-governmental organisations and other sources. The Contracting Parties agree that the Governing Body shall consider modalities of a strategy to promote such contributions;
18.5 The Contracting Parties agree that priority will be given to the implementation of agreed plans and programmes for farmers in developing countries, especially in least developed countries, and in countries with economies in transition, who conserve and sustainably utilize plant genetic resources for food and agriculture.
PART VII – INSTITUTIONAL PROVISIONS
Article 19 – Governing Body
19.1 A Governing Body for this Treaty is hereby established, composed of all Contracting Parties.
19.2 All decisions of the Governing Body shall be taken by consensus unless by consensus another method of arriving at a decision on certain measures is reached, except that consensus shall always be required in relation to Articles 23 and 24.
19.3 The functions of the Governing Body shall be to promote the full implementation of this Treaty, keeping in view its objectives, and, in particular, to:
(a) provide policy direction and guidance to monitor, and adopt such recommendations as necessary for the implementation of this Treaty and, in particular, for the operation of the Multilateral System;
(b) adopt plans and programmes for the implementation of this Treaty;
(c) adopt, at its first session, and periodically review the funding strategy for the implementation of this Treaty, in accordance with the provisions of Article 18;
(d) adopt the budget of this Treaty;
(e) consider and establish subject to the availability of necessary funds such subsidiary bodies as may be necessary, and their respective mandates and composition;
(f) establish, as needed, an appropriate mechanism, such as a Trust Account, for receiving and utilizing financial resources that will accrue to it for purposes of implementing this Treaty;
(g) establish and maintain cooperation with other relevant international organizations and treaty bodies, including in particular the Conference of the Parties to the Convention on Biological Diversity, on matters covered by this Treaty, including their participation in the funding strategy;
(h) consider and adopt, as required, amendments to this Treaty, in accordance with the provisions of Article 23;
(i) consider and adopt, as required, amendments to annexes to this Treaty, in accordance with the provisions of Article 24;
(j) consider modalities of a strategy to encourage voluntary contributions, in particular, with reference to Articles 13 and 18;
(k) perform such other functions as may be necessary for the fulfilment of the objectives of this Treaty;
(l) take note of relevant decisions of the Conference of the Parties to the Convention on Biological Diversity and other relevant international organizations and treaty bodies;
(m) inform, as appropriate, the Conference of the Parties to the Convention on Biological Diversity and other relevant international organizations and treaty bodies of matters regarding the implementation of this Treaty; and
(n) approve the terms of agreements with the IARCs and other international institutions under Article 15, and review and amend the MTA in Article 15.
19.4 Subject to Article 19.6, each Contracting Party shall have one vote and may be represented at sessions of the Governing Body by a single delegate who may be accompanied by an alternate, and by experts and advisers. Alternates, experts and advisers may take part in the proceedings of the Governing Body but may not vote, except in the case of their being duly authorized to substitute for the delegate.
19.5 The United Nations, its specialized agencies and the International Atomic Energy Agency, as well as any State not a Contracting Party to this Treaty, may be represented as observers at sessions of the Governing Body. Any other body or agency, whether governmental or non-governmental, qualified in fields relating to conservation and sustainable use of plant genetic resources for food and agriculture, which has informed the Secretary of its wish to be represented as an observer at a session of the Governing Body, may be admitted unless at least one third of the Contracting Parties present object. The admission and participation of observers shall be subject to the Rules of Procedure adopted by the Governing Body.
19.6 A Member Organization of FAO that is a Contracting Party and the member states of that Member Organization that are Contracting Parties shall exercise their membership rights and fulfil their membership obligations in accordance, mutatis mutandis, with the Constitution and General Rules of FAO.
19.7 The Governing Body shall adopt and amend, as required, its own Rules of Procedure and financial rules which shall not be inconsistent with this Treaty.
19.8 The presence of delegates representing a majority of the Contracting Parties shall be necessary to constitute a quorum at any session of the Governing Body.
19.9 The Governing Body shall hold regular sessions at least once every two years. These sessions should, as far as possible, be held back-to-back with the regular sessions of the Commission on Genetic Resources for Food and Agriculture.
19.10 Special Sessions of the Governing Body shall be held at such other times as may be deemed necessary by the Governing Body, or at the written request of any Contracting Party, provided that this request is supported by at least one third of the Contracting Parties.
19.11 The Governing Body shall elect its Chairperson and Vice-Chairpersons (collectively referred to as “the Bureau”), in conformity with its Rules of Procedure.
Article 20 – Secretary
20.1 The Secretary of the Governing Body shall be appointed by the Director-General of FAO, with the approval of the Governing Body. The Secretary shall be assisted by such staff as may be required.
20.2 The Secretary shall perform the following functions:
(a) arrange for and provide administrative support for sessions of the Governing Body and for any subsidiary bodies as may be established;
(b) assist the Governing Body in carrying out its functions, including the performance of specific tasks that the Governing Body may decide to assign to it;
(c) report on its activities to the Governing Body.
20.3 The Secretary shall communicate to all Contracting Parties and to the Director-General:
(a) decisions of the Governing Body within sixty days of adoption;
(b) information received from Contracting Parties in accordance with the provisions of this Treaty.
20.4 The Secretary shall provide documentation in the six languages of the United Nations for sessions of the Governing Body.
20.5 The Secretary shall cooperate with other organizations and treaty bodies, including in particular the Secretariat of the Convention on Biological Diversity, in achieving the objectives of this Treaty.
Article 21 – Compliance
The Governing Body shall, at its first meeting, consider and approve cooperative and effective procedures and operational mechanisms to promote compliance with the provisions of this Treaty and to address issues of non-compliance. These procedures and mechanisms shall include monitoring, and offering advice or assistance, including legal advice or legal assistance, when needed, in particular to developing countries and countries with economies in transition.
Article 22 – Settlement of Disputes
22.1 In the event of a dispute between Contracting Parties concerning the interpretation or application of this Treaty, the parties concerned shall seek solutions by negotiation.
22.2 If the parties concerned cannot reach agreement by negotiation, they may jointly seek the good offices of, or request mediation by, a third party.
22.3 When ratifying, accepting, approving or acceding to this Treaty, or at any time thereafter, a Contracting Party may declare in writing to the Depositary that for a dispute not resolved in accordance with Article 22.1 or Article 22.2 above, it accepts one or both of the following means of dispute settlement as compulsory:
(a) Arbitration in accordance with the procedure laid down in Part 1 of Annex II to this Treaty;
(b) Submission of the dispute to the International Court of Justice.
22.4 If the parties to the dispute have not, in accordance with Article 22.3 above, accepted the same or any procedure, the dispute shall be submitted to conciliation in accordance with Part 2 of Annex II to this Treaty unless the parties otherwise agree.
Article 23 – Amendments of the Treaty
23.1 Amendments to this Treaty may be proposed by any Contracting Party.
23.2 Amendments to this Treaty shall be adopted at a session of the Governing Body. The text of any proposed amendment shall be communicated to Contracting Parties by the Secretary at least six months before the session at which it is proposed for adoption.
23.3 All amendments to this Treaty shall only be made by consensus of the Contracting Parties present at the session of the Governing Body.
23.4 Any amendment adopted by the Governing Body shall come into force among Contracting Parties having ratified, accepted or approved it on the ninetieth day after the deposit of instruments of ratification, acceptance or approval by two‑thirds of the Contracting Parties. Thereafter the amendment shall enter into force for any other Contracting Party on the ninetieth day after that Contracting Party deposits its instrument of ratification, acceptance or approval of the amendment.
23.5 For the purpose of this Article, an instrument deposited by a Member Organization of FAO shall not be counted as additional to those deposited by member states of such an organization.
Article 24 – Annexes
24.1 The annexes to this Treaty shall form an integral part of this Treaty and a reference to this Treaty shall constitute at the same time a reference to any annexes thereto.
24.2 The provisions of Article 23 regarding amendments to this Treaty shall apply to the amendment of annexes.
Article 25 – Signature
This Treaty shall be open for signature at the FAO from 3 November 2001 to 4 November 2002 by all Members of FAO and any States that are not Members of FAO but are Members of the United Nations, or any of its specialized agencies or of the International Atomic Energy Agency.
Article 26 – Ratification, Acceptance or Approval
This Treaty shall be subject to ratification, acceptance or approval by the Members and non-Members of FAO referred to in Article 25. Instruments of ratification, acceptance, or approval shall be deposited with the Depositary.
Article 27 – Accession
This Treaty shall be open for accession by all Members of FAO and any States that are not Members of FAO but are Members of the United Nations, or any of its specialized agencies or of the International Atomic Energy Agency from the date on which the Treaty is closed for signature. Instruments of accession shall be deposited with the Depositary.
Article 28 – Entry into force
28.1 Subject to the provisions of Article 29.2, this Treaty shall enter into force on the ninetieth day after the deposit of the fortieth instrument of ratification, acceptance, approval or accession, provided that at least twenty instruments of ratification, acceptance, approval or accession have been deposited by Members of FAO.
28.2 For each Member of FAO and any State that is not a Member of FAO but is a Member of the United Nations, or any of its specialized agencies or of the International Atomic Energy Agency that ratifies, accepts, approves or accedes to this Treaty after the deposit, in accordance with Article 28.1, of the fortieth instrument of ratification, acceptance, approval or accession, the Treaty shall enter into force on the ninetieth day following the deposit of its instrument of ratification, acceptance, approval or accession.
Article 29 – Member Organizations of FAO
29.1 When a Member Organization of FAO deposits an instrument of ratification, acceptance, approval or accession for this Treaty, the Member Organization shall, in accordance with the provisions of Article II.7 of the FAO Constitution, notify any change regarding its distribution of competence to its declaration of competence submitted under Article II.5 of the FAO Constitution as may be necessary in light of its acceptance of this Treaty. Any Contracting Party to this Treaty may, at any time, request a Member Organization of FAO that is a Contracting Party to this Treaty to provide information as to which, as between the Member Organization and its Member States, is responsible for the implementation of any particular matter covered by this Treaty. The Member Organization shall provide this information within a reasonable time.
29.2 Instruments of ratification, acceptance, approval, accession or withdrawal, deposited by a Member Organization of FAO, shall not be counted as additional to those deposited by its Member States.
Article 30 – Reservations
No reservations may be made to this Treaty.
Article 31 – Non-Parties
The Contracting Parties shall encourage any Member of FAO or other State, not a Contracting Party to this Treaty, to accept this Treaty.
Article 32 – Withdrawals
32.1 Any Contracting Party may at any time after two years from the date on which this Treaty has entered into force for it, notify the Depositary in writing of its withdrawal from this Treaty. The Depositary shall at once inform all Contracting Parties.
32.2 Withdrawal shall take effect one year from the date of receipt of the notification.
Article 33 – Termination
33.1 This Treaty shall be automatically terminated if and when, as the result of withdrawals, the number of Contracting Parties drops below forty, unless the remaining Contracting Parties unanimously decide otherwise.
33.2 The Depositary shall inform all remaining Contracting Parties when the number of Contracting Parties has dropped to forty.
33.3 In the event of termination the disposition of assets shall be governed by the financial rules to be adopted by the Governing Body.
Article 34 – Depositary
The Director-General of FAO shall be the Depositary of this Treaty.
Article 35 – Authentic Texts
The Arabic, Chinese, English, French, Russian and Spanish texts of this Treaty are equally authentic.
ANNEX I
LIST OF CROPS COVERED UNDER THE MULTILATERAL SYSTEM
Food crops
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 Crop        Genus          Observations                                      
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 Breadfruit  Artocarpus     Breadfruit only.                                  
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 Asparagus   Asparagus                                                        
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 Oat         Avena                                                            
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 Beet        Beta                                                             
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 Brassica    Brassica et    Genera included are: Brassica, Armoracia,         
 complex     al.            Barbarea, Camelina, Crambe, Diplotaxis, Eruca,    
                            Isatis, Lepidium, Raphanobrassica, Raphanus,      
                            Rorippa, and Sinapis. This comprises oilseed and  
                            vegetable crops such as cabbage, rapeseed,        
                            mustard, cress, rocket, radish, and turnip. The   
                            species Lepidium meyenii (maca) is excluded.      
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 Pigeon Pea  Cajanus                                                          
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 Chickpea    Cicer                                                            
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 Citrus      Citrus         Genera Poncirus and Fortunella are included as    
                            root stock.                                       
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 Coconut     Cocos                                                            
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 Major       Colocasia,     Major aroids include taro, cocoyam, dasheen and   
 aroids      Xanthosoma     tannia.                                           
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 Carrot      Daucus                                                           
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 Yams        Dioscorea                                                        
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 Finger      Eleusine                                                         
 Millet                                                                       
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 Strawberry  Fragaria                                                         
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 Sunflower   Helianthus                                                       
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 Barley      Hordeum                                                          
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 Sweet       Ipomoea                                                          
 Potato                                                                       
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 Grass pea   Lathyrus                                                         
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 Lentil      Lens                                                             
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 Apple       Malus                                                            
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 Cassava     Manihot        Manihot esculenta only.                           
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 Banana /    Musa           Except Musa textilis.                             
 Plantain                                                                     
                                                                              
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 Rice        Oryza                                                            
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 Pearl       Pennisetum                                                       
 Millet                                                                       
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 Beans       Phaseolus      Except Phaseolus polyanthus.                      
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 Pea         Pisum                                                            
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 Rye         Secale                                                           
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 Potato      Solanum        Section tuberosa included, except Solanum         
                            phureja.                                          
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 Eggplant    Solanum        Section melongena included.                       
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 Sorghum     Sorghum                                                          
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 Triticale   Triticosecale                                                    
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 Wheat       Triticum et    Including Agropyron, Elymus, and Secale.          
             al.                                                              
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 Faba        Vicia                                                            
 Bean /                                                                       
 Vetch                                                                        
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 Cowpea et   Vigna                                                            
 al.                                                                          
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 Maize       Zea            Excluding Zea perennis, Zea diploperennis, and    
                            Zea luxurians.                                    
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Forages
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 Genera         Species                                                       
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 LEGUME                                                                       
 FORAGES                                                                      
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 Astragalus     chinensis, cicer, arenarius                                   
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 Canavalia      ensiformis                                                    
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 Coronilla      varia                                                         
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 Hedysarum      coronarium                                                    
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 Lathyrus       cicera, ciliolatus, hirsutus, ochrus, odoratus, sativus       
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 Lespedeza      cuneata, striata, stipulacea                                  
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 Lotus          corniculatus, subbiflorus, uliginosus                         
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 Lupinus        albus, angustifolius, luteus                                  
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 Medicago       arborea, falcata, sativa, scutellata, rigidula, truncatula    
------------------------------------------------------------------------------
 Melilotus      albus, officinalis                                            
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 Onobrychis     viciifolia                                                    
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 Ornithopus     sativus                                                       
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 Prosopis       affinis, alba, chilensis, nigra, pallida                      
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 Pueraria       phaseoloides                                                  
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 Trifolium      alexandrinum, alpestre, ambiguum, angustifolium, arvense,     
                agrocicerum, hybridum, incarnatum, pratense, repens,          
                resupinatum, rueppellianum, semipilosum, subterraneum,        
                vesiculosum                                                   
------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                                                              
 GRASS FORAGES                                                                
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 Andropogon     gayanus                                                       
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 Agropyron      cristatum, desertorum                                         
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 Agrostis       stolonifera, tenuis                                           
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 Alopecurus     pratensis                                                     
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 Arrhenatherum  elatius                                                       
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 Dactylis       glomerata                                                     
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 Festuca        arundinacea, gigantea, heterophylla, ovina, pratensis, rubra  
------------------------------------------------------------------------------
 Lolium         hybridum, multiflorum, perenne, rigidum, temulentum           
------------------------------------------------------------------------------
 Phalaris       aquatica, arundinacea                                         
------------------------------------------------------------------------------
 Phleum         pratense                                                      
------------------------------------------------------------------------------
 Poa            alpina, annua, pratensis                                      
------------------------------------------------------------------------------
 Tripsacum      laxum                                                         
------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                                                              
 OTHER FORAGES                                                                
                                                                              
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 Atriplex       halimus, nummularia                                           
------------------------------------------------------------------------------
 Salsola        vermiculata                                                   
------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                                                              
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ANNEX II
Arbitration and Conciliation
Part 1 – ARBITRATION
Article 1
The claimant party shall notify the Secretary that the parties to the dispute are referring it to arbitration pursuant to Article 22. The notification shall state the subject-matter of arbitration and include, in particular, the articles of this Treaty, the interpretation or application of which are at issue. If the parties to the dispute do not agree on the subject matter of the dispute before the President of the tribunal is designated, the arbitral tribunal shall determine the subject matter. The Secretary shall forward the information thus received to all Contracting Parties to this Treaty.
Article 2
1. In disputes between two parties to the dispute, the arbitral tribunal shall consist of three members. Each of the parties to the dispute shall appoint an arbitrator and the two arbitrators so appointed shall designate by common agreement the third arbitrator who shall be the President of the tribunal. The latter shall not be a national of one of the parties to the dispute, nor have his or her usual place of residence in the territory of one of these parties to the dispute, nor be employed by any of them, nor have dealt with the case in any other capacity.
2. In disputes between more than two Contracting Parties, parties to the dispute with the same interest shall appoint one arbitrator jointly by agreement.
3. Any vacancy shall be filled in the manner prescribed for the initial appointment.
Article 3
1. If the President of the arbitral tribunal has not been designated within two months of the appointment of the second arbitrator, the Director-General of FAO shall, at the request of a party to the dispute, designate the President within a further two-month period.
2. If one of the parties to the dispute does not appoint an arbitrator within two months of receipt of the request, the other party may inform the Director-General of FAO who shall make the designation within a further two-month period.
Article 4
The arbitral tribunal shall render its decisions in accordance with the provisions of this Treaty and international law.
Article 5
Unless the parties to the dispute otherwise agree, the arbitral tribunal shall determine its own rules of procedure.
Article 6
The arbitral tribunal may, at the request of one of the parties to the dispute, recommend essential interim measures of protection.
Article 7
The parties to the dispute shall facilitate the work of the arbitral tribunal and, in particular, using all means at their disposal, shall:
(a) Provide it with all relevant documents, information and facilities; and
(b) Enable it, when necessary, to call witnesses or experts and receive their evidence.
Article 8
The parties to the dispute and the arbitrators are under an obligation to protect the confidentiality of any information they receive in confidence during the proceedings of the arbitral tribunal.
Article 9
Unless the arbitral tribunal determines otherwise because of the particular circumstances of the case, the costs of the tribunal shall be borne by the parties to the dispute in equal shares. The tribunal shall keep a record of all its costs, and shall furnish a final statement thereof to the parties to the dispute.
Article 10
Any Contracting Party that has an interest of a legal nature in the subject-matter of the dispute which may be affected by the decision in the case, may intervene in the proceedings with the consent of the tribunal.
Article 11
The tribunal may hear and determine counterclaims arising directly out of the subject-matter of the dispute.
Article 12
Decisions both on procedure and substance of the arbitral tribunal shall be taken by a majority vote of its members.
Article 13
If one of the parties to the dispute does not appear before the arbitral tribunal or fails to defend its case, the other party may request the tribunal to continue the proceedings and to make its award. Absence of a party to the dispute or a failure of a party to the dispute to defend its case shall not constitute a bar to the proceedings. Before rendering its final decision, the arbitral tribunal must satisfy itself that the claim is well founded in fact and law.
Article 14
The tribunal shall render its final decision within five months of the date on which it is fully constituted unless it finds it necessary to extend the time-limit for a period which should not exceed five more months.
Article 15
The final decision of the arbitral tribunal shall be confined to the subject-matter of the dispute and shall state the reasons on which it is based. It shall contain the names of the members who have participated and the date of the final decision. Any member of the tribunal may attach a separate or dissenting opinion to the final decision.
Article 16
The award shall be binding on the parties to the dispute. It shall be without appeal unless the parties to the dispute have agreed in advance to an appellate procedure.
Article 17
Any controversy which may arise between the parties to the dispute as regards the interpretation or manner of implementation of the final decision may be submitted by either party to the dispute for decision to the arbitral tribunal which rendered it.
Part 2 – CONCILIATION
Article 1
A conciliation commission shall be created upon the request of one of the parties to the dispute. The commission shall, unless the parties to the dispute otherwise agree, be composed of five members, two appointed by each party concerned and a President chosen jointly by those members.
Article 2
In disputes between more than two Contracting Parties, parties to the dispute with the same interest shall appoint their members of the commission jointly by agreement. Where two or more parties to the dispute have separate interests or there is a disagreement as to whether they are of the same interest, they shall appoint their members separately.
Article 3
If any appointments by the parties to the dispute are not made within two months of the date of the request to create a conciliation commission, the Director-General of FAO shall, if asked to do so by the party to the dispute that made the request, make those appointments within a further two-month period.
Article 4
If a President of the conciliation commission has not been chosen within two months of the last of the members of the commission being appointed, the Director-General of FAO shall, if asked to do so by a party to the dispute, designate a President within a further two-month period.
Article 5
The conciliation commission shall take its decisions by majority vote of its members. It shall, unless the parties to the dispute otherwise agree, determine its own procedure. It shall render a proposal for resolution of the dispute, which the parties shall consider in good faith.
Article 6
A disagreement as to whether the conciliation commission has competence shall be decided by the commission.
M E D N A R O D N A P O G O D B A
O RASTLINSKIH GENSKIH VIRIH ZA PREHRANO IN KMETIJSTVO
PREAMBULA
Pogodbenice, ki
so prepričane, da imajo rastlinski genski viri za prehrano in kmetijstvo posebne lastnosti in značilnosti ter da je treba težave v zvezi z njimi reševati na poseben način;
so vznemirjene zaradi nenehne erozije teh virov;
se zavedajo, da so rastlinski genski viri za prehrano in kmetijstvo skupnega pomena za vse države, glede na to, da so vse zelo odvisne od rastlinskih genskih virov za prehrano in kmetijstvo, ki izvirajo od drugod;
priznavajo, da so ohranjanje, raziskovanje, zbiranje, ugotavljanje značilnosti, vrednotenje in dokumentiranje rastlinskih genskih virov za prehrano in kmetijstvo bistveni za uresničevanje ciljev Rimske deklaracije o varnosti preskrbe s hrano v svetu in delovnega načrta Svetovnega vrha o prehrani ter za trajnostni razvoj kmetijstva za sedanjo in prihodnje generacije in da je treba nujno povečati sposobnost držav v razvoju in držav z gospodarstvom v prehodu, da prevzamejo take naloge;
ugotavljajo, da je Svetovni akcijski načrt za ohranjanje in trajnostno rabo rastlinskih genskih virov za prehrano in kmetijstvo mednarodno sprejet okvir za take dejavnosti;
priznavajo tudi, da so rastlinski genski viri za prehrano in kmetijstvo nepogrešljiva surovina za gensko izboljševanje gojenih rastlin, kar se doseže s selekcijo, ki jo opravljajo kmetje, klasičnim žlahtnjenjem rastlin ali sodobnimi biotehnologijami, in so bistvenega pomena za prilagajanje nepredvidljivim spremembam v okolju ter za prihodnje potrebe človeštva;
potrjujejo, da so pretekli, sedanji in prihodnji prispevki kmetov iz vseh svetovnih regij, zlasti tistih v središčih izvora in raznovrstnosti, k ohranjanju, izboljševanju in razpoložljivosti teh virov temelj pravic kmetov;
potrjujejo tudi, da so v tej pogodbi priznane pravice do shranjevanja, uporabe, izmenjave ter prodaje semena in drugega razmnoževalnega materiala, ki ju shranjujejo na kmetiji, do sodelovanja pri sprejemanju odločitev v zvezi z uporabo rastlinskih genskih virov za prehrano in kmetijstvo in do sodelovanja pri pravični in enakopravni delitvi koristi, ki izhajajo iz te uporabe, bistvenega pomena za uresničevanje pravic kmetov kakor tudi uveljavljanje teh pravic na državni in mednarodni ravni;
priznavajo, da se morajo ta pogodba in drugi mednarodni sporazumi, vsebinsko povezani z njo, medsebojno dopolnjevati pri zagotavljanju trajnostnega kmetijstva in varnosti preskrbe s hrano;
potrjujejo, da se nobena določba v tej pogodbi ne razlaga na način, ki bi kakor koli spreminjal pravice in obveznosti pogodbenic iz drugih mednarodnih sporazumov;
razumejo, da namen te uvodne izjave ni ustvarjanje hierarhije med to pogodbo in drugimi mednarodnimi sporazumi;
se zavedajo, da so vprašanja v zvezi z upravljanjem rastlinskih genskih virov za prehrano in kmetijstvo stična točka med kmetijstvom, okoljem in trgovino, in so prepričane, da bi morala med temi področji obstajati sinergija;
se zavedajo odgovornosti do preteklih in prihodnjih generacij za ohranitev raznovrstnosti rastlinskih genskih virov za prehrano in kmetijstvo v svetu;
priznavajo, da lahko imajo države pri uresničevanju suverenih pravic nad rastlinskimi genskimi viri za prehrano in kmetijstvo medsebojne koristi od oblikovanja učinkovitega večstranskega sistema, ki bo omogočil dostop do dogovorjenega izbora teh virov ter pravično in enakopravno delitev koristi, ki izhajajo iz njihove uporabe, in
želijo skleniti mednarodni sporazum v okviru Organizacije Združenih narodov za prehrano in kmetijstvo, v nadaljnjem besedilu FAO, v skladu s XIV. členom Statuta FAO,
so se dogovorile o tem:
I. DEL – UVOD
1. člen – Cilji
1.1 Cilji te pogodbe so ohranjanje in trajnostna raba rastlinskih genskih virov za prehrano in kmetijstvo ter pravična in enakopravna delitev koristi, ki izhajajo iz njihove uporabe, v skladu s Konvencijo o biološki raznovrstnosti ter za trajnostno kmetijstvo in varnost preskrbe s hrano.
1.2 Ti cilji bodo uresničeni s tesno povezanostjo te pogodbe z Organizacijo Združenih narodov za prehrano in kmetijstvo ter Konvencijo o biološki raznovrstnosti.
2. člen – Uporaba izrazov
V tej pogodbi imajo izrazi pomen, kot je določen v tem členu. Ti izrazi se ne uporabljajo za trgovino z izdelki:
»ohranjanje in situ« pomeni ohranjanje ekosistemov in naravnih habitatov ter vzdrževanje in obnavljanje populacij vrst, sposobnih za preživetje, v njihovem naravnem okolju, za gojene ali kultivirane rastlinske vrste pa v okolju, v katerem so razvile svoje posebne lastnosti;
»ohranjanje ex situ« pomeni ohranjanje rastlinskih genskih virov za prehrano in kmetijstvo zunaj njihovega naravnega habitata;
»rastlinski genski viri za prehrano in kmetijstvo« pomenijo kakršen koli genski material rastlinskega izvora, ki ima dejansko ali potencialno vrednost za prehrano in kmetijstvo;
»genski material« pomeni kakršen koli material rastlinskega izvora, vključno z razmnoževalnim materialom in materialom za vegetativno razmnoževanje, ki vsebuje funkcionalne enote dednosti;
»sorta« pomeni rastline, razvrščene v enotno botanično taksonomsko skupino najnižje znane stopnje, ki jo opredeljuje ponovljivost izraženih razlikovalnih in drugih genskih lastnosti;
»zbirka ex situ« pomeni zbirko rastlinskih genskih virov za prehrano in kmetijstvo, ki je shranjena zunaj njihovega naravnega habitata;
»središče izvora« pomeni geografsko območje, na katerem je kultivirana ali prostoživeča rastlinska vrsta najprej razvila svoje posebne lastnosti;
»središče raznovrstnosti gojenih rastlin« pomeni geografsko območje, ki ima visoko stopnjo genske raznovrstnosti za vrste rastlin, gojenih in situ.
3. člen – Področje uporabe
Ta pogodba se nanaša na rastlinske genske vire za prehrano in kmetijstvo.
II. DEL – SPLOŠNE DOLOČBE
4. člen – Splošne obveznosti
Vsaka pogodbenica zagotavlja skladnost svojih zakonov, predpisov in postopkov s svojimi obveznostmi, predvidenimi v tej pogodbi.
5. člen – Ohranjanje, raziskovanje, zbiranje, ugotavljanje značilnosti, vrednotenje in dokumentiranje rastlinskih genskih virov za prehrano in kmetijstvo
5.1 Vsaka pogodbenica v skladu z notranjo zakonodajo ter v sodelovanju z drugimi pogodbenicami, kadar je to primerno, spodbuja celostni pristop k raziskovanju, ohranjanju in trajnostni rabi rastlinskih genskih virov za prehrano in kmetijstvo, ter če je to primerno:
(a) raziskuje in popisuje rastlinske genske vire za prehrano in kmetijstvo ob upoštevanju stanja in stopnje raznolikosti obstoječih populacij, vključno s potencialno uporabnimi, ter če je to mogoče, presodi, kakšne nevarnosti jim grozijo;
(b) spodbuja zbiranje rastlinskih genskih virov za prehrano in kmetijstvo ter ustreznih podatkov o tistih rastlinskih genskih virih, ki so ogroženi ali potencialno uporabni;
(c) spodbuja ali podpira, če je primerno, prizadevanja kmetov in lokalnih skupnosti za upravljanje in ohranjanje njihovih rastlinskih genskih virov za prehrano in kmetijstvo na kmetijah;
(d) spodbuja ohranjanje in situ prostoživečih rastlin, sorodnih gojenim rastlinam, in prostoživečih rastlin za proizvodnjo hrane, tudi na zavarovanih območjih, tako da med drugim podpira prizadevanja avtohtonih in lokalnih skupnosti;
(e) sodeluje pri spodbujanju razvoja učinkovitega in trajnostnega sistema ohranjanja ex situ in pri tem ustrezno upošteva potrebo po ustreznem dokumentiranju, ugotavljanju značilnosti, obnavljanju in vrednotenju ter spodbuja razvoj in prenos tehnologij, da bi se izboljšala trajnostna raba rastlinskih genskih virov za prehrano in kmetijstvo;
(f) spremlja ohranjanje sposobnosti za življenje, stopnjo raznolikosti in gensko celovitost zbirk rastlinskih genskih virov.
5.2 Če je primerno, pogodbenice sprejmejo ukrepe za zmanjšanje, ali če je to mogoče, odstranitev nevarnosti, ki grozijo rastlinskim genskim virom za prehrano in kmetijstvo.
6. člen – Trajnostna raba rastlinskih genskih virov
6.1 Pogodbenice oblikujejo in izvajajo ustrezno politiko in pravne ukrepe za spodbujanje trajnostne rabe rastlinskih genskih virov.
6.2 Trajnostna raba rastlinskih genskih virov za prehrano in kmetijstvo lahko vključuje ukrepe, kot so:
(a) uveljavljanje pravične kmetijske politike, ki spodbuja, če je to primerno, razvoj in vzdrževanje različnih sistemov kmetovanja, ki krepijo trajnostno rabo biotske raznovrstnosti v kmetijstvu in drugih naravnih virov;
(b) spodbujanje raziskovanja, ki krepi in ohranja biotsko raznovrstnost z doseganjem čim večje znotrajvrstne in medvrstne raznolikosti v korist kmetov, zlasti tistih, ki ustvarjajo in uporabljajo lastne sorte ter upoštevajo ekološka načela pri ohranjanju rodovitnosti tal in zatiranju bolezni, plevela in škodljivcev;
(c) spodbujanje, če je to primerno, prizadevanj za žlahtnjenje rastlin, ki s sodelovanjem kmetov, zlasti v državah v razvoju, krepijo sposobnost za razvoj sort, ki so posebej prilagojene družbenim, gospodarskim in ekološkim razmeram tudi na obrobnih območjih;
(d) širjenje genske osnove gojenih rastlin in povečevanje raznovrstnosti genskega materiala, ki je na voljo kmetom;
(e) spodbujanje, če je to primerno, širše uporabe lokalnih in lokalnim razmeram prilagojenih gojenih rastlin, sort in vrst, ki se premalo uporabljajo;
(f) spodbujanje, če je to primerno, širše uporabe raznovrstnih sort in vrst pri upravljanju, ohranjanju in trajnostni rabi na kmetiji gojenih rastlin ter ustvarjanje močnih vezi med žlahtnjenjem rastlin in razvojem kmetijstva, da bi tako zmanjšali ranljivost gojenih rastlin in gensko erozijo ter spodbudili povečanje svetovne živilske proizvodnje, združljive s trajnostnim razvojem, in
(g) proučitev, in če je to ustrezno, prilagoditev strategij žlahtnjenja in predpisov v zvezi s sprostitvijo sort in distribucijo semena.
7. člen – Obveznosti držav in mednarodno
sodelovanje
7.1 Če je to primerno, vsaka pogodbenica v svojo politiko in programe za razvoj kmetijstva in podeželja vključi dejavnosti iz 5. in 6. člena ter neposredno ali s pomočjo FAO in drugih ustreznih mednarodnih organizacij sodeluje z drugimi pogodbenicami.
7.2 Namen mednarodnega sodelovanja je predvsem:
(a) pridobivanje in krepitev sposobnosti držav v razvoju in držav z gospodarstvom v prehodu za ohranjanje in trajnostno rabo rastlinskih genskih virov za prehrano in kmetijstvo;
(b) krepitev mednarodnih dejavnosti za spodbujanje ohranjanja, vrednotenja, dokumentiranja, genskega izboljševanja, žlahtnjenja rastlin in razmnoževanja semena ter souporaba, izmenjava in omogočanje dostopa do rastlinskih genskih virov za prehrano in kmetijstvo ter ustreznih podatkov in tehnologij v skladu s IV. delom;
(c) ohranjanje in krepitev institucionalne ureditve, kot je predvidena v V. delu, in
(d) izvajanje finančne strategije iz 18. člena.
8. člen – Strokovna pomoč
Pogodbenice se strinjajo, da bodo za lažje izvajanje te pogodbe spodbujale zagotavljanje strokovne pomoči pogodbenicam, zlasti državam v razvoju ali državam z gospodarstvom v prehodu, dvostransko ali s pomočjo ustreznih mednarodnih organizacij.
III. DEL – PRAVICE KMETOV
9. člen – Pravice kmetov
9.1 Pogodbenice priznavajo, da so lokalne in avtohtone skupnosti ter kmetje iz vseh svetovnih regij, zlasti tisti iz središč izvora in raznovrstnosti gojenih rastlin, pomembno prispevali k ohranjanju in razvoju rastlinskih genskih virov, ki so osnova za živilsko in kmetijsko proizvodnjo po vsem svetu, ter bodo prispevali tudi v prihodnje.
9.2 Pogodbenice se strinjajo, da so za uresničevanje pravic kmetov v zvezi rastlinskimi genskimi viri za prehrano in kmetijstvo odgovorne vlade držav. V skladu s svojimi potrebami in prednostnimi nalogami ter ob upoštevanju svoje notranje zakonodaje mora vsaka pogodbenica, če je to primerno, sprejeti ukrepe za varstvo in spodbujanje pravic kmetov, ki vključujejo:
(a) varovanje tradicionalnega znanja, pomembnega za rastlinske genske vire za prehrano in kmetijstvo;
(b) pravico do enakopravne udeležbe pri delitvi koristi, ki izhajajo iz uporabe rastlinskih genskih virov za prehrano in kmetijstvo, in
(c) pravico do sodelovanja pri odločanju na ravni držav o zadevah, povezanih z ohranjanjem in trajnostno rabo rastlinskih genskih virov za prehrano in kmetijstvo.
9.3 Nobena določba tega člena se ne razlaga na način, ki bi omejeval pravice kmetov do shranjevanja, uporabe, izmenjave in prodaje na kmetiji shranjenega semena ali razmnoževalnega materiala, skladno z notranjo zakonodajo in če je to primerno.
IV. DEL – VEČSTRANSKI SISTEM DOSTOPA IN DELITVE KORISTI
10. člen – Večstranski sistem dostopa in delitve
koristi
10.1 Pogodbenice v odnosih z drugimi državami priznavajo suverene pravice držav nad lastnimi rastlinskimi genskimi viri za prehrano in kmetijstvo, vključno s pristojnostjo njihovih vlad za določanje dostopa do teh virov v skladu z notranjo zakonodajo.
10.2 Pri uresničevanju svojih suverenih pravic se pogodbenice strinjajo z vzpostavitvijo smotrnega, učinkovitega in preglednega večstranskega sistema za zagotavljanje lažjega dostopa do rastlinskih genskih virov za prehrano in kmetijstvo ter pravično in enakopravno delitev koristi, ki izhajajo iz uporabe teh virov, na podlagi dopolnjevanja in medsebojne krepitve.
11. člen – Obseg večstranskega sistema
11.1 V podporo ciljem ohranjanja in trajnostne rabe rastlinskih genskih virov za prehrano in kmetijstvo ter pravične in enakopravne delitve koristi, ki izhajajo iz njihove uporabe, kot je navedeno v 1. členu, večstranski sistem vključuje rastlinske genske vire za prehrano in kmetijstvo iz priloge I ter določene v skladu z merili varnosti preskrbe s hrano in soodvisnosti.
11.2 Večstranski sistem, kakor je določen v prvem odstavku 11. člena, vključuje vse rastlinske genske vire za prehrano in kmetijstvo iz priloge I, ki jih upravljajo in nadzorujejo pogodbenice in so splošno znani. Da bi bil obseg večstranskega sistema čim večji, pogodbenice pozovejo vse druge imetnike rastlinskih genskih virov za prehrano in kmetijstvo iz priloge I, naj jih vključijo v večstranski sistem.
11.3 Pogodbenice se tudi strinjajo, da bodo sprejele ustrezne ukrepe za spodbujanje fizičnih in pravnih oseb pod svojo jurisdikcijo, ki imajo rastlinske genske vire za prehrano in kmetijstvo iz priloge I, da vključijo te rastlinske genske vire za prehrano in kmetijstvo v večstranski sistem.
11.4 V dveh letih od začetka veljavnosti pogodbe upravni organ oceni napredek pri vključevanju rastlinskih genskih virov za prehrano in kmetijstvo iz tretjega odstavka 11. člena v večstranski sistem. Po tej oceni se upravni organ odloči, ali naj še naprej zagotavlja lažji dostop tistim fizičnim in pravnim osebam iz tretjega odstavka 11. člena, ki niso vključile navedenih rastlinskih genskih virov za prehrano in kmetijstvo v večstranski sistem, ali sprejme druge ukrepe, za katere meni, da so primerni.
11.5 V večstranski sistem so vključeni tudi rastlinski genski viri za prehrano in kmetijstvo iz priloge I, ki so shranjeni v zbirkah ex situ mednarodnih kmetijskih raziskovalnih središč Posvetovalne skupine za mednarodne raziskave v kmetijstvu (CGIAR), kakor je določeno v točki a prvega odstavka 15. člena, in v drugih mednarodnih ustanovah v skladu s petim odstavkom 15. člena.
12. člen – Lažji dostop do rastlinskih genskih virov
za prehrano in kmetijstvo v okviru večstranskega sistema
12.1 Pogodbenice se strinjajo, da je zagotavljanje lažjega dostopa do rastlinskih genskih virov za prehrano in kmetijstvo v okviru večstranskega sistema, kot je opredeljeno v 11. členu, v skladu z določbami te pogodbe.
12.2 Pogodbenice se strinjajo, da bodo sprejele potrebne pravne ali druge ustrezne ukrepe, da z večstranskim sistemom zagotovijo tak dostop drugim pogodbenicam. V ta namen se tak dostop zagotovi tudi fizičnim in pravnim osebam pod jurisdikcijo katere koli pogodbenice v skladu z določbami četrtega odstavka 11. člena.
12.3 Tak dostop se zagotovi v skladu s temi pogoji:
(a) dostop se zagotovi izključno za ohranjanje in uporabo za raziskave, žlahtnjenje ter usposabljanje za prehrano in kmetijstvo, če ni namenjen kemični, farmacevtski in/ali drugi industrijski uporabi, ki ni povezana z živili ali krmo. Če gre za večnamenske gojene rastline (za prehrano in druge namene), sta njihova vključitev v večstranski sistem in zagotavljanje lažjega dostopa do njih odvisna od tega, kako pomembne so za varnost preskrbe s hrano;
(b) dostop se odobri čim prej in je brezplačen, pri čemer spremljanje posameznih dostopov ni potrebno, če pa se zaračuna, plačilo ne sme biti višje od minimalnih nastalih stroškov;
(c) rastlinski genski viri za prehrano in kmetijstvo morajo biti opremljeni z vsemi razpoložljivimi osnovnimi podatki in v skladu z veljavno zakonodajo z vsemi drugimi razpoložljivimi opisnimi podatki, ki niso zaupni;
(d) prejemniki ne morejo uveljavljati nikakršnih pravic intelektualne lastnine ali drugih pravic, ki bi omejevale lažji dostop do rastlinskih genskih virov za prehrano in kmetijstvo ali sestavnih delov njihovega genskega materiala v obliki, prejeti v okviru večstranskega sistema;
(e) dostop do rastlinskih genskih virov za prehrano in kmetijstvo, ki so še v postopku razvoja, vključno z materialom, ki ga razvijajo kmetje, se v obdobju razvoja odobri po presoji tistega, ki jih razvija;
(f) dostop do rastlinskih genskih virov za prehrano in kmetijstvo, zaščitenih s pravicami, povezanimi z intelektualno in drugo lastnino, mora biti skladen z ustreznimi mednarodnimi sporazumi in ustrezno notranjo zakonodajo;
(g) prejemniki rastlinskih genskih virov za prehrano in kmetijstvo, ki so imeli do teh virov dostop v okviru večstranskega sistema in so jih shranili, tudi v prihodnje omogočajo njihovo uporabo v večstranskem sistemu v skladu s pogoji te pogodbe in
(h) brez vpliva na druge določbe tega člena se pogodbenice strinjajo, da se dostop do rastlinskih genskih virov za prehrano in kmetijstvo v razmerah in situ zagotovi v skladu z notranjo zakonodajo ali standardi, ki jih določi upravni organ, če notranja zakonodaja ne obstaja.
12.4 V ta namen se lažji dostop v skladu z drugim in tretjim odstavkom 12. člena zagotovi na podlagi tipskega sporazuma o prenosu materiala, ki ga sprejme upravni organ in vsebuje določbe točk a, d in g tretjega odstavka 12. člena kakor tudi določbe o delitvi koristi iz podtočke ii točke d drugega odstavka 13. člena in druge ustrezne določbe te pogodbe ter določbo, v skladu s katero prejemnik rastlinskih genskih virov za prehrano in kmetijstvo zahteva, da pogoji sporazuma o prenosu materiala veljajo za prenos rastlinskih genskih virov za prehrano in kmetijstvo drugi osebi ali subjektu kakor tudi za vse nadaljnje prenose teh rastlinskih genskih virov za prehrano in kmetijstvo.
12.5 Pogodbenice zagotovijo, da je v okviru njihovih pravnih sistemov in v skladu z veljavnimi pravnimi določbami v primeru sporov v zvezi s to pogodbo, ki izhajajo iz sporazumov o prenosu materiala, mogoča pritožba ob priznavanju, da imajo obveznosti v skladu s sporazumi o prenosu materiala izključno pogodbenice teh sporazumov.
12.6 Pogodbenice se strinjajo, da v izrednih razmerah, ki so posledica elementarnih nesreč, zagotovijo lažji dostop do ustreznih rastlinskih genskih virov za prehrano in kmetijstvo in s tem v sodelovanju s koordinatorji za pomoč ob nesrečah prispevajo k ponovni vzpostavitvi kmetijskih sistemov.
13. člen – Koristi večstranskega sistema
13.1 Pogodbenice priznavajo, da že sam lažji dostop do rastlinskih genskih virov za prehrano in kmetijstvo, ki so vključeni v večstranski sistem, pomeni pomembno korist večstranskega sistema, in se strinjajo, da se koristi, ki izhajajo iz njega, uporabijo pravično in enakopravno v skladu z določbami tega člena.
13.2 Pogodbenice se strinjajo, da se koristi, ki izhajajo iz uporabe rastlinskih genskih virov za prehrano in kmetijstvo v okviru večstranskega sistema, tudi v pridobitne namene, uporabijo pravično in enakopravno v skladu z izmenjavo podatkov, dostopom do tehnologije in njenim prenosom, vzpostavljanjem zmogljivosti ter uporabo koristi, ki izhajajo iz pridobitnih dejavnosti na podlagi usmeritev upravnega organa in ob upoštevanju prednostnih področij delovanja v veljavnem svetovnem delovnem načrtu.
(a) Izmenjava podatkov
Pogodbenice se strinjajo, da v okviru večstranskega sistema zagotovijo dostop do podatkov, ki med drugim vključujejo kataloge in popise, podatke o tehnologijah, izsledke tehničnih, znanstvenih in družbenoekonomskih raziskav, vključno z ugotavljanjem značilnosti, vrednotenjem in uporabo rastlinskih genskih virov za prehrano in kmetijstvo. Taki podatki se zagotovijo, kadar niso zaupni, v skladu z veljavnim pravom in zmogljivostmi posameznih držav. Taki podatki se zagotovijo vsem pogodbenicam te pogodbe z informacijskim sistemom iz 17. člena.
(b) Dostop do tehnologije in njen prenos
(i) Pogodbenice se zavežejo, da bodo zagotavljale in/ali olajšale dostop do tehnologij za ohranjanje, ugotavljanje značilnosti, vrednotenje in uporabo rastlinskih genskih virov za prehrano in kmetijstvo, vključenih v večstranski sistem. Ob spoznanju, da se nekatere tehnologije lahko prenašajo samo s pomočjo genskega materiala, pogodbenice v skladu z določbami 12. člena zagotovijo in/ali olajšajo dostop do tehnologij in genskega materiala, vključenih v večstranski sistem, ter do izboljšanih sort in genskega materiala, razvitega z uporabo rastlinskih genskih virov za prehrano in kmetijstvo iz večstranskega sistema. Dostop do teh tehnologij, izboljšanih sort in genskega materiala se zagotovi in/ali olajša ob upoštevanju veljavnih lastninskih pravic in zakonodaje o takem dostopu ter v skladu z zmogljivostmi posameznih držav.
(ii) Dostop do tehnologije in njen prenos državam, zlasti državam v razvoju in državam z gospodarstvom v prehodu, se zagotovita s pomočjo vrste ukrepov, kot so: ustanavljanje in ohranjanje tematskih skupin o uporabi rastlinskih genskih virov za prehrano in kmetijstvo, oblikovanih glede na vrsto gojenih rastlin, ter sodelovanje v teh skupinah, vse vrste partnerstev za raziskave in razvoj, skupna podjetja v pridobitne namene v zvezi s prejetim materialom, razvoj človeških virov in učinkovit dostop do raziskovalnih zmogljivosti.
(iii) Za države v razvoju, ki so pogodbenice, zlasti za najmanj razvite države, in države z gospodarstvom v prehodu se dostop do tehnologije iz podtočk i in ii in njen prenos, vključno s tehnologijo, zaščiteno s pravicami intelektualne lastnine, zagotovita in/ali olajšata pod pravičnimi in najugodnejšimi pogoji, zlasti pri tehnologijah za ohranjanje in tehnologijah, ki koristijo kmetom v državah v razvoju, še posebej v najmanj razvitih državah, in državah z gospodarstvom v prehodu, in tudi pod ugodnejšimi in prednostnimi pogoji, kadar se o tem doseže dogovor, med drugim s pomočjo partnerstev za raziskave in razvoj v okviru večstranskega sistema. Dostop in prenos se zagotovita pod pogoji, ki priznavajo ustrezno in učinkovito varstvo pravic intelektualne lastnine in so skladni z njim.
(c) Razvoj zmogljivosti
Ob upoštevanju potreb držav v razvoju in držav z gospodarstvom v prehodu, razvidnih iz prednostne obravnave razvoja zmogljivosti na področju genskih virov za prehrano in kmetijstvo v njihovih načrtih in programih za rastlinske genske vire za prehrano in kmetijstvo, ki so vključeni v večstranski sistem, če obstajajo, se pogodbenice strinjajo, da bodo prednostno obravnavale (i) uvajanje in/ali krepitev programov za znanstveno in tehnično izobraževanje in usposabljanje na področju ohranjanja in trajnostne rabe rastlinskih genskih virov za prehrano in kmetijstvo, (ii) razvoj in krepitev zmogljivosti za ohranjanje in trajnostno rabo rastlinskih genskih virov za prehrano in kmetijstvo, zlasti v državah v razvoju in državah z gospodarstvom v prehodu, in (iii) znanstvene raziskave po možnosti v državah v razvoju in državah z gospodarstvom v prehodu, in če je to mogoče, v sodelovanju z ustanovami teh držav, ter razvoj zmogljivosti za raziskave na področjih, na katerih so potrebne.
(d) Uporaba finančnih in drugih koristi, ki izhajajo iz pridobitne dejavnosti
(i) Pogodbenice se strinjajo, da bodo v okviru večstranskega sistema sprejele ukrepe za zagotovitev uporabe koristi iz pridobitne dejavnosti z vključevanjem zasebnega in javnega sektorja v dejavnosti iz tega člena s partnerstvi in sodelovanjem na področju raziskav in tehnološkega razvoja, vključno z zasebnim sektorjem v državah v razvoju in državah z gospodarstvom v prehodu.
(ii) Pogodbenice se strinjajo, da se v tipski sporazum o prenosu materiala iz četrtega odstavka 12. člena vključi zahteva, da prejemnik, ki trži izdelek, ki je rastlinski genski vir za prehrano in kmetijstvo in vsebuje material, do katerega je imel prejemnik dostop v večstranskem sistemu, plača na način iz točke f tretjega odstavka 19. člena ustrezen delež koristi, ki izhajajo iz trgovanja s tem izdelkom, razen kadar je tak izdelek neomejeno na voljo drugim osebam za nadaljnje raziskovanje in žlahtnjenje; v tem primeru je treba spodbuditi prejemnika, ki trguje s takim izdelkom, da izvede omenjeno plačilo.
Upravni organ na svoji prvi seji določi znesek, obliko in način plačila v skladu s prakso pri trgovanju. Upravni organ se lahko odloči, da bo določil različne zneske plačil za različne kategorije prejemnikov, ki trgujejo s takimi izdelki; lahko se tudi odloči, ali je treba male kmete v državah v razvoju in državah z gospodarstvom v prehodu oprostiti takih plačil. Upravni organ lahko občasno pregleda zneske plačil, da bi dosegel pravično in enakopravno delitev koristi; v petih letih od začetka veljavnosti te pogodbe lahko tudi oceni, ali se zahteva glede obveznega plačila iz sporazuma o prenosu materiala uporablja tudi, če so taki izdelki, s katerimi se trguje neomejeno, na voljo drugim osebam za raziskovanje in žlahtnjenje.
13.3 Pogodbenice se strinjajo, da morajo imeti posredne in neposredne koristi, ki izhajajo iz uporabe rastlinskih genskih virov za prehrano in kmetijstvo, vključenih v večstranski sistem, kmetje v vseh državah, ki se ukvarjajo z ohranjanjem in trajnostno rabo rastlinskih genskih virov za prehrano in kmetijstvo, zlasti v državah v razvoju in državah z gospodarstvom v prehodu.
13.4 Upravni organ na svoji prvi seji prouči ustrezno politiko in merila za posebno pomoč v okviru dogovorjene finančne strategije iz 18. člena za ohranjanje rastlinskih genskih virov za prehrano in kmetijstvo v državah v razvoju in državah z gospodarstvom v prehodu, ki pomembno prispevajo k raznovrstnosti rastlinskih genskih virov za prehrano in kmetijstvo v večstranskem sistemu in/ali imajo posebne potrebe.
13.5 Pogodbenice priznavajo, da bo sposobnost uresničevanja svetovnega akcijskega načrta, zlasti v državah v razvoju in državah z gospodarstvom v prehodu, močno odvisna od učinkovitega izvajanja tega člena in finančne strategije iz 18. člena.
13.6 Pogodbenice proučijo načine v zvezi s strategijo prostovoljnih prispevkov za delitev koristi, v skladu s katero živilska industrija, ki ima koristi od rastlinskih genskih virov za prehrano in kmetijstvo, prispeva v večstranski sistem.
V. DEL – TEMELJNE PRVINE
14. člen – Svetovni akcijski načrt
Ob spoznanju, da je veljavni Svetovni akcijski načrt za ohranjanje in trajnostno rabo rastlinskih genskih virov za prehrano in kmetijstvo pomemben za to pogodbo, morajo pogodbenice z notranjimi ukrepi v državah, in če je to primerno, z mednarodnim sodelovanjem spodbujati njegovo učinkovito izvajanje, da bi ob upoštevanju določb 13. člena med drugim zagotovile skladen okvir za vzpostavljanje zmogljivosti, prenos tehnologije in izmenjavo podatkov.
15. člen – Zbirke rastlinskih genskih virov za prehrano in kmetijstvo ex situ, ki jih hranijo mednarodna kmetijska raziskovalna središča Posvetovalne skupine za mednarodne raziskave v kmetijstvu in druge mednarodne ustanove
15.1 Pogodbenice priznavajo, da so zbirke rastlinskih genskih virov za prehrano in kmetijstvo ex situ, ki jih hranijo mednarodna kmetijska raziskovalna središča Posvetovalne skupine za mednarodne raziskave v kmetijstvu, pomembne za to pogodbo. Pogodbenice pozivajo mednarodna kmetijska raziskovalna središča k podpisu sporazumov z upravnim organom v zvezi s takimi zbirkami ex situ v skladu s temi pogoji:
(a) Rastlinski genski viri za prehrano in kmetijstvo iz priloge I k tej pogodbi, ki jih hranijo mednarodna kmetijska raziskovalna središča, so na voljo v skladu z določbami iz IV. dela te pogodbe.
(b) Rastlinski genski viri za prehrano in kmetijstvo, razen tistih iz priloge I k tej pogodbi, ki so bili zbrani pred začetkom njene veljavnosti in jih hranijo mednarodna kmetijska raziskovalna središča, so na voljo skladno z določbami veljavnega sporazuma o prenosu materiala in sporazumi med mednarodnimi kmetijskimi raziskovalnimi središči in FAO. Upravni organ ob posvetovanju z mednarodnimi kmetijskimi raziskovalnimi središči spremeni navedeni sporazum o prenosu materiala najpozneje na svoji drugi redni seji v skladu z ustreznimi določbami te pogodbe, zlasti določbami 12. in 13. člena, in pod temi pogoji:
(i) mednarodna kmetijska raziskovalna središča redno in v skladu s časovnim razporedom, ki ga določi upravni organ, obveščajo upravni organ o sklenjenih sporazumih o prenosu materiala;
(ii) pogodbenicam, na ozemlju katerih so bili zbrani rastlinski genski viri za prehrano in kmetijstvo v razmerah in situ, se na njihovo prošnjo zagotovijo vzorci teh rastlinskih genskih virov za prehrano in kmetijstvo brez sporazuma o prenosu materiala;
(iii) koristi, pridobljene na podlagi navedenega sporazuma o prenosu materiala, ki izhajajo iz mehanizma iz točke f tretjega odstavka 19. člena, se uporabijo zlasti za ohranjanje in trajnostno rabo zadevnih rastlinskih genskih virov za prehrano in kmetijstvo, predvsem v notranjih in regionalnih programih v državah v razvoju in državah z gospodarstvom v prehodu, zlasti v središčih raznovrstnosti in v najmanj razvitih državah, in
(iv) mednarodna kmetijska raziskovalna središča v skladu s svojo zmogljivostjo sprejmejo ustrezne ukrepe za zagotavljanje učinkovitega izpolnjevanja pogojev sporazumov o prenosu materiala in čim prej obvestijo upravni organ o primerih neizpolnjevanja teh pogojev.
(c) Mednarodna kmetijska raziskovalna središča priznavajo, da je upravni organ pristojen za oblikovanje splošnih usmeritev v zvezi z zbirkami ex situ, ki jih hranijo in za katere veljajo določbe te pogodbe.
(d) Znanstveni in tehnični objekti, v katerih so shranjene take zbirke ex situ, ostanejo v pristojnosti mednarodnih kmetijskih raziskovalnih središč, ki se zavežejo, da bodo skrbela za te zbirke ex situ in jih upravljala v skladu z mednarodno sprejetimi standardi, predvsem standardi za genske banke, ki jih je potrdila Komisija FAO za genske vire za prehrano in kmetijstvo.
(e) Sekretar si na prošnjo mednarodnih kmetijskih raziskovalnih središč prizadeva zagotoviti ustrezno strokovno podporo.
(f) Sekretar ima kadar koli pravico dostopa do objektov kakor tudi pravico do pregleda vseh dejavnosti, ki v njih potekajo in so neposredno povezane z ohranjanjem in izmenjavo materiala iz tega člena.
(g) Če je pravilno vzdrževanje teh zbirk ex situ, ki jih hranijo mednarodna kmetijska raziskovalna središča, ovirano ali ogroženo zaradi kakršnega koli dogodka, vključno z višjo silo, sekretar z odobritvijo države gostiteljice čim bolj pomaga pri njihovi evakuaciji ali prenosu.
15.2 Pogodbenice se strinjajo, da bodo mednarodnim kmetijskim raziskovalnim središčem Posvetovalne skupine za mednarodne raziskave v kmetijstvu, ki so podpisala sporazume z upravnim organom, skladno s to pogodbo v okviru večstranskega sistema zagotovile možnost dostopa do rastlinskih genskih virov za prehrano in kmetijstvo iz priloge I. Ta središča se vključijo na seznam, ki ga hrani sekretar in je na voljo pogodbenicam, ki zanj zaprosijo.
15.3 Material, ki ni naveden v prilogi I in ga mednarodna kmetijska raziskovalna središča prejmejo in shranijo po začetku veljavnosti te pogodbe, je dostopen pod pogoji, ki so v skladu s tistimi, o katerih so se dogovorila mednarodna kmetijska raziskovalna središča, ki prejmejo ta material, in države izvora takih virov ali države, ki so pridobile te vire v skladu s Konvencijo o biološki raznovrstnosti ali drugo veljavno zakonodajo.
15.4 Pogodbenice naj tistim mednarodnim kmetijskim raziskovalnim središčem, ki so podpisala sporazume z upravnim organom, v skladu z medsebojno dogovorjenimi pogoji zagotovijo dostop do rastlinskih genskih virov za prehrano in kmetijstvo, ki niso navedeni v prilogi I in so pomembni za programe in dejavnosti mednarodnih kmetijskih raziskovalnih središč.
15.5 Upravni organ si bo za namene iz tega člena prizadeval skleniti sporazume z drugimi ustreznimi mednarodnimi ustanovami.
16. člen – Mednarodna omrežja rastlinskih genskih virov
16.1 Sodelovanje v mednarodnih omrežjih rastlinskih genskih virov za prehrano in kmetijstvo se bo spodbujalo ali razvijalo na podlagi veljavnih dogovorov in v skladu s pogoji te pogodbe, da bi zajeli čim več rastlinskih genskih virov za prehrano in kmetijstvo.
16.2 Pogodbenice bodo k sodelovanju v mednarodnih omrežjih, če je to primerno, spodbujale vse primerne ustanove, vključno z vladnimi, zasebnimi, nevladnimi in raziskovalnimi ustanovami, ustanovami, ki se ukvarjajo z žlahtnjenjem, in drugimi ustanovami.
17. člen – Svetovni informacijski sistem za rastlinske genske vire za prehrano in kmetijstvo
17.1 Pogodbenice sodelujejo pri razvoju in krepitvi globalnega informacijskega sistema, ki bo omogočal izmenjavo podatkov o znanstvenih, tehničnih in okoljskih zadevah v zvezi z rastlinskimi genskimi viri za prehrano in kmetijstvo, ki temeljijo na obstoječih informacijskih sistemih, v pričakovanju, da bo taka izmenjava podatkov prispevala k uporabi koristi, glede na to, da bodo podatki o rastlinskih genskih virih za prehrano in kmetijstvo na razpolago vsem pogodbenicam. Pri razvijanju svetovnega informacijskega sistema se za sodelovanje zaprosi posredovalnica informacij Konvencije o biološki raznovrstnosti.
17.2 Na podlagi uradnega obvestila pogodbenic je treba zagotoviti hitro opozarjanje na nevarnosti, ki grozijo učinkovitemu vzdrževanju rastlinskih genskih virov za prehrano in kmetijstvo, da bi tako zaščitili material.
17.3 Pogodbenice sodelujejo s Komisijo za genske vire za prehrano in kmetijstvo pri FAO pri rednih ocenah stanja svetovnih rastlinskih genskih virov za prehrano in kmetijstvo, da bi omogočile posodabljanje veljavnega svetovnega akcijskega načrta iz 14. člena.
VI. DEL – FINANČNE DOLOČBE
18. člen – Finančna sredstva
18.1 Pogodbenice se zavežejo, da bodo v skladu z določbami tega člena uresničevale finančno strategijo za izvajanje te pogodbe.
18.2 Cilji finančne strategije so povečati dostopnost, preglednost, učinkovitost in uspešnost zagotavljanja finančnih sredstev za izvajanje dejavnosti na podlagi te pogodbe.
18.3 Za namen zbiranja sredstev za prednostne dejavnosti, načrte in programe, zlasti v državah v razvoju in državah z gospodarstvom v prehodu, ter ob upoštevanju svetovnega akcijskega načrta upravni organ v rednih časovnih presledkih opredeli cilj v zvezi s temi sredstvi.
18.4 V skladu s to finančno strategijo:
(a) V okviru vodstvenih organov ustreznih mednarodnih mehanizmov, skladov in organov pogodbenice sprejmejo vse potrebne in ustrezne ukrepe, da bosta prednostna obravnava in pozornost namenjeni dejanski dodelitvi predvidljivih in dogovorjenih virov za uresničevanje načrtov in programov na podlagi te pogodbe.
(b) Obseg, v katerem bodo pogodbenice v razvoju in pogodbenice z gospodarstvom v prehodu uspešno uresničevale svoje obveznosti na podlagi te pogodbe, bo odvisen od virov iz tega člena, ki jih bodo dejansko dodelile zlasti razvite države pogodbenice. Pogodbenice v razvoju in pogodbenice z gospodarstvom v prehodu bodo v svojih načrtih in programih ustrezno prednostno obravnavo zagotovile vzpostavitvi zmogljivosti za rastlinske genske vire za prehrano in kmetijstvo.
(c) Razvite države pogodbenice zagotovijo tudi finančna sredstva za izvajanje te pogodbe po dvostranskih, regionalnih in večstranskih poteh, ki jih pogodbenice v razvoju in pogodbenice z gospodarstvom v prehodu uporabijo za izvajanje te pogodbe po omenjenih poteh. Te poti vključujejo tudi mehanizem iz točke f tretjega odstavka 19. člena.
(d) Pogodbenice se strinjajo, da bodo v skladu s svojimi zmogljivostmi in finančnimi sredstvi v svoji državi izvajale dejavnosti za ohranjanje in trajnostno rabo rastlinskih genskih virov za prehrano in kmetijstvo ter zagotovila finančna sredstva zanje. Zagotovljena finančna sredstva se ne uporabijo za namene, ki so v neskladju s to pogodbo, zlasti ne na področjih, povezanih z mednarodno trgovino z izdelki.
(e) Pogodbenice se strinjajo, da so finančne koristi, ki izhajajo iz točke d drugega odstavka 13. člena, del finančne strategije.
(f) Pogodbenice, zasebni sektor ob upoštevanju določb 13. člena, nevladne organizacije in drugi viri lahko zagotovijo tudi prostovoljne prispevke. Pogodbenice se strinjajo, da upravni organ prouči različne strategije za spodbujanje takih prispevkov.
18.5 Pogodbenice se strinjajo, da je treba dati prednost izvajanju dogovorjenih načrtov in programov za kmete v državah v razvoju, zlasti v najmanj razvitih državah, in državah z gospodarstvom v prehodu, ki se ukvarjajo z ohranjanjem in trajnostno rabo rastlinskih genskih virov za prehrano in kmetijstvo.
VII. DEL – ORGANIZACIJSKE DOLOČBE
19. člen – Upravni organ
19.1 Za to pogodbo se ustanovi upravni organ, ki ga sestavljajo vse pogodbenice.
19.2 Vse odločitve upravnega organa se sprejmejo soglasno, razen če se soglasno ne sprejme drugačna metoda sprejemanja odločitev o posameznih ukrepih, razen za zadeve, povezane s 23. in 24. členom, za katere je vedno obvezno soglasje.
19.3 Naloge upravnega organa so spodbujati celovito izvajanje te pogodbe ob upoštevanju njenih ciljev, predvsem pa:
(a) zagotavljati smernice in navodila v zvezi s politiko nadzora ter sprejemati priporočila, potrebna za izvajanje te pogodbe in predvsem za delovanje večstranskega sistema;
(b) sprejemati načrte in programe za izvajanje te pogodbe;
(c) na prvi seji sprejeti finančno strategijo za izvajanje te pogodbe in jo redno preverjati v skladu z določbami 18. člena;
(d) sprejeti proračun v zvezi s to pogodbo;
(e) obravnavati in ustanoviti potrebne pomožne organe ter določiti njihova pooblastila in sestavo glede na razpoložljivost potrebnih sredstev;
(f) po potrebi vzpostaviti ustrezen mehanizem, na primer fiduciarni račun, za sprejem in uporabo finančnih sredstev, ki se bodo zbirala za izvajanje te pogodbe;
(g) vzpostaviti in ohranjati sodelovanje z drugimi ustreznimi mednarodnimi organizacijami in organi, ustanovljenimi z drugimi pogodbami, zlasti s Konferenco pogodbenic Konvencije o biološki raznovrstnosti, v zvezi z zadevami, ki jih zajema ta pogodba, vključno z njihovim sodelovanjem pri finančni strategiji;
(h) v skladu z določbami 23. člena proučiti in po potrebi sprejeti spremembe te pogodbe;
(i) v skladu z določbami 24. člena proučiti in po potrebi sprejeti spremembe prilog k tej pogodbi;
(j) proučiti različne strategije za spodbujanje prostovoljnih prispevkov, predvsem glede na 13. in 18. člen;
(k) opravljati vse druge naloge, potrebne za uresničevanje ciljev te pogodbe;
(l) upoštevati ustrezne odločitve Konference pogodbenic Konvencije o biološki raznovrstnosti ter drugih ustreznih mednarodnih organizacij in organov, ustanovljenih z drugimi pogodbami;
(m) po potrebi obveščati Konferenco pogodbenic Konvencije o biološki raznovrstnosti ter druge ustrezne mednarodne organizacije in organe, ustanovljene z drugimi pogodbami o zadevah, povezanih z izvajanjem te pogodbe, in
(n) potrditi, da so izpolnjeni pogoji za sklenitev sporazumov z mednarodnimi kmetijskimi raziskovalnimi središči in drugimi mednarodnimi ustanovami iz 15. člena, ter pregledati in spremeniti sporazum o prenosu materiala iz 15. člena.
19.4 V skladu s šestim odstavkom 19. člena ima vsaka pogodbenica en glas, na sejah upravnega organa pa jo lahko zastopa en predstavnik, ki ga lahko spremljajo namestnik, strokovnjaki in svetovalci. Namestniki, strokovnjaki in svetovalci lahko sodelujejo na sejah upravnega organa, vendar ne smejo glasovati, razen če so pravilno pooblaščeni za nadomeščanje predstavnika.
19.5 Združeni narodi, njihove specializirane agencije in Mednarodna agencija za atomsko energijo ter vse države, ki niso pogodbenice te pogodbe, so lahko na sejah upravnega organa zastopani kot opazovalci. Vsem drugim vladnim ali nevladnim organom ali agencijam, pristojnim za področja, povezana z ohranjanjem in trajnostno rabo rastlinskih genskih virov za prehrano in kmetijstvo, ki obvestijo sekretarja, da si želijo biti na sejah zastopani kot opazovalci, se to lahko dopusti, razen kadar temu nasprotuje najmanj ena tretjina prisotnih pogodbenic. Udeležbo in sodelovanje opazovalcev ureja poslovnik, ki ga sprejme upravni organ.
19.6 Pogodbenice, ki so organizacije članice FAO in države članice takih organizacij, uveljavljajo svoje članske pravice in izpolnjujejo obveznosti članstva smiselno v skladu s statutom in splošnimi pravili FAO.
19.7 Upravni organ po potrebi sprejme in spremeni svoj poslovnik in finančni pravilnik, ki morata biti skladna s to pogodbo.
19.8 Na vseh sejah upravnega organa je za sklepčnost potrebna prisotnost predstavnikov večine pogodbenic.
19.9 Upravni organ ima redne seje vsaj enkrat v dveh letih. Te seje morajo biti, če je to mogoče, neposredno pred rednimi sejami Komisije za genske vire za prehrano in kmetijstvo ali po njih.
19.10 Izredne seje upravnega organa se skličejo, ko se to zdi potrebno upravnemu organu ali na pisno zahtevo katere koli pogodbenice, če to zahtevo podpre vsaj tretjina pogodbenic.
19.11 Upravni organ v skladu s svojim poslovnikom izvoli predsednika in podpredsednike (skupaj sestavljajo »predsedstvo«).
20. člen – Sekretar
20.1 Sekretarja upravnega organa imenuje generalni direktor FAO z odobritvijo upravnega organa. Sekretarju pomaga osebje, kakršno potrebuje.
20.2 Sekretar opravlja te naloge:
(a) pripravlja seje upravnega organa in vseh morebitnih pomožnih organov in zagotovi administrativno pomoč;
(b) pomaga upravnemu organu pri opravljanju njegovih nalog, vključno z opravljanjem posebnih nalog, ki mu jih lahko naloži upravni organ;
(c) o svojih dejavnostih poroča upravnemu organu.
20.3 Sekretar vse pogodbenice in generalnega direktorja obvešča o:
(a) odločitvah upravnega organa v šestdesetih dneh po sprejetju;
(b) informacijah, ki jih prejme od posameznih pogodbenic v skladu z določbami te pogodbe.
20.4 Sekretar zagotovi gradivo za seje upravnega organa v šestih jezikih Združenih narodov.
20.5 Pri uresničevanju ciljev te pogodbe sekretar sodeluje z drugimi organizacijami in organi, ustanovljenimi z drugimi pogodbami, predvsem s sekretariatom Konvencije o biološki raznovrstnosti.
21. člen – Izpolnjevanje obveznosti
Upravni organ na svoji prvi seji prouči in potrdi postopke za učinkovito sodelovanje in izvedbene mehanizme za spodbujanje izpolnjevanja določb te pogodbe in obravnavo zadev v zvezi z neizpolnjevanjem obveznosti. Ti postopki in mehanizmi vključujejo spremljanje izvajanja te pogodbe in zagotavljanje nasvetov ali pomoči, vključno s pravnim svetovanjem ali pravno pomočjo, kadar sta potrebna, zlasti državam v razvoju in državam z gospodarstvom v prehodu.
22. člen – Reševanje sporov
22.1 Spor med pogodbenicami zaradi razlage ali uporabe te pogodbe poskusijo vpletene stranke rešiti s pogajanji.
22.2 Če vpletene stranke spora ne morejo rešiti s pogajanji, lahko skupaj zaprosijo za pomoč ali posredovanje tretje strani.
22.3 Ob ratifikaciji, sprejetju, odobritvi te pogodbe ali pristopu k njej ali kadar koli za tem lahko pogodbenica depozitarju pisno izjavi, da v sporu, ki se ne razreši v skladu s prvim ali drugim odstavkom tega člena, sprejema kot obveznega enega ali oba od naslednjih načinov reševanja sporov:
(a) arbitražo v skladu s postopkom iz prvega dela priloge II k tej pogodbi;
(b) predložitev spora Meddržavnemu sodišču.
22.4 Če stranki v sporu v skladu s tretjim odstavkom tega člena ne sprejmeta istega postopka ali nobenega od postopkov, se spor predloži v spravni postopek v skladu z drugim delom priloge II k tej pogodbi, razen če se stranki ne dogovorita drugače.
23. člen – Spremembe pogodbe
23.1 Spremembe te pogodbe lahko predlaga katera koli pogodbenica.
23.2 Spremembe te pogodbe se sprejmejo na sejah upravnega organa. Sekretar sporoči pogodbenicam besedilo vsake predlagane spremembe vsaj šest mesecev pred sejo, na kateri se predlaga njeno sprejetje.
23.3 Vse spremembe te pogodbe se sprejmejo izključno s soglasjem pogodbenic, ki so prisotne na seji upravnega organa.
23.4 Vse spremembe, ki jih sprejme upravni organ, začnejo veljati za pogodbenice, ki so jih ratificirale, sprejele ali odobrile, devetdeset dni po tem, ko dve tretjini pogodbenic deponirata listine o ratifikaciji, sprejetju ali odobritvi. Za druge pogodbenice pa začne sprememba veljati devetdeseti dan po deponiranju njihovih listin o ratifikaciji, sprejetju ali odobritvi spremembe.
23.5 Za namen tega člena se listina, ki jo deponira organizacija članica FAO, ne šteje kot dodatna listina k tistim, ki jih deponirajo države članice take organizacije.
24. člen – Priloge
24.1 Priloge k tej pogodbi so njen sestavni del in sklicevanje na to pogodbo je tudi sklicevanje na vse priloge k njej.
24.2 Določbe 23. člena o spremembah te pogodbe veljajo tudi za spremembe prilog.
25. člen – Podpis
Ta pogodba je vsem članicam FAO in vsem državam, ki niso članice FAO, so pa članice Združenih narodov ali katere koli njihove specializirane agencije ali Mednarodne agencije za atomsko energijo, na voljo za podpis na FAO od 3. novembra 2001 do 4. novembra 2002.
26. člen – Ratifikacija, sprejetje ali odobritev
To pogodbo ratificirajo, sprejmejo ali odobrijo članice in nečlanice FAO iz 25. člena. Listine o ratifikaciji, sprejetju ali odobritvi se deponirajo pri depozitarju.
27. člen – Pristop
K tej pogodbi lahko pristopijo vse članice FAO in vse države, ki niso članice FAO, so pa članice Združenih narodov ali katere koli njihove specializirane agencije ali Mednarodne agencije za atomsko energijo, po datumu, ko poteče rok za podpis te pogodbe. Listine o pristopu se deponirajo pri depozitarju.
28. člen – Začetek veljavnosti
28.1 Ob upoštevanju določb drugega odstavka 29. člena začne ta pogodba veljati devetdeseti dan po deponiranju štiridesete listine o ratifikaciji, sprejetju, odobritvi ali pristopu, če vsaj dvajset listin o ratifikaciji, sprejetju, odobritvi ali pristopu deponirajo članice FAO.
28.2 Za vse članice FAO in vse države, ki niso članice FAO, so pa članice Združenih narodov ali katere koli njihove specializirane agencije ali Mednarodne agencije za atomsko energijo, ki ratificirajo, sprejmejo, odobrijo to pogodbo ali pristopijo k njej po deponiranju štiridesete listine o ratifikaciji, sprejetju, odobritvi ali pristopu v skladu s prvim odstavkom 28. člena, začne pogodba veljati devetdeseti dan po deponiranju njihovih listin o ratifikaciji, sprejetju, odobritvi ali pristopu.
29. člen – Organizacije članice FAO
29.1 Ko organizacija članica FAO deponira listino o ratifikaciji, sprejetju, odobritvi te pogodbe ali pristopu k njej v skladu z določbami sedmega odstavka II. člena Statuta FAO, o vsaki spremembi glede delitve pristojnosti uradno obvesti v svoji izjavi o pristojnosti, predloženi v skladu s petim odstavkom II. člena Statuta FAO, ki bi lahko bila potrebna zaradi sprejetja te pogodbe. Vsaka pogodbenica te pogodbe lahko kadar koli zahteva, da ji organizacija članica FAO, ki je pogodbenica te pogodbe, sporoči, kdo – organizacije članice ali njene države članice – je odgovoren za uresničevanje posameznih zadev, zajetih s to pogodbo. Organizacija članica v razumnem času zagotovi te podatke.
29.2 Listine o ratifikaciji, sprejetju, odobritvi, pristopu ali odpovedi, ki jih deponira organizacija članica FAO, se ne štejejo kot dodatne listine k tistim, ki jih deponirajo njene države članice.
30. člen – Pridržki
Pridržki k tej pogodbi niso mogoči.
31. člen – Stranke, ki niso pogodbenice
Pogodbenice spodbujajo vse članice FAO ali druge države, ki niso pogodbenice te pogodbe, da sprejmejo to pogodbo.
32. člen – Odpoved
32.1 Vsaka pogodbenica lahko kadar koli po poteku dveh let od datuma, ko je ta pogodba začela veljati zanjo, pisno obvesti depozitarja o svoji odpovedi te pogodbe. Depozitar o tem takoj obvesti vse pogodbenice.
32.2 Odpoved začne veljati eno leto po datumu prejema uradnega obvestila.
33. člen – Prenehanje veljavnosti pogodbe
33.1 Ta pogodba samodejno preneha veljati, kadar se zaradi odpovedi število pogodbenic zmanjša pod štirideset, razen če se preostale pogodbenice soglasno odločijo drugače.
33.2 Ko se število pogodbenic zmanjša pod štirideset, depozitar o tem obvesti vse preostale pogodbenice.
33.3 Če pogodba preneha veljati, uporabo imetja ureja finančni pravilnik, ki ga sprejme upravni organ.
34. člen – Depozitar
Depozitar te pogodbe je generalni direktor FAO.
35. člen – Verodostojnost besedil
Besedila te pogodbe v angleškem, arabskem, francoskem, kitajskem, ruskem in španskem jeziku so enako verodostojna.
PRILOGA I
SEZNAM GOJENIH RASTLIN V VEČSTRANSKEM SISTEMU
Gojene rastline za prehrano
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 Gojena rastlina   Rod              Opombe                                    
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 kruhovec          Artocarpus       samo kruhovec                             
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 beluš             Asparagus                                                  
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 oves              Avena                                                      
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 pesa              Beta                                                       
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 skupina           Brassica et al.  Zajeti so rodovi: Brassica, Armoracia,    
 Brassica                           Barbarea, Camelina, Crambe, Diplotaxis,   
                                    Eruca, Isatis, Lepidium, Raphanobrassica, 
                                    Raphanus, Rorippa in Sinapis. Vključene   
                                    so oljnice in zelenjadnice, kot so zelje, 
                                    oljna repica, gorčica, kreša, rukola,     
                                    redkev in repa. Vrsta Lepidium meyenii    
                                    (maka) ni vključena.                      
------------------------------------------------------------------------------
 kajan             Cajanus                                                    
------------------------------------------------------------------------------
 čičerika          Cicer                                                      
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 citrus            Citrus           Rodova Poncirus in Fortunella sta         
                                    vključena kot podlaga.                    
------------------------------------------------------------------------------
 kokos             Cocos                                                      
------------------------------------------------------------------------------
 glavne            Colocasia,       Med glavne kačnikovke spadajo taro,       
 kačnikovke        Xanthosoma       kokojam, dašin in tania.                  
------------------------------------------------------------------------------
 korenje           Daucus                                                     
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 jam               Dioscorea                                                  
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 prosenka          Eleusine                                                   
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 jagodnjak         Fragaria                                                   
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 sončnica          Helianthus                                                 
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 ječmen            Hordeum                                                    
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 sladki krompir    Ipomoea                                                    
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 grahor            Lathyrus                                                   
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 leča              Lens                                                       
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 jablana           Malus                                                      
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 manioka           Manihot          samo Manihot esculenta                    
------------------------------------------------------------------------------
 bananovec/močnati Musa             razen Musa textilis                       
 bananovec                                                                    
------------------------------------------------------------------------------
 riž               Oryza                                                      
------------------------------------------------------------------------------
 perjanka          Pennisetum                                                 
------------------------------------------------------------------------------
 fižol             Phaseolus        razen Phaseolus polyanthus                
------------------------------------------------------------------------------
 grah              Pisum                                                      
------------------------------------------------------------------------------
 rž                Secale                                                     
------------------------------------------------------------------------------
 krompir           Solanum          vključno s sekcijo tuberosa, razen        
                                    Solanum phureja                           
------------------------------------------------------------------------------
 jajčevec          Solanum          vključno s sekcijo melongena              
------------------------------------------------------------------------------
 sirek             Sorghum                                                    
------------------------------------------------------------------------------
 tritikala         Triticosecale                                              
------------------------------------------------------------------------------
 pšenica           Triticum et al.  vključno z Agropyron, Elymus in Secale    
------------------------------------------------------------------------------
 bob/grašica       Vicia                                                      
------------------------------------------------------------------------------
 vigna             Vigna                                                      
------------------------------------------------------------------------------
 koruza            Zea              razen Zea perennis, Zea diploperennis in  
                                    Zea luxurians                             
------------------------------------------------------------------------------
 
   Krmne rastline
------------------------------------------------------------------------------
 Rodovi             Vrste                                                     
------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                                                              
 KRMNE METULJNICE                                                             
------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                                                              
------------------------------------------------------------------------------
 Astragalus         chinensis, cicer, arenarius                               
------------------------------------------------------------------------------
 Canavalia          ensiformis                                                
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 Coronilla          varia                                                     
------------------------------------------------------------------------------
 Hedysarum          coronarium                                                
------------------------------------------------------------------------------
 Lathyrus           cicera, ciliolatus, hirsutus, ochrus, odoratus, sativus   
------------------------------------------------------------------------------
 Lespedeza          cuneata, striata, stipulacea                              
------------------------------------------------------------------------------
 Lotus              corniculatus, subbiflorus, uliginosus                     
------------------------------------------------------------------------------
 Lupinus            albus, angustifolius, luteus                              
------------------------------------------------------------------------------
 Medicago           arborea, falcata, sativa, scutellata, rigidula,           
                    truncatula                                                
------------------------------------------------------------------------------
 Melilotus          albus, officinalis                                        
------------------------------------------------------------------------------
 Onobrychis         viciifolia                                                
------------------------------------------------------------------------------
 Ornithopus         sativus                                                   
------------------------------------------------------------------------------
 Prosopis           affinis, alba, chilensis, nigra, pallida                  
------------------------------------------------------------------------------
 Pueraria           phaseoloides                                              
------------------------------------------------------------------------------
 Trifolium          alexandrinum, alpestre, ambiguum, angustifolium,          
                    arvense, agrocicerum, hybridum, incarnatum, pratense,     
                    repens, resupinatum, rueppellianum, semipilosum,          
                    subterraneum, vesiculosum                                 
------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                                                              
 KRMNE TRAVE                                                                  
------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                                                              
------------------------------------------------------------------------------
 Andropogon         gayanus                                                   
------------------------------------------------------------------------------
 Agropyron          cristatum, desertorum                                     
------------------------------------------------------------------------------
 Agrostis           stolonifera, tenuis                                       
------------------------------------------------------------------------------
 Alopecurus         pratensis                                                 
------------------------------------------------------------------------------
 Arrhenatherum      elatius                                                   
------------------------------------------------------------------------------
 Dactylis           glomerata                                                 
------------------------------------------------------------------------------
 Festuca            arundinacea, gigantea, heterophylla, ovina, pratensis,    
                    rubra                                                     
------------------------------------------------------------------------------
 Lolium             hybridum, multiflorum, perenne, rigidum, temulentum       
------------------------------------------------------------------------------
 Phalaris           aquatica, arundinacea                                     
------------------------------------------------------------------------------
 Phleum             pratense                                                  
------------------------------------------------------------------------------
 Poa                alpina, annua, pratensis                                  
------------------------------------------------------------------------------
 Tripsacum          laxum                                                     
------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                                                              
 DRUGE KRMNE                                                                  
 RASTLINE                                                                     
------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                                                              
------------------------------------------------------------------------------
 Atriplex           halimus, nummularia                                       
------------------------------------------------------------------------------
 Salsola            vermiculata                                               
------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                                                              
------------------------------------------------------------------------------
PRILOGA II
Arbitraža in spravni postopek
1. del
ARBITRAŽA
1. člen
Pogodbenica, ki vlaga zahtevek, obvesti sekretarja, da bodo stranke v sporu predložile spor v arbitražo v skladu z 22. členom. V uradnem obvestilu se navede predmet arbitraže, posebej tisti členi te pogodbe, katerih razlaga ali uporaba je sporna. Če se stranke v sporu ne dogovorijo, kaj je predmet spora, preden je imenovan predsednik sodišča, določi predmet spora arbitražno sodišče. Sekretar pošlje vsem pogodbenicam te pogodbe podatke, ki jih prejme na ta način.
2. člen
1. Pri sporih med dvema sprtima strankama arbitražno sodišče sestavljajo trije člani. Vsaka stranka v sporu imenuje enega arbitra; dva tako imenovana arbitra sporazumno imenujeta tretjega arbitra, ki bo predsednik sodišča. Slednji ne sme biti državljan nobene stranke v sporu, ne sme imeti običajnega prebivališča na ozemlju nobene od strank v sporu, niti ne sme biti zaposlen pri njih ali se z zadevo ukvarjati v kakršni koli drugi vlogi.
2. Pri sporih med več kot dvema pogodbenicama stranke v sporu, ki imajo skupen interes, skupaj in sporazumno imenujejo enega arbitra.
3. Vsako izpraznjeno mesto se zapolni tako, kot je predpisano za prvo imenovanje.
3. člen
1. Če predsednik arbitražnega sodišča ni imenovan v dveh mesecih od imenovanja drugega arbitra, generalni direktor FAO na zahtevo ene od strank v sporu imenuje predsednika v nadaljnjih dveh mesecih.
2. Če ena stranka v sporu v dveh mesecih od prejema zahteve ne imenuje arbitra, lahko druga stranka o tem obvesti generalnega direktorja FAO, ki določi arbitra v nadaljnjih dveh mesecih.
4. člen
Arbitražno sodišče odloča v skladu z določbami te pogodbe in mednarodnim pravom.
5. člen
Arbitražno sodišče določi svoj poslovnik, razen če se stranke v sporu ne dogovorijo drugače.
6. člen
Arbitražno sodišče lahko na zahtevo ene od strank v sporu priporoči najnujnejše začasne zaščitne ukrepe.
7. člen
Stranke v sporu ob uporabi vseh sredstev, ki so jim na razpolago, olajšajo delo arbitražnega sodišča, predvsem pa mu:
(a) zagotovijo vse potrebne dokumente, podatke in sredstva, in
(b) če je potrebno, omogočijo, da povabi priče ali izvedence in od njih pridobi dokaze.
8. člen
Stranke v sporu in arbitri morajo varovati zaupnost vseh podatkov, ki jih kot zaupne prejmejo med postopkom arbitražnega sodišča.
9. člen
Stroške sodišča v enakih deležih krijejo stranke v sporu, razen če zaradi posebnih okoliščin v zadevi arbitražno sodišče ne odloči drugače. Sodišče vodi evidenco vseh svojih stroškov in strankam v sporu predloži njihov končni obračun.
10. člen
Vsaka pogodbenica, ki ima v zvezi s predmetom spora pravni interes, na katerega bi lahko odločitev o zadevi vplivala, lahko s soglasjem sodišča poseže v postopek.
11. člen
Sodišče lahko obravnava nasprotne zahtevke, ki izhajajo neposredno iz predmeta spora, in odloča o njih.
12. člen
Arbitražno sodišče sprejema odločitve o postopku in vsebini z večino glasov svojih članov.
13. člen
Če ena stranka v sporu pred arbitražnim sodiščem ne nastopi ali svojega primera ne brani, lahko druga stranka od sodišča zahteva, da nadaljuje postopke in sprejme odločitev. Dejstvo, da ena stranka v sporu ni prisotna na sodišču ali se ne brani, ni ovira za nadaljnji postopek. Pred sprejemom končne odločitve se mora arbitražno sodišče prepričati, da je zahtevek dejansko in pravno utemeljen.
14. člen
Arbitražno sodišče izreče končno odločitev v petih mesecih od dneva svoje ustanovitve, razen če ne ugotovi, da je treba rok podaljšati za obdobje, ki pa ne sme biti daljše kot še pet mesecev.
15. člen
Končna odločitev arbitražnega sodišča je omejena na predmet spora in utemeljena. V njej so navedeni imena sodelujočih članov in datum končne odločitve. Vsak član sodišča ji lahko priloži ločeno ali nasprotno mnenje.
16. člen
Za stranke v sporu je končna odločitev zavezujoča. Nanjo se ni mogoče pritožiti, razen če se stranke v sporu o pritožbenem postopku ne dogovorijo že prej.
17. člen
Katera koli stranka v sporu lahko vsak spor, ki bi nastal med strankami v sporu zaradi razlage ali načina uresničevanja končne odločitve, predloži v odločanje arbitražnemu sodišču, ki je sprejelo končno odločitev.
2. del
SPRAVNI POSTOPEK
1. člen
Spravna komisija se ustanovi na zahtevo ene od strank v sporu. Komisija je sestavljena iz petih članov, razen če se stranke v sporu ne dogovorijo drugače; vsaka vpletena stranka imenuje dva člana, ti člani pa skupaj izberejo predsednika.
2. člen
Pri sporih med več kot dvema pogodbenicama stranke v sporu, ki imajo skupen interes, skupaj in sporazumno imenujejo svoje člane komisije. Kadar imata dve ali več strank različne interese ali se ne moreta sporazumeti glede skupnega interesa, imenujeta svoje člane ločeno.
3. člen
Če stranke v sporu v dveh mesecih od datuma zahteve za ustanovitev spravne komisije ne imenujejo vseh članov komisije, jih v nadaljnjih dveh mesecih imenuje generalni direktor FAO na prošnjo stranke v sporu, ki je zahtevala ustanovitev spravne komisije.
4. člen
Če predsednik spravne komisije ni izbran v dveh mesecih od imenovanja zadnjega člana komisije, generalni direktor FAO na prošnjo ene od strank v sporu imenuje predsednika v nadaljnjih dveh mesecih.
5. člen
Spravna komisija sprejema odločitve z večino glasov svojih članov. Razen če se stranke v sporu ne dogovorijo drugače, komisija določi svoj poslovnik. Spravna komisija sprejme predlog za rešitev spora, ki ga stranke proučijo v dobri veri.
6. člen
Če pride do nesoglasja glede pristojnosti spravne komisije, o pristojnosti odloča komisija sama.
3. člen
Za izvajanje pogodbe skrbi Ministrstvo za kmetijstvo, gozdarstvo in prehrano.
4. člen
Ta zakon začne veljati petnajsti dan po objavi v Uradnem listu Republike Slovenije – Mednarodne pogodbe.
Št. 630-03/05-4/1
Ljubljana, dne 29. septembra 2005
EPA 442-IV
Predsednik
Državnega zbora
Republike Slovenije
France Cukjati, dr. med., l.r.